Skip to main content

Navy and Marine Corps: Services Continue Efforts to Rebuild Readiness, but Recovery Will Take Years and Sustained Management Attention

GAO-21-225T Published: Dec 02, 2020. Publicly Released: Dec 02, 2020.
Jump To:

Fast Facts

The 2018 National Defense Strategy called for improving the readiness and lethality of U.S. military forces. Readiness challenges—for example, maintenance delays that keep ships in dry docks or planes on the ground—have reduced the availability of these forces for training and operations.

This statement for the congressional record summarizes our 2016-2020 work on Navy and Marine Corps readiness challenges, including the need to maintain ships and aircraft, address personnel shortfalls, and train sailors.

We found that the Navy and Marine Corps are beginning to address the causes of their readiness decline, but recovery will take years.

Military aircraft on the deck of an aircraft carrier with a smaller vessel following behind

Skip to Highlights


What GAO Found

The Navy and Marine Corps continue to face significant readiness challenges that have developed over more than a decade of conflict, budget uncertainty, and reductions in force structure. These challenges prevent the services from reaping the full benefit of their existing forces and attaining the level of readiness called for by the 2018 National Defense Strategy. Both services have made encouraging progress identifying the causes of their readiness decline and have begun efforts to arrest and reverse it (see figure). However, GAO's work shows that addressing these challenges will require years of sustained management attention and resources. Recent events, such as the ongoing pandemic and the fire aboard the USS Bonhomme Richard affect both current and future readiness and are likely to compound and delay the services' readiness rebuilding efforts.

Selected Navy and Marine Corps Readiness Challenges


Continued progress implementing GAO's prior recommendations will bolster ongoing Navy and Marine Corps efforts to address these readiness challenges.

Why GAO Did This Study

The 2018 National Defense Strategy emphasizes that restoring and retaining readiness is critical to success in the emerging security environment. The Navy and Marine Corps are working to rebuild the readiness of their forces while also growing and modernizing their aging fleets of ships and aircraft. Readiness recovery will take years as the Navy and Marine Corps address their multiple challenges and continue to meet operational demands.

This statement provides information on readiness challenges facing (1) the Navy ship and submarine fleet and (2) Navy and Marine Corps aviation. GAO also discusses its prior recommendations on Navy and Marine Corps readiness and the progress that has been made in addressing them.

This statement is based on previous work published from 2016 to November 2020—on Navy and Marine Corps readiness challenges, including ship maintenance, sailor training, and aircraft sustainment. GAO also analyzed data updated as of November 2020, as appropriate, and drew from its ongoing work focused on Navy and Marine Corps readiness.


GAO made more than 90 recommendations in prior work cited in this statement. The Department of Defense generally concurred with most of GAO's recommendations. Continued attention to these recommendations can assist the Navy and the Marine Corps as they seek to rebuild the readiness of their forces.

Full Report

Office of Public Affairs


AircraftAircraft maintenanceMarine Corps trainingMilitary readinessNaval aviationNaval personnelNaval shipyardNaval trainingNavy shipsShip maintenanceSkilled workforceSubmarinesTraining programsMilitary aviationAviation