Maritime Security: Partnering Could Reduce Federal Costs and Facilitate Implementation of Automatic Vessel Identification System

GAO-04-868 Published: Jul 23, 2004. Publicly Released: Aug 05, 2004.
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As part of international efforts to ensure maritime safety and security--and to carry out its mandates under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002--the U.S. Coast Guard is developing an automatic identification system (AIS) that should enable it to monitor ships traveling to and through U.S. waters. For AIS to operate nationwide, ships need equipment to transmit and receive AIS signals, and the Coast Guard needs shore stations and designated radio frequencies to keep track of the ships' identities and movements. Yet unresolved frequency issues between the Coast Guard and a private company, MariTEL, have come before the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). GAO reviewed federal agencies' progress in developing AIS nationwide and identified certain challenges and opportunities in completing the work.

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Recommendations for Executive Action

Agency Affected Recommendation Status
United States Coast Guard To help reduce federal costs and speed development of AIS nationwide, depending on the outcome of the expected FCC response, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Commandant of the Coast Guard to seek and take advantage of opportunities to partner with organizations willing to develop AIS systems at their own expense.
Closed – Implemented
In response to our recommendation, the Coast Guard has partnered with organizations willing to develop their own Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver sites. The Cooperative Vessel Traffic Services in Los Angeles/Long Beach, California; and Tampa, Florida; are examples of these partnerships. In these locations, the Coast Guard and the local Marine Exchange or Port Authority jointly operate AIS base stations. In addition, in the Pacific Northwest, the Columbia River Pilots worked with the VOLPE Center to develop their own receiver network and are sharing the AIS information with the Coast Guard in Portland, Oregon. In Corpus Christi, Texas, the Coast Guard has established a relationship with the Port Authority of Corpus Christi and is receiving AIS data from their network. The Coast Guard has also partnered with the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation to receive AIS data from its network along the Saint Lawrence Seaway. In Alaska, the Coast Guard has contracted with Port Graham Development Corporation to operate and maintain eleven receiver sites. The Coast Guard has also contracted with the Marine Exchange of Alaska to receive access to their AIS data. These partnerships and contracts are providing capability in advance of that which will be provided by the Nationwide Automatic Identification System currently being developed by the Coast Guard.

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