The federal government invests in the education of children, in part, to help ensure that the United States has a well-educated and skilled workforce to compete in the global marketplace. The federal government accounts for about nine percent of the total investment in K-12 education, with state and local sources covering the rest. Over the last two decades there have been a number of efforts to catalogue and determine how much is spent on federal education programs. However, because education programs are administered by agencies throughout the federal government, and there is no standard definition of a federal education program, there currently is no single source that legislators and policymakers can refer to for an accounting of federal education programs. To address Congressional interest in these issues, we answered the following questions: (1) What is the federal expenditure on K-12 and early childhood education programs? (2) What are the characteristics of these programs? (3) To what extent have these programs completed evaluations?