In February 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) initially provided states and the District of Columbia (the District) with an estimated $87 billion in increased Medicaid funds through December 2010, provided they met certain requirements. Funds were made available to states and the District through an increase in the Federal Medical Assistance Percentage (FMAP), the rate at which the federal government matches state expenditures for most Medicaid services. In March 2010, Congress passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which prohibits states from adopting certain changes to program eligibility in order to receive federal reimbursement, and in August 2010, extended increased FMAP rates through June 2011. GAO was asked to examine issues related to Medicaid funds under the Recovery Act. GAO examined (1) states' and the District's access to and use of increased FMAP funds, and (2) states' and the District's plans to sustain their Medicaid programs once these funds are no longer available. To do this work, GAO surveyed state Medicaid officials in the 50 states and the District in August 2009 and March 2010 about their program enrollment, uses of funds, program adjustments, and program sustainability. GAO obtained responses from all states and the District. GAO also reviewed CMS data and guidance and interviewed CMS and state officials.
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