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Highlights

GAO reviewed the Department of Defense (DOD) military service academies, the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), and the military services' Officer Candidate Schools (OCS), focusing on: (1) the cost of producing officers by service and commissioning programs; (2) the quality of officers produced by these programs; (3) program management and oversight; and (4) cost control.

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Recommendations

Recommendations for Executive Action

Agency Affected Recommendation Status
Department of Defense 1. The Secretary of Defense should extend the development and implementation of a standardized cost reporting system to OCS, including all special programs.
Closed - Not Implemented
DOD did not implement the recommendation.
Department of Defense 2. To assess the quality of newly commissioned officers, the Secretary of Defense should direct the services to develop a means to routinely evaluate the effectiveness of the various commissioning programs and the quality of the graduates they produce.
Closed - Not Implemented
DOD did not implement the recommendation.
Department of Defense 3. To ensure that officer production sources operate cost-effectively, the Secretary of Defense should develop and implement a single comprehensive oversight strategy that includes all commissioning programs in all the services.
Closed - Not Implemented
DOD did not implement the recommendation.
Department of Defense 4. To ensure that officer production sources operate cost-effectively, the Secretary of Defense should direct the service secretaries to develop and implement a single comprehensive plan encompassing all their respective commissioning programs that will be cost-effective and apply resources to meet each service's officer needs. These plans should address the most cost-effective manner for determining: (1) types and quantities of officer skills needed; (2) total production and production by program; (3) total enrollments required by program; (4) officer candidate financial assistance to be provided by program; (5) numbers of units by program needed to provide military training; (6) unit staffing; (7) headquarters overhead staffing; and (8) other program elements deemed appropriate.
Closed - Not Implemented
DOD did not implement the recommendation.
Department of the Air Force 5. To eliminate inefficiencies and duplication, the service secretaries should close more low production ROTC units and reduce ROTC goals and increase OCS goals.
Closed - Implemented
Over 70 low production units have been closed, consolidated, or identified for closure. DOD anticipates closing about 100 other units and extension centers.
Department of the Navy 6. To eliminate inefficiencies and duplication, the service secretaries should close more low production ROTC units and reduce ROTC goals and increase OCS goals.
Closed - Implemented
Over 70 low production units have been closed, consolidated, or identified for closure. DOD anticipates closing about 100 other units and extension centers.
Department of the Army 7. To eliminate inefficiencies and duplication, the service secretaries should close more low production ROTC units and reduce ROTC goals and increase OCS goals.
Closed - Implemented
Over 70 low production units have been closed, consolidated, or identified for closure. DOD anticipates closing about 100 other units and extension centers.
Department of the Navy 8. The Secretary of the Navy should consolidate the Navy's OCS and Aviation Officer Candidate School (AOCS) in a single entity located at Newport, Rhode Island.
Closed - Implemented
The Navy has consolidated the basic officer candidate program at a single site (Pensacola, FL).
Department of the Air Force 9. The Secretaries of the Air Force and the Army each should combine their OCS and ROTC headquarters at a single location within a major service command.
Closed - Implemented
In the case of the Air Force, a major organizational review was completed in fiscal year 1992, resulting in the establishment of an Education and Training Command structure that incorporates ROTC under the Commander, Air Force University.
Department of the Army 10. The Secretaries of the Air Force and the Army each should combine their OCS and ROTC headquarters at a single location within a major service command.
Closed - Not Implemented
DOD did not agree with this recommendation and does not intend to act. DOD stated that the command structure within the Army officer commissioning programs is effective and consolidation at a single site would not be effective.
Department of the Navy 11. The Secretary of the Navy should consolidate the Navy's ROTC, OCS, AOCS, and special commissioning programs under one manager.
Closed - Not Implemented
DOD did not implement the recommendation.

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