The Department of Homeland Security relies on contracts to support many missions. But if contractors perform certain critical functions (i.e., determining agency policy or managing budgets) without oversight from government officials, this could put the government at risk of losing control of its decisions and operations.
We looked at how DHS used and oversaw contracts in FY 2013-2018 and found that it didn’t always plan for or update the number of federal personnel needed to oversee such contracts. DHS also did not offer guidance on how to prevent contractors from performing prohibited work.
Our 6 recommendations address these issues.
Homeland Security sign and building
What GAO Found
From fiscal years 2013 through 2018, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) increased its reliance on contracts for services, particularly those in categories that may need heightened management attention, such as drafting policy documents (see figure). These services include functions that are closely associated with inherently governmental, critical, or special interest, which could put the government at risk of losing control of its mission if performed by contractors without proper oversight by government officials.
Proportion of Department of Homeland Security Contract Obligations for Services in Need of Heightened Management Attention, Fiscal Years (FY) 2013 through 2018, in FY 2018 Dollars
GAO found that DHS and selected components do not consistently plan for the level of federal oversight needed for these contracts because there is no guidance on how to document and update the number of federal personnel needed to conduct oversight. GAO also found that program and contracting officials from six of the eight contracts GAO reviewed did not identify specific oversight activities they conducted to mitigate the risk of contractors performing functions in a way that could become inherently governmental. DHS lacks guidance on what these oversight tasks could entail. Without guidance for documenting and updating the planned federal oversight personnel needed, and identifying oversight tasks, DHS cannot mitigate the risks associated with service contracts in need of heightened management attention.
Selected DHS components have information on service requirements, but budget documentation—submitted to DHS headquarters as well as to Congress—does not communicate details about most estimated or actual service contract requirements costs. Given that services account for over three-quarters of DHS's annual funding for contracts, additional insights would shed light into how much of DHS's mission is being accomplished through services, including those requiring heightened management attention. Without more visibility into this information, DHS headquarters and Congress are at risk of not having complete information for sound resource planning and decision-making, particularly as it relates to determining what proposed service contract requirements DHS should prioritize when budgeting.
Why GAO Did This Study
DHS's spending on services—such as guard services and technology support—represents over 75 percent of its annual contract obligations. The Office of Management and Budget has recognized that some service contracts require extra management attention because they pose a risk that the government could lose control of its decisions or operations.
GAO was asked to review DHS's use of and planning for service contracts. This report addresses, among other objectives, the extent to which DHS and selected components and offices use, oversee, and budget for service contracts.
GAO analyzed Federal Procurement Data System-Next Generation data from fiscal years 2013 through 2018; selected non-generalizable samples of four components with high service contract obligations and eight service contracts requiring heightened management attention; and interviewed DHS officials.
GAO is making six recommendations, including that DHS provide guidance for documenting and updating the federal workforce needed to oversee certain service contracts and identifying oversight tasks, and report service requirement information in budget documents to Congress. DHS agreed with two of the recommendations and did not agree with four of them. GAO continues to believe the recommendations are valid, as discussed in the report.
Recommendations for Executive Action
|Department of Homeland Security||1. The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the DHS Chief Procurement Officer to, in coordination with the Office of Program Accountability and Risk Management, develop a risk-based approach for reviewing service requirements—through the Procurement Strategy Roadmap or other means—to ensure proposed service requirements are clearly defined and reviewed before planning how they are to be procured. (Recommendation 1)|
|Department of Homeland Security||2. The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the DHS Chief Procurement Officer to document the factors the Office of the Chief Procurement Officer considers when waiving procurement actions from its Procurement Strategy Roadmap to ensure it is consistently considering potential acquisition risks in its planning—including those specific to services. (Recommendation 2)|
|Department of Homeland Security||3. The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the DHS Chief Procurement Officer to update the Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions Analysis to require the identification of special interest functions. (Recommendation 3)|
|Department of Homeland Security||4. The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the DHS Chief Procurement Officer to update the Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions Analysis to provide guidance for analyzing, documenting, and updating the federal workforce needed to perform or oversee service contracts requiring heightened management attention. (Recommendation 4)|
|Department of Homeland Security||5. The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the DHS Chief Procurement Officer to develop guidance identifying oversight tasks or safeguards personnel can perform, when needed, to mitigate the risk associated with contracts containing closely associated with inherently governmental functions, special interest functions, or critical functions. (Recommendation 5)|
|Department of Homeland Security||6. The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the DHS Chief Financial Officer to work with Congress to identify information to include in its annual congressional budget justifications to provide greater transparency into requested and actual service requirement costs, particularly for those services requiring heightened management attention. (Recommendation 6)|