This document is an E-supplement to GAO-10-678. Ice formation on aircraft can disrupt the smooth flow of air over the wings and prevent the aircraft from taking off or decrease the pilot's ability to maintain control of the aircraft. Taxi and landing operations can also be risky in winter weather. Despite a variety of technologies designed to prevent ice from forming on planes and to remove ice that has formed, as well as persistent efforts by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other stakeholders to mitigate icing risks, icing remains a serious concern. Since 1996, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has issued 89 recommendations aimed at reducing risks from in-flight structural icing, engine and aircraft component icing, runway condition and contamination, ground icing, and winter weather operations. Eighty-two of the recommendations were addressed to FAA, four were addressed to air carriers, one was addressed to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and one was addressed to the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA). This e-supplement lists icing and winter weather-related recommendations that NTSB has issued since 1996, including the number, issue date, close data, most-wanted status, and description of each recommendation.
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