Indian Education: Schools Need More Assistance to Provide Distance Learning
All Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools closed their buildings in March 2020 in response to COVID-19, affecting over 41,000 students at 183 schools.
We testified that the Bureau did not offer comprehensive guidance on distance learning. In August 2020, it issued a guide focused on in-person instruction. But most schools provided distance learning in school year 2020-21.
The Bureau and others ordered laptops for students in September. However, by late December, schools had not distributed 80% of them.
We recommended the Bureau provide schools with guidance and take steps to collect timely information on schools' IT needs.
What GAO Found
The Bureau of Indian Education (BIE), within the Department of the Interior (Interior), has not provided BIE-funded schools with comprehensive guidance on distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020, BIE issued a short memo directing schools to “deliver flexible instruction” and “teach content,” but did not offer specific guidance on how to do so. In July 2020, 13 of the 25 schools that responded to GAO's survey said they wanted BIE to provide information on developing and implementing distance learning programs. In addition, 12 schools responded that they wanted information on distance learning methods for areas without broadband internet access. In August 2020, after some schools had already begun the school year, BIE issued a re-opening guide for the 2020-2021 school year. BIE's guidance focused primarily on preparations for in-person instruction at schools, although nearly all schools provided distance learning during the fall of 2020. The guidance contained little information on distance learning. Providing schools with comprehensive distance learning guidance will help them better navigate the current pandemic as well as potential future emergencies that lead to school building closures.
BIE helped improve internet access for students at BIE-operated schools during the pandemic, but many students had not received laptops to access online learning by the end of fall 2020. BIE and other Interior offices provided over 7,000 hotspots to students to improve home internet access, but they did not order laptops for most students until September 2020. Interior officials said a nationwide IT supply shortage contributed to the delayed order for about 10,000 laptops. GAO found, however, that delays were also caused in part by BIE not having complete and accurate information on schools' IT needs. Most schools received laptops from late October 2020 to early January 2021, although some laptops still had not been delivered as of late March 2021. Once laptops were delivered, however, schools also faced challenges configuring them, leading to further delays in distributing them to students. BIE officials told GAO that to address schools' challenges with configuring laptops, they are assessing schools' IT workforce needs. Most BIE students did not receive laptops until months after the school year began, according to GAO's analysis of Interior information. Specifically,
- none of the laptops Interior ordered in early September 2020 arrived in time to distribute to students by the start of the school year in mid-September;
- by the end of December 2020, schools had not distributed over 80 percent of the student laptops Interior ordered; and
- as of late March 2021, schools had not distributed about 20 percent of the student laptops Interior ordered.
Without accurate, complete, and up-to-date information on schools' IT needs, BIE was unable to ensure that students received laptops when they needed them. Establishing policies and procedures for assessing schools' IT needs would help guide the agency's IT purchases now and in the future, and position schools to integrate technology into their everyday curricula.
Why GAO Did This Study
BIE's mission is to provide quality education to approximately 41,000 students at 183 schools it funds on or near Indian reservations in 23 states. About two-thirds of these schools are operated by tribes and the remaining third are operated by BIE. In March 2020, all BIE schools closed their buildings in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. GAO reviewed distance learning at BIE schools as part of its oversight responsibilities under the CARES Act.
This testimony examines the extent to which (1) BIE has provided schools with guidance to develop and implement distance learning programs during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) students have had the technology they need to participate in such programs. GAO analyzed the guidance BIE provided to schools on distance learning, examined BIE's provision of technology to schools and students, surveyed a non-generalizable sample of 30 schools—including 19 operated by tribes and 11 operated by BIE— with 25 schools responding, selected for geographic diversity and level of community broadband access, among other criteria, reviewed relevant federal statutes, regulations, and agency documentation, and interviewed BIE and school officials.
GAO is making two recommendations to BIE to (1) provide comprehensive guidance to schools on distance learning; and (2) establish policies and procedures to ensure it has complete, accurate, and up-to-date information on schools' technology needs.
Recommendations for Executive Action
|Bureau of Indian Education||The Director of BIE should provide comprehensive guidance to schools on distance learning to ensure they have the information to create and maintain effective distance learning programs during extended school building closures. (Recommendation 1)||
BIE agreed with this recommendation. In December 2021, BIE reported that it will work to establish guidance and provide schools with technical assistance to support schools' distance learning programs. In August 2022, BIE reported it took steps to support Bureau-operated schools' access to software systems to facilitate distance learning. However, BIE did not provide documentation it had developed and distributed guidance for all schools, including those operated by tribes, on how to create and maintain effective distance learning programs during school closures, as we recommended. We will continue to monitor the agency's efforts to implement the recommendation.
|Bureau of Indian Education||The Director of BIE should work with Indian Affairs' Office of Information Management Technology to develop and implement written policies and procedures for collecting timely information on BIE-operated schools' technology needs. (Recommendation 2)||
BIE agreed with this recommendation. In December 2021, BIE reported that it will work with Indian Affairs' Office of Information Management Technology to develop a uniform policy and procedures for identifying and addressing schools' distance education IT needs. In August 2022, BIE reported that OIMT had taken the lead in developing a program for gathering and assessing information on BIE schools' IT needs. However, BIE did not provide documentation that OIMT had developed written policies and procedures for collecting information on schools' IT needs, as we recommended. We will continue to monitor the agency's efforts to implement the recommendation.