Skip to Highlights
Highlights

What GAO Found

Since inception in 1987, the nationwide Title V homeless-assistance program has transferred 122 properties from federal agencies to homeless assistance providers. Of these properties, 81 are currently being used to provide a range of homeless assistance services nationwide. Such services include transitional housing, referral services, and emergency shelter. However, few of the properties that the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has listed as suitable and available since the program's inception received applications from homeless assistance providers. In most cases, the properties may not have actually been practical for homeless service providers to use. For example, in 2013 about 80 percent of these properties were for off-site use only—meaning that a provider would need to physically move the property in order to use it. HUD officials told us that they would prefer that agencies not be required to report certain types of properties at all, such as those for off-site use only. The current statutory requirement for agencies to report all properties that fall within four broad categories—excess, surplus, underutilized, and unutilized—may not be effective for certain types of properties. Such exclusion could allow HUD officials to focus on the suitable and available properties that may be more likely to assist the homeless.

Of the 11 homeless assistance providers we interviewed, the eight case study providers that acquired property cited benefits from the Title V homeless assistance program, such as expanding services and obtaining real property at no cost. These benefits notwithstanding, the providers identified challenges, such as identifying available properties. These findings are consistent with reports from national homeless advocacy organizations. HUD reports properties in the Federal Register multiple times a year as required. The United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH), which plays a coordination role, provides a link on its website to the HUD reports. Nonetheless, according to national homeless advocates, many homeless assistance providers remain unaware of the availability of properties because the Federal Register is not user-friendly. Further, HUD lists many of the same properties more than once in the Federal Register , as required, even though they may not be useful to homeless assistance providers. In the past, some in Congress and the executive branch have raised issues about reporting requirements; the basic issue has been that some requirements result in reports that may be burdensome to produce, or not very useful. Modifying reporting requirements to reduce the frequency of reporting related to properties that are less likely to be useful to homeless providers could help, while also allowing HUD to continue to fulfill its responsibilities.

Why GAO Did This Study

Title V of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act enacted in 1987 created a program to assist the homeless, in part, by identifying unused federal real property and making it available to homeless assistance providers.

GAO was asked to review the implementation of Title V of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This report examines: (1) the identification and transfer of federal real property to homeless assistance providers and (2) the benefits and challenges homeless assistance providers and national advocacy organizations reported in identifying, acquiring, and using federal real property, and the potential actions that could help to address these challenges. GAO obtained information and data from HUD and the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on the properties reported since the program's inception and interviewed officials from GSA, HHS, and HUD. GAO also obtained views on the program from officials at (1) nine federal agencies, representing a range of size in their real property portfolios; (2) eleven homeless assistance providers (including eight that received property), representing a range of locations, size of property, and services provided; and (3) national homeless-advocacy organizations.

Skip to Recommendations

Recommendations

Congress should consider changing (1) the scope of properties to be reported to HUD with respect to the types of properties that may be less likely to be useful to assist the homeless and (2) the frequency of Federal Register reporting.

Matter for Congressional Consideration

Matter Status Comments
To ensure that properties determined as suitable and available are more likely to be practical for homeless assistance and that Federal Register reporting is not redundant, Congress should revisit the scope of properties to be reported to HUD with respect to the types of properties that may be less likely to be useful to assist the homeless and the frequency of Federal Register reporting.
Closed - Not Implemented
In December 2016, Congress enacted the Federal Assets Sale and Transfer Act of 2016, which took steps to streamline the reporting requirements of the McKinney-Vento Act, among other things. Since the Act's enactment, there has been no legislative activity to address the remaining part of the "Matter" regarding the scope of properties to be reported to HUD with respect to properties that may be less likely be useful to assist the homeless. Therefore, we are closing this matter as not implemented.

Recommendations for Executive Action

Agency Affected Recommendation Status
Department of Housing and Urban Development To improve HUD's database on Title V homeless assistance properties, HUD should modify its existing database or create an electronic, searchable database to meet reporting needs to the extent that the benefits outweigh the costs.
Closed - Not Implemented
We continue to believe this recommendation has merit and that HUD, given sufficient budget resources, will eventually replace its outmoded Title-V data system with a newer system consistent with our recommendation. However, given that it has been six years since our report was issued, and that HUD has neither provided any indication that replacing its Title-V data system has progressed beyond its earliest stage, nor provided a potential timeline for its completion, we are closing this recommendation as not implemented.
Department of Housing and Urban Development HUD, General Services Administration, HHS, and USICH should work together to address the challenges that homeless assistance providers face with the Title V homeless assistance program by (1) identifying what kinds of properties are most practical for homeless assistance, and (2) developing a web-based source of information on the program for homeless assistance providers.
Closed - Implemented
Title V of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act enacted in 1987 created a program to assist the homeless, in part, by identifying unused federal real property and making it available to homeless assistance providers. The Act (1) designated GSA, HHS, and HUD to administer the program and (2) created the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) to coordinate the federal response to homelessness. In 2014, GAO reported that of the 11 homeless assistance providers GAO interviewed, the eight case study providers that acquired property cited benefits from the Title V homeless assistance program, such as expanding services and obtaining real property at no cost. These successes notwithstanding, the providers identified challenges such as locating information on available properties. HUD reports properties in the Federal Register multiple times a year, and USICH provides links to them on its website. In addition, Title V requires GSA, HHS, and HUD to make such efforts as are necessary to ensure the widest possible dissemination of the listing information of available properties. However, many providers remain unaware of the availability of properties. Both the National Law Center and the National Coalition for the Homeless suggested that available properties should be listed on the Internet in an easily accessible format, unlike the Federal Register, which they said is not user-friendly. Some stakeholders suggested that the federal government could make information more accessible by establishing a single web-based source of information on the program. Therefore, GAO recommended that HUD, GSA, HHS, and USICH work together to address the challenges that homeless assistance providers face by developing a web-based source of information on the program. In 2018, GAO confirmed that GSA and HUD have enhanced their websites to give homeless providers better access to information on the McKinney-Vento homeless assistance program. For example, GSA's webpage offers providers a search tool targeted to GSA properties available for homeless assistance in addition to a direct link to the HUD Exchange Title V website--a comprehensive resource for of the McKinney-Vento Title V program. For example, HUD's website gives providers access to 1) weekly listings of suitable and available federal properties that HUD updates each Friday; 2) an interactive map to locate these properties as well as an Excel file providing summary information about each property; and (3) a listing of contacts for the federal landholding agencies that made these properties available to the homeless. In addition, HUD's website has links to Title V FAQs as well as the websites of the other federal agencies (GSA HHS, and USICH) responsible for administering Title V. Given GSA and HUD's actions to enhance their websites to supply providers with enriched information on the Title V homeless assistance program, the intent of GAO's recommendation has been addressed. As a result, providers now have an information source that should help them address their challenges.
Department of Health and Human Services HUD, General Services Administration, HHS, and USICH should work together to address the challenges that homeless assistance providers face with the Title V homeless assistance program by (1) identifying what kinds of properties are most practical for homeless assistance, and (2) developing a web-based source of information on the program for homeless assistance providers.
Closed - Implemented
Title V of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act enacted in 1987 created a program to assist the homeless, in part, by identifying unused federal real property and making it available to homeless assistance providers. The Act (1) designated GSA, HHS, and HUD to administer the program and (2) created the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) to coordinate the federal response to homelessness. In 2014, GAO reported that of the 11 homeless assistance providers GAO interviewed, the eight case study providers that acquired property cited benefits from the Title V homeless assistance program, such as expanding services and obtaining real property at no cost. These successes notwithstanding, the providers identified challenges such as locating information on available properties. HUD reports properties in the Federal Register multiple times a year, and USICH provides links to them on its website. In addition, Title V requires GSA, HHS, and HUD to make such efforts as are necessary to ensure the widest possible dissemination of the listing information of available properties. However, many providers remain unaware of the availability of properties. Both the National Law Center and the National Coalition for the Homeless suggested that available properties should be listed on the Internet in an easily accessible format, unlike the Federal Register, which they said is not user-friendly. Some stakeholders suggested that the federal government could make information more accessible by establishing a single web-based source of information on the program. Therefore, GAO recommended that HUD, GSA, HHS, and USICH work together to address the challenges that homeless assistance providers face by developing a web-based source of information on the program. In 2018, GAO confirmed that GSA and HUD have enhanced their websites to give homeless providers better access to information on the McKinney-Vento homeless assistance program. For example, GSA's webpage offers providers a search tool targeted to GSA properties available for homeless assistance in addition to a direct link to the HUD Exchange Title V website--a comprehensive resource for of the McKinney-Vento Title V program. For example, HUD's website gives providers access to 1) weekly listings of suitable and available federal properties that HUD updates each Friday; 2) an interactive map to locate these properties as well as an Excel file providing summary information about each property; and (3) a listing of contacts for the federal landholding agencies that made these properties available to the homeless. In addition, HUD's website has links to Title V FAQs as well as the websites of the other federal agencies (GSA HHS, and USICH) responsible for administering Title V. Given GSA and HUD's actions to enhance their websites to supply providers with enriched information on the Title V homeless assistance program, the intent of GAO's recommendation has been addressed. As a result, providers now have an information source that should help them address their challenges.
General Services Administration HUD, General Services Administration, HHS, and USICH should work together to address the challenges that homeless assistance providers face with the Title V homeless assistance program by (1) identifying what kinds of properties are most practical for homeless assistance, and (2) developing a web-based source of information on the program for homeless assistance providers.
Closed - Implemented
Title V of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act enacted in 1987 created a program to assist the homeless, in part, by identifying unused federal real property and making it available to homeless assistance providers. The Act (1) designated GSA, HHS, and HUD to administer the program and (2) created the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) to coordinate the federal response to homelessness. In 2014, GAO reported that of the 11 homeless assistance providers GAO interviewed, the eight case study providers that acquired property cited benefits from the Title V homeless assistance program, such as expanding services and obtaining real property at no cost. These successes notwithstanding, the providers identified challenges such as locating information on available properties. HUD reports properties in the Federal Register multiple times a year, and USICH provides links to them on its website. In addition, Title V requires GSA, HHS, and HUD to make such efforts as are necessary to ensure the widest possible dissemination of the listing information of available properties. However, many providers remain unaware of the availability of properties. Both the National Law Center and the National Coalition for the Homeless suggested that available properties should be listed on the Internet in an easily accessible format, unlike the Federal Register, which they said is not user-friendly. Some stakeholders suggested that the federal government could make information more accessible by establishing a single web-based source of information on the program. Therefore, GAO recommended that HUD, GSA, HHS, and USICH work together to address the challenges that homeless assistance providers face by developing a web-based source of information on the program. In 2018, GAO confirmed that GSA and HUD have enhanced their websites to give homeless providers better access to information on the McKinney-Vento homeless assistance program. For example, GSA's webpage offers providers a search tool targeted to GSA properties available for homeless assistance in addition to a direct link to the HUD Exchange Title V website--a comprehensive resource for of the McKinney-Vento Title V program. For example, HUD's website gives providers access to 1) weekly listings of suitable and available federal properties that HUD updates each Friday; 2) an interactive map to locate these properties as well as an Excel file providing summary information about each property; and (3) a listing of contacts for the federal landholding agencies that made these properties available to the homeless. In addition, HUD's website has links to Title V FAQs as well as the websites of the other federal agencies (GSA HHS, and USICH) responsible for administering Title V. Given GSA and HUD's actions to enhance their websites to supply providers with enriched information on the Title V homeless assistance program, the intent of GAO's recommendation has been addressed. As a result, providers now have an information source that should help them address their challenges..
United States Interagency Council on Homelessness HUD, General Services Administration, HHS, and USICH should work together to address the challenges that homeless assistance providers face with the Title V homeless assistance program by (1) identifying what kinds of properties are most practical for homeless assistance, and (2) developing a web-based source of information on the program for homeless assistance providers.
Closed - Implemented
Title V of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act enacted in 1987 created a program to assist the homeless, in part, by identifying unused federal real property and making it available to homeless assistance providers. The Act (1) designated GSA, HHS, and HUD to administer the program and (2) created the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH) to coordinate the federal response to homelessness. In 2014, GAO reported that of the 11 homeless assistance providers GAO interviewed, the eight case study providers that acquired property cited benefits from the Title V homeless assistance program, such as expanding services and obtaining real property at no cost. These successes notwithstanding, the providers identified challenges such as locating information on available properties. HUD reports properties in the Federal Register multiple times a year, and USICH provides links to them on its website. In addition, Title V requires GSA, HHS, and HUD to make such efforts as are necessary to ensure the widest possible dissemination of the listing information of available properties. However, many providers remain unaware of the availability of properties. Both the National Law Center and the National Coalition for the Homeless suggested that available properties should be listed on the Internet in an easily accessible format, unlike the Federal Register, which they said is not user-friendly. Some stakeholders suggested that the federal government could make information more accessible by establishing a single web-based source of information on the program. Therefore, GAO recommended that HUD, GSA, HHS, and USICH work together to address the challenges that homeless assistance providers face by developing a web-based source of information on the program. In 2018, GAO confirmed that GSA and HUD have enhanced their websites to give homeless providers better access to information on the McKinney-Vento homeless assistance program. For example, GSA's webpage offers providers a search tool targeted to GSA properties available for homeless assistance in addition to a direct link to the HUD Exchange Title V website--a comprehensive resource for of the McKinney-Vento Title V program. For example, HUD's website gives providers access to 1) weekly listings of suitable and available federal properties that HUD updates each Friday; 2) an interactive map to locate these properties as well as an Excel file providing summary information about each property; and (3) a listing of contacts for the federal landholding agencies that made these properties available to the homeless. In addition, HUD's website has links to Title V FAQs as well as the websites of the other federal agencies (GSA HHS, and USICH) responsible for administering Title V. Given GSA and HUD's actions to enhance their websites to supply providers with enriched information on the Title V homeless assistance program, the intent of GAO's recommendation has been addressed. As a result, providers now have an information source that should help them address their challenges.

Full Report

GAO Contacts