Each year, about 90% of people file their taxes using commercial software or a paid tax return preparer. If these "third parties" that handle your tax information are hacked, your personal information could be exposed—leaving you vulnerable to identity theft.
Some of these third parties may not know how to keep your information safe. Also, IRS doesn't have the same information security requirements for all software companies or for all paid preparers, so taxpayer information isn't consistently protected from hackers.
We recommended that IRS make its information security standards for third parties more consistent.
IRS tweet: Some scam emails link bogus IRS websites that look real. Be alert and stay informed.
What GAO Found
Federal law and guidance require that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the sensitive financial and taxpayer information that resides on its systems. However, taxpayer information held by third-party providers—such as paid tax return preparers and tax preparation software providers—generally falls outside of these requirements, according to IRS officials.
In 2018, about 90 percent of individual taxpayers had their tax returns electronically filed by paid preparers or used tax preparation software to prepare and file their own returns.
How Individual Tax Returns Were Filed, Calendar Year 2018
IRS seeks to help safeguard electronic tax return filing for various types of third-party providers through requirements under its Authorized e-file Provider program. However, IRS’s efforts do not provide assurance that taxpayers’ information is being adequately protected.
- Paid Preparers. IRS has not developed minimum information security requirements for the systems used by paid preparers or Authorized e-file Providers. According to IRS’s Office of Chief Counsel, IRS does not have the explicit authority to regulate security for these systems. Instead, the Internal Revenue Code gives IRS broad authority to administer and supervise the internal revenue laws. The Department of the Treasury has previously requested additional authority to regulate the competency of all paid preparers; GAO has also suggested that Congress consider granting IRS this authority. Congress has not yet provided such authority. Neither the Department of the Treasury request nor the GAO suggestion included granting IRS authority to regulate the security of paid preparers’ systems. Having such authority would enable IRS to establish minimum requirements. Further, having explicit authority to establish security standards for Authorized e-file Providers’ systems may help IRS better ensure the protection of taxpayers’ information.
- Tax Software Providers. As part of a public-private partnership between IRS and the tax preparation industry, 15 tax software providers voluntarily adhere to a set of about 140 information security controls developed using guidance from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). However, these controls are not required, and these providers represent only about one-third of all tax software providers. Additionally, IRS established six security, privacy, and business standards for providers of software that allows individuals to prepare their own tax returns (as opposed to software that paid preparers use). However, IRS has not substantially updated these standards since 2010, and they are, at least in part, outdated. For example, IRS cites an outdated encryption standard that NIST recommends not using due to its many known weaknesses.
A key factor contributing to missed opportunities to address third-party cybersecurity is IRS’s lack of centralized leadership. Consequently, IRS is less able to ensure that third-party providers adequately protect taxpayers’ information, which may result in identity theft refund fraud.
Example of Successful Identity Theft Refund Fraud Attempt
IRS monitors compliance with its electronic tax return filing program requirements for those paid preparers who electronically file returns; however, IRS’s monitoring has a limited focus on cybersecurity issues. For example, the monitoring techniques largely focus on physical security (e.g., locked filing cabinets) rather than verifying that preparers have an information security policy consistent with NIST-recommended controls. Without effective monitoring of cybersecurity controls, IRS has limited assurance that those paid preparers’ systems have adequate controls in place to protect clients’ data.
IRS recently began collecting information on high-risk security incidents, such as hackers infiltrating third-party provider systems. Reported incidents increased from 2017 to 2018, the only years for which IRS has data. However, IRS does not have a full picture of the scope of incidents because of inconsistent reporting requirements, including no reporting requirements for paid preparers.
Reported High-Risk Security Incidents at Paid Preparers and Tax Software Providers, 2017 and 2018
|Number of security incidents||212||336|
|Number of taxpayer accounts affected||180,557||211,162|
GAO analysis of Internal Revenue Service data. | GAO-19-340
Why GAO Did This Study
Third-party providers, such as paid tax return preparers and tax preparation software providers, greatly impact IRS’s administration of the tax system. If these third parties do not properly secure taxpayers’ personal and financial information, taxpayers will be vulnerable to identity theft refund fraud and their sensitive personal information will be at risk of unauthorized disclosure. IRS estimates that it paid out at least $110 million in identity theft tax refund fraud during 2017, and at least $1.6 billion in identity theft tax refund fraud during 2016.
GAO was asked to review IRS’s efforts to track, monitor, and deter theft of taxpayer information from third parties. Among other things, this report assesses what is known about the taxpayer information security requirements for the systems used by third-party providers, IRS’s processes for monitoring compliance with these requirements, and IRS’s requirements for third-party security incident reporting.
GAO analyzed IRS’s information security requirements, standards, and guidance for third-party providers and compared them to relevant laws, regulations, and leading practices, such as NIST guidance and Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government. GAO reviewed IRS’s monitoring procedures and its requirements and processes for third-party reporting of security incidents, and compared them to Internal Control Standards and GAO’s A Framework for Managing Fraud Risk in Federal Programs. GAO also interviewed IRS and tax industry group officials.
GAO suggests that Congress consider providing IRS with explicit authority to establish security requirements for paid preparers’ and Authorized e-file Providers’ systems.
GAO is also making eight recommendations, including that the Commissioner of Internal Revenue
- Develop a governance structure or other form of centralized leadership to coordinate all aspects of IRS’s efforts to protect taxpayer information while at third-party providers.
- Require all tax software providers to adhere to prescribed information security controls.
- Regularly review and update security standards for tax software providers.
- Update IRS’s monitoring programs to include basic cybersecurity issues.
- Standardize incident reporting requirements for all types of third-party providers.
IRS agreed with three recommendations, including the above recommendations to regularly review and update security standards for tax software providers, and standardize incident reporting requirements.
IRS disagreed with five recommendations—including the other three listed above—generally citing the lack of clear and explicit authority it would need to establish security requirements for the information systems of paid preparers and Authorized e-file Providers. GAO believes that IRS can implement these recommendations without additional statutory authority.
Matter for Congressional Consideration
|Congress should consider providing IRS with explicit authority to establish security requirements for the information systems of paid preparers and Authorized e-file Providers. (Matter for Consideration 1)||In September 2021, a bill was introduced in the Senate (S.2782) that would require the Secretary of the Treasury to set cybersecurity standards for third party tax preparation companies to better protect taxpayer information, as well as requiring the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service to organize and coordinate all aspects of the Service's efforts to protect taxpayer information received from third-party preparers. However, as of September 2023 no further action has been taken on bills to provide IRS explicit authority to establish security requirements for the information systems of paid preparers and Authorized e-file Providers.|
Recommendations for Executive Action
|Internal Revenue Service||
Priority Rec.The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should develop a governance structure or other form of centralized leadership, such as a steering committee, to coordinate all aspects of IRS's efforts to protect taxpayer information while at third-party providers. (Recommendation 1)
|Internal Revenue Service||The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should modify the Authorized e-file Provider program's requirements to explicitly state the required elements of an information security program as provided by the FTC Safeguards Rule. (Recommendation 2)|
|Internal Revenue Service||The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should require that all tax software providers that participate in the Authorized e-file Provider program follow the subset of NIST Special Publication 800-53 controls that were agreed upon by the Security Summit participants. (Recommendation 3)|
|Internal Revenue Service||The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should regularly review and update the security requirements that apply to tax software providers and other Authorized e-file Providers. (Recommendation 4)|
|Internal Revenue Service||The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should update IRS's monitoring programs for electronic return originators to include techniques to monitor basic information security and cybersecurity issues. Further, IRS should make the appropriate revisions to internal guidance, job aids, and staff training, as necessary. (Recommendation 5)|
|Internal Revenue Service||The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should conduct a risk assessment to determine whether different monitoring approaches are appropriate for all of the provider types in the IRS's Authorized e-file Provider program. If changes are needed, IRS should make appropriate revisions to the monitoring program, internal guidance, job aids, and staff training, as necessary. (Recommendation 6)|
|Internal Revenue Service||The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should standardize the incident reporting requirements for all types Authorized e-file Providers. (Recommendation 7)|
|Internal Revenue Service||The Commissioner of Internal Revenue should document intake, storage, and sharing of the security incident data across IRS offices. (Recommendation 8)|