Federal Software Licenses:

Better Management Needed to Achieve Significant Savings Government-Wide

GAO-14-413: Published: May 22, 2014. Publicly Released: May 22, 2014.

Additional Materials:

Contact:

Carol R. Cha
(202) 512-4456
chac@gao.gov

 

Office of Public Affairs
(202) 512-4800
youngc1@gao.gov

What GAO Found

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the vast majority of agencies that GAO reviewed do not have adequate policies for managing software licenses. While OMB has a policy on a broader information technology (IT) management initiative that is intended to assist agencies in gathering information on their IT investments, including software licenses, it does not guide agencies in developing comprehensive license management policies. Regarding agencies, of the 24 major federal agencies, 2 have comprehensive policies that include the establishment of clear roles and central oversight authority for managing enterprise software license agreements, among other things; 18 have them but they are not comprehensive; and 4 have not developed any. The weaknesses in agencies' policies were due, in part, to the lack of a priority for establishing software license management practices and a lack of direction from OMB. Without an OMB directive and comprehensive policies, it will be difficult for the agencies to consistently and effectively manage software licenses.

Federal agencies are not adequately managing their software licenses because they generally do not follow leading practices in this area. The table lists the leading practices and the number of agencies that have fully, partially, or not implemented them.

24 Major Agencies' Implementation of Software License Management Leading Practices

Leading practice

Fully implemented

Partially implemented

Not implemented

Centralized management

4

15

5

Established software license inventory

2

20

2

Tracking and maintain inventory

0

20

4

Analyzing software license data

0

15

9

Providing sufficient training

0

5

19

Source: GAO analysis of agency data.

The inadequate implementation of leading practices in software license management was partially due to weaknesses in agencies' policies. As a result, agencies' oversight of software license spending is limited or lacking, and they may miss out on savings. The potential savings could be significant considering that, in fiscal year 2012, one major federal agency reported saving approximately $181 million by consolidating its enterprise license agreements even though its oversight process was ad hoc.

Given that agencies lack comprehensive software license inventories that are regularly tracked and maintained, GAO cannot accurately describe the most widely used software applications across the government, including the extent to which they were over and under purchased. Further, the data provided by agencies regarding their most widely used applications had limitations. Specifically, (1) agencies with data provided them in various ways, including by license count, usage, and cost; (2) the data provided by these agencies on the most widely used applications were not always complete; and (3) not all agencies had available data on the most widely used applications. Until weaknesses in how agencies manage licenses are addressed, the most widely used applications cannot be determined and thus opportunities for savings across the federal government may be missed.

Why GAO Did This Study

The federal government plans to spend at least $82 billion on IT products and services in fiscal year 2014, such as software licenses. Federal agencies engage in thousands of licensing agreements annually. Effective management of software licenses can help avoid purchasing too many licenses that result in unused software.

GAO was asked to review federal agencies' management of software licenses. GAO (1) assessed the extent to which OMB and federal agencies have appropriate policies on software license management, (2) determined the extent to which agencies adequately manage licenses, and (3) described agencies' most widely used software and extent to which they were over or under purchased. GAO assessed policies from 24 agencies and OMB against sound licensing policy measures. GAO also analyzed and compared agencies' software inventories and management controls to leading practices, and interviewed responsible officials. To identify sound licensing policy measures and leading practices, GAO interviewed recognized private sector and government software license management experts.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends OMB issue a directive to help guide agencies in managing licenses and that the 24 agencies improve their policies and practices for managing licenses. OMB disagreed with the need for a directive, but GAO believes it is needed, as discussed in the report. Most agencies generally agreed with the recommendations or had no comments.

For more information, contact Carol R. Cha at (202) 512-4456 or chac@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In June 2016, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued guidance to improve federal agencies' software license management practices. The OMB guidance, among other things, comprises the seven elements that a comprehensive software licensing policy should specify, as GAO recommended in May 2014. For example, the guidance requires agencies to maintain a continual agency-wide inventory of software licenses and leverage IT to support processes for compiling and maintaining software license inventories. In addition, OMB's guidance calls for agencies to analyze inventory data to ensure compliance with software license agreements, consolidate redundant applications, and identify other cost-saving opportunities. As a result, federal agencies should have adequate policies for consistently and effectively managing software licenses and be able to take advantage of opportunities to systematically identify software license related cost savings across agencies and the federal government.

    Recommendation: The Director of the OMB should issue a directive to the agencies on developing comprehensive software licensing policies comprised of the seven elements identified in this report.

    Agency Affected: Executive Office of the President: Office of Management and Budget

  2. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In July 2018, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) demonstrated it has taken steps to create a department wide software license management policy. Specifically, USDA has revised and expanded on existing departmental regulation that establishes comprehensive guidelines for software license management. For example, the draft departmental manual and regulation addresses the weaknesses identified in our report, including establishing procedures for managing USDA licensed IT software to track and manage licensed software. By implementing this recommendation, the department is better able to ensure that it consistently and cost-effectively managing its software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  3. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Agriculture (USDA) implemented GAO's recommendation by employing a centralized software licenses approach that is coordinated and integrated with key USDA personnel. For example, USDA established a Software Category Manager and Category Management Team responsible for the oversight of all of the software licenses enterprise agreements. In addition, USDA has established Enterprise IT Category Management guidance to support the central oversight authority within the department for managing enterprise software license agreements. By employing a centralized software license management approach, USDA should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  4. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the US Department of Agriculture (Agriculture) demonstrated that it has implemented a tool to establish the department's software license inventory. In addition, Agriculture provided examples of the types of reports that can be generated by the software inventory tool, including reports on: 1) the software license count by product and version, 2) products by each computer, and 3) top publishers whose products are used by the department. Agriculture also provided background information on the software inventory tool, including its capabilities, platform components, architecture, and update schedule. As a result of implementing a department-wide inventory of software licenses, Agriculture is more likely to be able to ensure compliance with software license agreements, allow for agency-wide visibility that consolidates redundant applications, and enable the identification of cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  5. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the US Department of Agriculture (Agriculture) demonstrated that it uses its software inventory tool to track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses. Specifically, Agriculture obtains cost data from USASpending.gov and then compares it to data from the software inventory tool. For example, Agriculture can track software product usage data such as the date of last usage and number of times used for each of almost 6,500 Agriculture computers. Then Agriculture can follow up with users to determine if license is still necessary. As a result, Agriculture is in a better position to ensure that the agency has the appropriate number of licenses for each item of software in accordance with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  6. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the US Department of Agriculture (Agriculture) demonstrated that it is using agency-wide data to identify opportunities for contract consolidation and reduction in licenses. For example, Agriculture showed that between 2016 and 2017 it was able to save $85,000 dollars on a software product by consolidating all of the agency's contracts for the product. In addition to the cost savings, the consolidation effort improved the agency's security by bringing all users up to the latest version of software. In another example, Agriculture showed how it has analyzed the usage reports for different software and has found that by consolidating and sharing the services they can reduce the number of licenses needed and the overall cost to the department. According to Agriculture, they are currently working with procurement to consolidate the order for this software product. As a result of these types of analyses, Agriculture is able to identify software license contract savings opportunities and make better investment decisions.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  7. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the US Department of Agriculture (Agriculture) demonstrated that it is providing comprehensive training to personnel on software licensing management topics. Agriculture reported that its software license management team is comprised of four individuals, three of whom are currently certified Contract Officer Representatives, with the fourth in the process of obtaining that certification. Agriculture provided supporting documentation to show that the team has attended classes regarding contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. As a result, Agriculture will be able to develop the skills and knowledge of employees so they can perform their roles more effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Agriculture should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture

  8. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Commerce (Commerce) demonstrated it has taken steps to create a department wide software license management policy. Specifically, Commerce issued a directive for each of its bureaus to provide their current software license management policies. Based on these policies, in March 2018, Commerce issued a department-wide software license management policy that addressed the weaknesses identified in our report, including regularly track and maintain enterprise software licenses to assist the department in implementing decisions throughout the software license management lifecycle. By implementing this recommendation, the department is better able to ensure that it is consistently and cost-effectively managing its software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  9. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Commerce's (Commerce) Software License Management Policy effective March 2018 states that the department's Chief Information Officer shall appoint an enterprise software manager who will develop an enterprise software license management centralization plan and regularly track and maintain enterprise software licenses. The policy states that the bureaus' Chief Information Officer will then designate a bureau level software manager to collect and maintain information about their software licenses and support the software license management lifecycle within each bureau. The information collected will be reported to the department's software manager. By employing a centralized software license management approach, Commerce should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  10. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Priority recommendation

    Comments: The Department of Commerce (Commerce) demonstrated that it has gathered information on all bureaus' inventories of software licenses. Specifically, in February 2017 Commerce reported that it had completed an initial license inventory that included the total number of licenses purchased and the cost for the purchase of the licenses for each of the bureaus. As a result of implementing a department wide inventory of software licenses, Commerce is more likely to be able to ensure compliance with software license agreements, allow for agency wide visibility that consolidates redundant applications, and enable the identification of cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  11. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Commerce (Commerce) reported that it is considering options for acquiring an automated tool for tracking and maintaining a comprehensive inventory of software licenses throughout the department. Commerce reports that it expects to purchase a corporate automated inventory tool by June 30, 2019. GAO will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  12. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Commerce (Commerce) reported that its Enterprise Services Acquisition team has been using agency-wide software license data to identify opportunities to reduce costs. Commerce reported that the use of blanket purchase agreements resulted in over $27 million in savings between May 2015 and October 2017. As a result of these types of analyses, Commerce is able to identify software license contract savings opportunities and make better investment decisions.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  13. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Commerce (Commerce) reported that training will be concurrent with the implementation of the new inventory. It estimates the completion of this to be June 30, 2019. In October 2017, the department reported that they were reaching out to another federal agency to learn about the software license management training they offer to incorporate lessons learned into the Commerce's future training plans. GAO will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Commerce should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  14. Status: Open

    Comments: DOD partially concurred with our recommendation. In its written response to our draft report, the department stated that a license management policy is necessary to address the weaknesses we identified; and that the majority of license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses should be managed using an approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel. However, DOD stated it does not concur that a centralized management approach is appropriate for the size and complexity of the department. We reported that in order to take advantage of economies of scale, a single entity should have access to department-wide software license data. While, in October 2017, DOD reported that it had addressed this recommendation and provided a software inventory license reporting plan, the plan is not a comprehensive policy that addresses the majority of the weaknesses we reported including identifying clear roles and responsibilities within the department for managing licenses. We will continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  15. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Defense (Defense) has taken actions to implement a centralized software license management approach. For example, in October 2017 the department provided evidence that the DOD Chief Information Officer (CIO) is leveraging the Defense Enterprise Software Initiative and joint enterprise license agreement efforts, which are centrally managed by the Defense Information Systems Agency, to coordinate centralized acquisitions for licenses that are commonly purchased across Defense. The Defense CIO also issued memorandums in November 2015 and January 2016 directing department-wide migration to one operating system by January 2017, which will support an enterprise approach for centrally coordinating software license management. As a result, Defense will be more likely to effectively centralize software license record keeping and allow for agency-wide visibility that consolidates redundant applications and identification of other cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  16. Status: Open

    Comments: DOD partially concurred with our recommendation. In its written response to our draft report, the department noted that inventory data should be collected for agency software licenses purchased and/or enterprise-wide licenses; and that effective license management requires regular tracking and maintaining of inventory data using automated tools and metrics. However, the department stated it does not concur that maintaining an inventory comprising the majority of software regardless of dollar value is required. We noted that a comprehensive inventory should represent the majority (80 percent) of the agency's software license spending and/or enterprise licenses to allow the department visibility that reduces redundant applications and identification of other cost saving opportunities. In October 2017, DOD reported that it had addressed this recommendation. Specifically, the department had completed a software inventory license reporting plan. While the plan outlines the actions to be taken to develop the software license inventory, it has not yet completed actions in establishing a comprehensive inventory of software licenses. For example, it plans to implement automated support and processes for software license management processes in fiscal year 2020. More recently, the CIO stated that the software license inventory would be completed by December 2018. We will continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  17. Status: Open

    Comments: DOD partially concurred with our recommendation. In its written response to our draft report, the department noted inventory data should be collected for agency software licenses purchased and/or enterprise-wide licenses; and that effective license management requires regular tracking and maintaining of inventory data using automated tools and metrics. However, the department stated it does not concur that maintaining an inventory comprising the majority of software regardless of dollar value is required. We noted that a comprehensive inventory should represent the majority (80 percent) of the agency's software license spending and/or enterprise licenses to allow the department visibility that reduces redundant applications and identification of other cost saving opportunities. In October 2017, DOD reported that it had addressed this recommendation. For example, DOD reported that it has completed a software inventory license reporting plan and continues to automate security domains for asset management. However, as of April 2018, the documentation available from DOD was insufficient to support these statements. The department also noted that it does not yet collect software asset data for all DOD end-points and plans to implement automated support and processes for software license management processes in fiscal year 2020. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  18. Status: Open

    Comments: DOD concurred with our recommendation. In its written response to our draft report, the department noted that it will analyze existing agency wide selected software license data and use the findings of the analysis to identify opportunities to reduce costs and inform decision-making about how to proceed with planning a department-wide reporting capability. In October 2017, DOD reported that it had addressed this recommendation, but as of August 2018, did not provide evidence of their efforts to implement this recommendation. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  19. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Defense (Defense) demonstrated that it has provided software license management training in a variety of areas to agency personnel during fiscal years 2015 through 2017. For example, Defense demonstrated that it has added a new webinar training session on software license management and developed a two-day in-person training course on strategic vendor management that introduces participants to category management best practices for commercial software. The webinars and two-day sessions were attended by over 600 personnel in fiscal years 2016 and 2017. Defense also conducted other training on commercial software licensing which was provided to over 340 personnel in fiscal years 2016 and 2017. In addition, Defense provided documentation that it provided access to web-based software licensing resources to Defense personnel. For example, between fiscal years 2015 and 2017 its software licensing training videos were accessed almost 200,000 times, and its software licensing tool kits and white papers were accessed over 63,000 times. Finally, in October 2017 Defense provided evidence that it is providing training in the areas of contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management, as recommended by GAO. As a result, Defense should be able to develop the skills and knowledge of employees so they can perform their roles more effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Defense should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  20. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Education stated that the department is working to streamline its software management process through the revision of its current Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy directive, and IT Governance guidance. The policy is expected to be approved by the department by July 2018. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  21. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Education has employed a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses. This centralized approach is delineated in the department's Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy which among other things, calls for centralized record keeping and management of software license information by the Office of the Chief Information Office. As a result, the department should be able to more effectively manage its agency-wide software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  22. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Education concurred with, and took actions to establish an inventory of software licenses using automated tools for its enterprise-wide licenses. In addition, Education's directive on Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy requires the department to regularly track and maintain its comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics. A comprehensive inventory should help the department ensure compliance with software license agreements, and identify cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  23. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Education concurred with, and took actions to implement this recommendation. The department's Software Asset Management and Acquisition Policy and its Software Asset Management Tool Implementation Plan include procedures for regularly tracking and maintaining an inventory using automated tools and metrics. For example, the Software Asset Management Tool Implementation Plan calls for the generation of reports showing licensing usage, cost, and under/over usage of software licensing. In addition, the department provided evidence that it has begun to regularly track software license data, such as the Federal Student Aid (FSA) Usage report, that show the number of licenses FSA has purchased and the number of licenses FSA has in use. As a result, the department can better ensure that it has the appropriate number of licenses for each item of software in use to reconcile with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  24. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Education provided audit reports showing the analysis of software license data, associated costs, and cost savings. For example, Education estimated that it saved $683,643.00 in fiscal year 2017 by reducing the number of licenses needed, changing the software edition to a cheaper version, negotiating with vendors, and not renewing unneeded licenses. As a result, Education is able to identify software license contract savings opportunities and make better investment decisions.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  25. Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Education (Education) reported that the department's initial training was designed to familiarize the community with the various requirements and mandates highlighted in the latest version of its software management directive and policy. Although the training covered a wide variety of topics, it did not specifically address software license contract terms and conditions, laws and regulations, and security planning. According to Education, the release of the revised Software Asset Management and Acquisition directive will appropriately address these areas. In April 2018, the department reported that the policy is expected to be approved by July 2018. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address the recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Education should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  26. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In March 2018, the Department of Energy (Energy) established a Software Management Centralization and Acquisition Plan that outlined an approach for implementing a comprehensive software asset management framework. The plan includes employing a centralized software license management strategy, and developing and maintaining a complete software license inventory of purchased and deployed licenses. As a result, Energy should be able to more effectively manage its software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  27. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Energy (Energy)'s Software Management Centralization and Acquisition Plan outlined an approach for coordinating and integrating with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses. The plan also states that in fiscal year 2018, Energy will appoint a software manager and work collaboratively with the Chief Financial Officer, Chief Acquisition Officer, and Program Offices to identify key stakeholders and establish a software asset management program. By employing a centralized software license management approach, Energy should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  28. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Energy (Energy) took action to implement this recommendation. In August 2017, the department conducted a baseline inventory of software licenses that included the number of licenses purchased and used for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses. As a result, Energy is more likely to be able to ensure compliance with software license agreements, allow for agency wide visibility that consolidates redundant applications, and enable the identification of cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  29. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Energy (Energy) reported that it is in the early stages of developing a centralized software license management approach. According to Energy, this centralized approach will include a plan for how Energy routinely tracks and maintains a department-wide inventory of its software licenses using automated tools and how Energy will analyze this information to facilitate better spending across the department. Energy also provided a task order for the implementation of continuous diagnostic and mitigation services. The services includes the use of automated tools for software asset management, configuration system management, and vulnerability management. However, the task order does not include timelines for key milestones. We will continue to monitor Energy's efforts to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  30. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Energy (Energy) reported that its approach is to look at opportunities to further consolidate contract spend to achieve savings by leveraging best pricing with existing contracts and evaluating cross-vendor optimization as well as the feasibility of migrating users to a new provider to further optimize. For example, in February 2018, the department reviewed its IT software acquisition and licensing spending for Microsoft and Oracle and identified opportunities for potential cost savings of 10-20 percent of its IT spend. As a result of these reviews, the department is able to identify software license cost savings opportunities and make better investment decisions.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  31. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: As of April 2018, the Department of Energy provided evidence that it has training courses in contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. As a result, the department has taken steps to enable its employees to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their software license management roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Energy should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Energy

  32. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reported that it has a draft Software Asset Management policy to enable a consistent and systematic approach to software license management that addresses all phases of the software license management lifecycle. The draft policy specifies responsibilities for key personnel and standardizes processes and procedures for managing software assets from procurement through deployment and monitoring. HHS is working to implement the Software Asset Management policy across the Department. Additionally, HHS has incorporated software license inventory management practices into the enterprise performance life cycle management process and quarterly integrated data calls. By implementing this recommendation, the department is better able to ensure that it is consistently and cost-effectively managing its software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  33. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) implemented GAO's recommendation by employing a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key HHS personnel. For example, in its September 2015 HHS Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act Implementation Plan, HHS outlined a strategy to ensure a centralized software license management approach for software license oversight, budgeting, and planning functions are coordinated across key areas such as finance, acquisitions, and information technology. Additionally, HHS has a software manager that is responsible for managing HHS strategy and operations related to implementation of the Enterprise Strategy for Software Management. As a result, HHS should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make department-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  34. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In November 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) established its foundational software license inventory. The foundational inventory includes more than 12,000 publishers, representing more than 4 million individual software licenses. This inventory includes a listing of reported software licenses and their associated contract and agreement terms. In addition, HHS provided examples of automated tools used in developing the inventory and examples of the Office of the Chief Information Officer engaging with the operating division Chief Information Officers to verify and validate the submitted data. As a result of implementing a department-wide inventory of software licenses, HHS is more likely to be able to ensure compliance with software license agreements, allowing for visibility that consolidates redundant applications, and enables the identification of cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  35. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In November 2017, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) established its foundational software license inventory. The department demonstrated that it uses its software inventory tools to track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses. Specifically, the HHS Office of the Chief Information Officer is responsible for tracking and maintaining the enterprise-wide software license inventory on a quarterly basis. To do so, HHS primarily uses a quarterly Integrated Data Collection process, which is augmented by the automated tool that actively monitors all software installed on HHS devices connected to its network. The tool allows for real-time data tracking including the quantity and names of software products, and versions. As a result, HHS is in better position to ensure that the agency has the appropriate number of licenses for each item of software in accordance with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  36. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reported that it had identified more than $250 million in cost avoidance through the software license inventory. For example, HHS identified three new enterprise software products to include in the Department's Information Systems Distribution and Procurement offerings which will be available enterprise-wide at a significantly reduced price. The program served over 96,000 users, and saved more than $45 million in fiscal year 2017 by consolidating redundant software purchases and generating enterprise agreements with volume discounts. Additionally, HHS conducts analysis of the software license inventory following each quarterly update to track changes in reported quantities and identify trends. For example, its February 2018 inventory analysis showed the top 20 publishers based on the number of licenses reported and top publishers at selected operating divisions. As a result of these types of analyses, HHS is able to identify software license cost saving opportunities and make better investment decisions.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  37. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In May 2018, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) provided evidence that it offers training relevant to software license management including training on contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. Specifically, HHS reported that in fiscal year 2017, monthly offerings of 16 unique courses of varying levels and acquisition-related topics were offered. As a result, HHS has enabled its employees to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their software license management roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  38. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In December 2017, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) developed its Software Centralization Plan that outlines software management is the responsibility of the DHS Office of the Chief Information Officer and the Information Technology Services Office, Product and Services Delivery Management Division. Specifically, the management of software licenses is a distributed and shared responsibilities between the office, division, and component CIO organizations. The partnership is expected to provide an effective and efficient means to gain a comprehensive understanding of the licensing of software products, versions in inventory, and to utilize the expertise in software procurement planning and risk management. Additionally, in August 2016, DHS appointed a Software Manager to lead the agency-wide efforts to identify best practices, strategies, milestones, and activities for DHS. As a result, the department should be able to more effectively manage its agency-wide software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  39. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In September 2016, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) completed its baseline inventory using software asset management tools for 80 percent of the department's software licenses. The department provided documentation showing that the baseline inventory including product purchases, quantity and cost data. DHS reported that the Product and Services Delivery Management Division validated the inventory based on tracking commodity IT spending, including software asset spending, across DHS. DHS also has plans to deploy a real time software asset management capability that will further promote greater software management of software licenses purchased, deployed, and in use. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow the department visibility that reduces redundant applications and identification of other cost saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  40. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In September 2016, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) established its baseline software asset inventory using software asset management tools. The department has demonstrated that it uses its software inventory tools and metrics to track and maintain an inventory of software licenses on a regular basis. For example, the DHS Chief Information Officer manages software assets leveraging and normalizing data between three systems including a systems management tool that produces weekly reports for its enterprise software licenses. The department has also taken steps to incrementally implement a tool to transition this tracking and maintaining throughout the DHS IT infrastructure to better inform departmental opportunities for cost savings advantages. As a result, DHS is in better position to ensure that the agency has the appropriate number of licenses for each item of software in accordance with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  41. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) reported that it is in the process of implementing the Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation (CDM) tool that enables industry best practices and standards for software license management. DHS also reported that CDM tracking of software assets and inventory will be implemented as CDM is rolled out to each DHS Component. The CDM tool will provide DHS with an automated capability for IT hardware and software asset discovery; IT asset inventory tracking; software inventory normalization; software license optimization; data sharing capabilities, and thus ensure full compliance with the requirement to maintain a continual agency-wide inventory of software licenses, including all licenses purchased, deployed, and in use, as well as spending on subscription services. As this data is captured the DHS OCIO, OSDO will analyze the software license data to track cost, usage, benefits to establish spending data that allows to the Department to perform trend analysis. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  42. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In May 2014, the Department of Homeland Security concurred with this recommendation. In August 2015, the department provided evidence that it had developed software license management training that is available for the appropriate personnel. The training addresses contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. The department stated that the target training audience is agency personnel who are involved in managing software licenses such as project managers and members of the DHS Enterprise License Agreements. As a result, DHS staff involved in managing software licenses should have the skills and knowledge to perform their roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Homeland Security should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  43. Status: Open

    Comments: In February 2018, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) stated that the department developed a draft policy that will implement policies and responsibilities for managing software licenses and a software license consolidation plan to enable maintenance and enforcement of the software license management policy. In addition, the department reported that it had appointed a software license manager who is the single point of contact for software license management. Among other things, the department has initiated a software license management oversight working group, and worked to establish a software license management project management office. According to HUD, the targeted completion for implementing this recommendation is by December 2018. We will follow-up with the department to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  44. Status: Open

    Comments: In February 2018, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) reported that its Office of the Chief information Officer (OCIO) has achieved full operational capability for the agency's Federal Asset Management Enterprise System (FAMES) and began to populate FAMES with information on the agency's software assets in January 2017. However, HUD noted that it still needs to implement and test the interface between FAMES and the agency's automated procurement system. According to HUD, upon completion of the interface, OCIO will have the data extracts necessary to support enforcement of an agency-wide comprehensive policy that incorporates software license management into its configuration management and control process. HUD reports that the targeted completion for implementing this recommendation is by the end of June 2018. We will follow-up with the department to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  45. Status: Open

    Comments: In February 2018, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) reported on actions taken to implement this recommendation including the development of an analysis to support acquisition and deployment of an automated software license management capability. According to HUD, this capability will provide the department with the data necessary to identify opportunities to reduce cost, implement IT commodity-consolidated acquisitions and buy licenses in bulk. HUD reports that the targeted completion for implementing this recommendation is by March 2019. However, HUD reported that it has identified $1.4 million in cost savings and avoidance utilizing its current inventory and processes. We will follow-up with the Department to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  46. Status: Open

    Comments: In February 2018, the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) stated that the department is working to provide training to agency personnel. For example, HUD reports that it has worked with the Department of Defense (Defense) to offer Defense's Enterprise Software Initiative sponsored software license management training to staff. HUD also reports that it continues to work with peer agencies to identify opportunities to access required software management skills and other required training. HUD's target completion for addressing this recommendation by December 2018. We will follow-up with the Department to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Housing and Urban Development

  47. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: On April 3, 2018, the Department of Interior developed and issued the department's Software Asset Management Policy that is comprised of the core elements of software management including establishing a comprehensive inventory, tracking and maintaining information about IT software license agreements and software installed on systems and devices using automated discovery and inventory tools. As a result, the department should be able to more effectively manage its agency-wide software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  48. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: On April 3, 2018, the Department of Interior developed and issued the department's Software Asset Management policy that is comprised of core elements of software management including identifying roles and responsibilities and central oversight authority for managing enterprise software licenses that includes a software manager. Subsequently, in June 2018, the department developed the IT Software Assets Management guide that outlines the license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses. By employing a centralized software license management approach, the department should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  49. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: On June 29, 2018, the Department of Interior established a comprehensive baseline software inventory report using automated tools that consisted of evaluating approximately 3,000 unique software published titles installed on the department's devices. Of this total, Interior reported that it had acquired approximately 30 of these products as enterprise solutions and examined the top 20 publishers. As a result of establishing a baseline inventory of software licenses, the department is more likely to be able to ensure compliance with software license agreements, allow for agency-wide visibility that consolidates redundant applications, and enable the identification of cost-savings opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  50. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Interior reported that the Office of Chief Information Officer will develop management reporting on software licenses as part of implementing a centrally managed software license management strategy. The department reported that it plans to establish a comprehensive inventory of enterprise-wide licenses in the third quarter of fiscal year 2018 and will use the following quarters to evaluate, adjust, and confirm successful tracking and policy adherence, that is planned for completion by the end of first quarter of 2019. We plan to follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  51. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In fiscal year 2016, the Department of Interior analyzed its inventory of software license data, such as cost, benefits, and usage data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs by identifying unused software licenses products. As a result of these actions, in fiscal year 2016, the department realized cost avoidances of $921,000 by transferring unused products to Bureaus requiring the products.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  52. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Interior established a Software Asset Management policy that requires its IT software managers to provide role based training relevant to software license management to appropriate agency personnel. Additionally, the department provides training to its workforce on number types of acquisition actions and projects, including software licenses. These include training that addresses contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, and acquisition. As a result, Interior has enabled its employees to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their software license management roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Interior should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  53. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In February 2018, the Department of Justice's Chief Information Officer issued an IT policy memo designating the Assistant Director for Contracts Management, as the Department Software Asset Manager. Subsequently, on April 18, 2018, the CIO issued IT Policy defining requirements for software asset management, the role and responsibilities of the Software Asset Manager, and actions required by Components to comply with the policy. The policy addressed the weaknesses identified in our report such as establishing, tracking, and maintaining a comprehensive inventory. By establishing a comprehensive software licensing policy, the department is better able to ensure that it is consistently and cost-effectively managing its software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Attorney General should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  54. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In February 2018, the Department of Justice (Justice) Chief Information Officer issued an IT policy memo designating the Assistant Director for Contracts Management, as the Department Software Asset Manager. Subsequently, on April 18, 2018, the CIO issued IT Policy defining the role and responsibilities of the Software Asset Manager. The policy states that the Software Asset Manager will maintain an agency-wide inventory of software licenses and track software license allocation and usage to drive software acquisition decision-making as well as use automated reporting capabilities to establish the inventory. As a result, Justice should be able to consistently and cost-effectively manage software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Attorney General should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  55. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Justice (Justice) demonstrated that it had established a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending. Specifically, Justice has an automated solution that is implemented across the department and collects installed software data from end user equipment and servers. Using this tool, the department collects over 8.8 million software asset records each week and provided support reflecting the quantify of all the department's enterprise software license purchased, including the cost for each software enterprise license agreement. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow Justice visibility that reduces redundant applications and identification of other cost saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Attorney General should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  56. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Justice (Justice) provided documentation showing that it had implemented a solution to generate and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise licenses. For example, the Software Asset Manager receives software status reports on deployed software assets and software utilization. The data is loaded into the software license management database and compared to software ELA licenses purchased from its central contract office. Additionally, the department's IT acquisition review board reviews IT procurement requests to verify the need for the proposed software license purchases. As a result, the agency can ensure that it has the appropriate number of license for each item of software in use to reconcile with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Attorney General should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  57. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, Justice reported that department has implemented automated tools and mechanisms for data collection, analysis, and comparative analytics for existing enterprise license agreements. The analytical output is used to both manage the day-to-day deployment and reclamation of software assets in our overall repository, and it informs strategic decision-making on vendor engagement with respect to software licensing and consumption. Additionally, it is working with the executive staff within OCIO to enhance software asset management processes in the Help Desk environment. Justice reported that it expects to close this recommendation in July 2018. We will follow up with the department to obtain evidence of the department-wide implementation of this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Attorney General should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  58. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, Justice reported that the department has made progress in providing software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. The department expects to close this recommendation in September 2018. We will follow up with the department to obtain evidence of the department-wide implementation of this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Attorney General should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  59. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Labor provided documentation showing that it had implemented a software solution that generates an agency-wide inventory of software assets. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow the department visibility that reduces redundant applications and identification of other cost saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Labor should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  60. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Labor provided documentation showing that it had implemented a software solution that generates an agency-wide inventory of software assets. As a result, the agency can ensure that it has the appropriate number of licenses for each item of software in use to reconcile with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Labor should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  61. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, Labor reported that it had developed a departmental cross-functional team, including personnel from acquisitions, contracts, user service management, and finance, which evaluates software consolidation opportunities. According to Labor officials, the team's efforts have led to the consolidation of contracts for over 40 department-wide software companies, and identified and established enterprise-wide software agreements. For example, the agency analyzed its software license inventory and as a result consolidated seven separate licenses into a single enterprise-wide license agreement. According to agency officials, the consolidation minimizes the contracting administration effort and enables the agency to scale software license usage without a contract action. As a result of these analyses, Labor is able to identify software license contract savings opportunities and make better investment decisions.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Labor should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  62. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Labor (Labor) reported and provided support that it had provided software license training, including automated tool training, software security and configuration management training and that it plans to provide further software management related training. Also, in April 2018, Labor reported it is currently in the process of developing and implement change management reform plan that will include annual configuration management training. As a result, HHS has enabled its employees to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their software license management roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Labor should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Labor

  63. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Labor (Labor) reported and provided support that it had provided software license training, including automated tool training, software security and configuration management training and that it plans to provide further software management related training. Also, in April 2018, Labor reported it is currently in the process of developing and implement change management reform plan that will include annual configuration management training. As a result, HHS has enabled its employees to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their software license management roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  64. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In April 2018, the department drafted a software management centralization plan to formulate a centralized enterprise software licensing approach that allows coordination and integration of key personnel from acquisitions, business management and planning, Chief Information Officer, the IT operations directorate, and financial management division to regular track and maintain software license spending. According to the draft plan, the centralized software asset management will maintain a continual inventory of software licenses, including all license purchased, deployed, in use, and recently retired. Also, the department's Software Asset Management Program Plan dated April 30, 2018 sates that the details of the software license inventory will be normalized and centrally stored in a repository. By employing a centralized software license management approach, State should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  65. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In fiscal year 2017, the Department of State used a number of existing automated discovery tools to collect and develop an inventory of software licenses. By leveraging and integrating existing tools the department confirmed 80 percent of software license spend in fiscal year 2017. The department plans to transition to a centralized software asset management tool by March 2020 to have an improved, more consolidated, user-friendly view into the software on their network. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow agency-wide visibility that can help consolidate redundant applications and the identification of other cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  66. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2018, the Department of State reported it is currently using a manual data collection process to develop a inventory of software licenses. In particular, in fiscal year 2017, it collected and confirmed of 80 percent of software license spend. State will transition to automated tracking and maintaining tools by January 2021. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  67. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In May 2018, the department demonstrated that it is using agency-wide data to identify opportunities for software cost savings. For example, the department was able to identify cost savings of $108 million in fiscal year 2017 and $11 million in fiscal year 2016 by reviewing its spend against validated requirements from system and business owners and engaging with software personnel to explore procurement and licensing options to reduce costs. The department also has reported that once the centralized automated tool is in place, it can leverage the new tool to better analyze agency wide software license usage and data usage to make cost effective decisions. As a result of these reviews, the department is able to identify software license cost savings opportunities and make better investment decisions.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  68. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2018, the Department of State reported that it will provide a software license management training plan to appropriate agency personnel to address contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management by March 2018. However, supporting documentation of the training was not provided. We will follow-up with the agency to obtain supporting documentation and we will continue to monitor its efforts to address this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of State should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  69. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Department of Transportation (DOT) stated that it has developed a policy addressing components of centralized management and management of software licenses through the entire life cycle. However, DOT's Order 1351.21 was issued in June 2009 and has not been updated since our report was issued to include the weaknesses we identified. Specifically, the order identifies the roles and responsibility, and central oversight authority for managing enterprise license agreements and does not specify policy on establishing goals and objectives of the software license management program and considering the software license management life-cycle phases to implement effect decision making and incorporate existing standards, processes, and metrics. We will follow up with the department to obtain evidence of the department-wide implementation of this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  70. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Transportation (DOT) implemented this recommendation. Specifically, DOT issued Order 1351.21 which provides procedures for employing a centralized software license management approach that is integrated with key personnel for department-wide Enterprise License Agreements (ELAs). In addition, DOT has assigned a software license manager position in accordance to the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) guidance, with responsibility to, among other duties, lead the agency-wide effort to centralize license management, implement strategies to reduce duplication and ensure the adoption of software management best practices. The software manager is also required to report to the agency CIO and work in collaboration with the offices of the CIO, CAO, CFO, and other organizations as appropriate. By employing a centralized software license management approach, DOT should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  71. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: As of May 2018, the Department of Transportation (DOT) provided documentation showing that it had implemented automated solutions to generate a comprehensive inventory of software licenses for the majority of the agency's software license spending and/or enterprise wide licenses. For example, DOT's inventory includes software information for all operating administrations throughout the department. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow DOT visibility that reduces redundant applications and identification of other cost saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  72. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In May 2018, the Department of Transportation (DOT) provided documentation showing that it had implemented a solution to generate and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise wide licenses. As a result, the agency can ensure that it has the appropriate number of license for each item of software in use to reconcile with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  73. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In May 2018, the Department of Transportation (DOT) provided documentation showing that it regularly uses the data in the software inventory to make strategic decisions on how to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making. For example, in November 2017, the department conducted a pricing analysis of its Microsoft enterprise license agreements. Based on the analysis the department identified an opportunity to save about $1.5 million to $2.5 million per year on the upcoming enterprise licensing agreement renewal. As another example, the department provided evidence of how the software license information is used to generate future software license contracts. As a result, DOT is able to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision-making.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  74. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2018, the Department of Transportation (DOT) reported that it is currently in discussions with its Procurement Office to determine the status of whether appropriate agency personnel have been provided with software license management training. We will follow up with the department to obtain evidence of the department-wide implementation of this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Transportation should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  75. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In April 2017, Treasury's Chief Information Officer and Senior Procurement Executive established a policy on software license management. The policy includes plans to employ a centralized software license management strategy, and developing and maintaining an agency wise software license inventory. Further, In March 2017, the Chief Information Officer appointed an IT Software Category Manager, who is responsible for managing all agency-wide software agreements and licenses. As a result, Treasury should be able to more effectively manage its agency-wide software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  76. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: On April 4, 2017, the Department of Treasury's Chief Information Officer and Senior Procurement Executive issued a joint memo on the department's software license management policy. Specifically, the policy states that the Chief Information Officer will employ a centralized software license management strategy that includes development of an approved list of software and an associated implementation plan. Additionally, in March 2016, the Chief Information Officer appointed an IT Software Category Manager who is responsible for managing all agency-wide software licenses. By employing a centralized software license management approach, the department should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  77. Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2017, the Department of Treasury reported that it had piloted automated tools to inventory software assets; however, it resulted in inconsistent data and created potential security vulnerabilities. Thus, Treasury has not yet developed a comprehensive inventory. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to implement the recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  78. Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2017, Treasury officials stated that they do not maintain a comprehensive centralized inventory of software assets within the enterprise. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address the recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  79. Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2017, department officials stated that they are not currently conducting analysis of agency-wide software license data. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address the recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  80. Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2017, department officials stated that they do not currently offer any training on software license management. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address the recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of the Treasury should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Treasury

  81. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In response to our recommendations, in July 2015, the department issued comprehensive software licensing policy that addressed the weaknesses identified in our report, including guidance for using analysis to better inform investment decision making. By establishing comprehensive software licensing policy, the Department is better able to ensure that it is consistently and cost-effectively managing its software throughout the Department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  82. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) agreed with and implemented this recommendation. Specifically, in July 2015 VA issued Directive 6403, Software Asset Management, which documents the department's software license management policy and responsibilities for central management of agency-wide software licenses. VA's policy for the management of software addresses the weaknesses we identified. By implementing our recommendation, VA should be able to consistently and cost-effectively manage software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  83. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2017, VA provided documentation showing that it had implemented a solution to generate a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise wide licenses. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow VA visibility that reduces redundant applications and identification of other cost saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  84. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2017, Veterans Affairs provided documentation showing that it had implemented a solution to generate and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise wide licenses. As a result, the agency can ensure that it has the appropriate number of licenses for each item of software in use to reconcile with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  85. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2017, Veterans Affairs (VA) provided documentation showing that it had implemented a solution to analyze agency-wide software license data, including usage and costs. For example, VA reported that it has identified approximately $65 million in cost savings over 3 years due to analyzing one of their software licenses. As a result, VA is able to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision-making.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  86. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In November 2017, Veterans Affairs (VA) provided documentation showing that it had implemented software management training. The training addresses various aspects of software license management, including terms and conditions, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. As a result, VA has enabled its employees to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their software license management roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Department of Veterans Affairs

  87. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, Environment Protection Agency (EPA) reported that it is currently taking steps to develop a comprehensive policy that will address a centralized management program of licenses, an analysis to inform decision making, education and training goals and overall management throughout the lifecycle. In addition, EPA stated that it is still leveraging the efforts of the Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation project as well as its Office of Acquisition Management's consolidation of its Microsoft suite. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  88. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) reported that it is currently taking steps to develop a comprehensive policy that will address a centralized management program of licenses. In addition, EPA stated that it is still leveraging the efforts of the Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation project as well as leveraging its Office of Acquisition Management's consolidation of enterprise licenses. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  89. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, EPA reported that it is currently leveraging its Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation program for a comprehensive software license inventory. EPA also reported that this comprehensive inventory will be provided via an automated dashboard. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  90. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) reported that it is currently leveraging its Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation program for an automated tool that will establish a comprehensive software license inventory. EPA We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  91. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Environment Protection Agency reported that it is currently leveraging its Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation program for a comprehensive software license inventory by the second quarter of fiscal year 2018. However, no supporting documentation was provided. EPA also stated that it is currently conducting an analysis of licenses and maintenance with regards to category management to determine the current spend environment and visibility within the agency to develop strategies for addressing each platform. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  92. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the Environment Protection Agency (EPA) reported that it is working to develop a robust training curriculum that addresses all software license requirements including but not limited to negotiations, laws and regulations, and contract terms and conditions department wide. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  93. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The General Service Administration (GSA) agreed with, and has taken steps to implement this recommendation. Specifically, GSA has developed agency-wide policy for management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses identified in our report. For example, in September 2015 GSA issued an order establishing a software license program that among other things identified clear roles, responsibilities, and central oversight authority within the administration for managing agency-wide software. In addition, the agency issued standard operating procedures for establishing a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools, regularly tracking and maintaining software licenses and analyzing software data to make cost-effective decisions. As a result, GSA will be able to more effectively manage its software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  94. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: GSA agreed with this recommendation. In response, GSA established a comprehensive centralized inventory that incorporates elements of automated discovery and inventory tools that provide easy search and access to software license information, such as contract terms and agreement records. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow GSA visibility that helps to reduce redundant applications and identify other cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  95. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: GSA agreed with, and has taken steps to implement this recommendation. GSA has implemented procedures requiring that it regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics; and update the inventory on a quarterly basis. As a result, the agency can ensure that it has the appropriate number of licenses for each item of software in use to reconcile with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  96. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: GSA agreed with, and has implemented this recommendation. GSA has analyzed its agency wide software license data to inform investment decisions. On a quarterly basis, GSA scans its agency-wide software inventory data to identify opportunities for software license consolidation opportunities and submits reports to GSA's information management. For example, in August 2016 provided evidence that it had analyzed its inventory of software license data and identified opportunities to consolidate several of its software products and identified an opportunity to establish an enterprise licensing agreement for one of its software products resulting in cost savings or cost avoidance totaling about five million dollars over about a three year period.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  97. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: GSA agreed with, and has taken steps to implement the recommendation. Specifically, GSA has provided software license management training to appropriate agency personnel including training on contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. Sufficient software license management training should allow GSA employees to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of its software licenses, the Adminitrator of the General Services Administration should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: General Services Administration

  98. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In response to our recommendation, in July 2017 NASA issued an Interim Directive on the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses identified in our report. For example, the Directive requires personnel involved in software license management to complete NASA's software management training. In addition, the Directive addresses the software license management life-cycle phases. As a result, NASA should be able to more effectively manage its agency-wide software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses identified.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  99. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In response to our recommendation, in July 2017 NASA issued an Interim Directive which documents the administration's software license management policy including roles and responsibilities for central management of agency-wide software licenses. In addition, in May 2017 NASA's Administrator issued a memorandum requiring NASA components to use the agency's Enterprise License Management Team (ELMT) program for managing software licenses. By employing a centralized software license management approach, NASA should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  100. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2017, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented a software solution that generates an agency-wide inventory of software assets. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow NASA visibility that reduces redundant applications and identification of other cost saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  101. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2017, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented a software solution that generates an agency-wide inventory of software assets. Further, the software updates the inventory as hardware or software changes in the environment, and NASA has the ability to generate inventory reports on demand. As a result, the agency can ensure that it has the appropriate number of licenses for each item of software in use to reconcile with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  102. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Priority recommendation

    Comments: NASA has agreed with and implemented this recommendation. On an annual basis, NASA analyzes its agency-wide software license data to identify opportunities for software license cost avoidance. For example, NASA increased the number of software agreements managed by its enterprise license management team (ELMT) from 24 to 42 in fiscal year 2014 and analyzed the agency's software license data, such as cost, benefits, and usage to identify opportunities to reduce costs and make better informed investments moving forward. As a result of these actions, in fiscal year 2014, NASA avoided a cumulative cost of about $19.1 million. The agency also stated that it plans to continue to incrementally increase the number of ELMT-managed agreements in the future which should provide it opportunities to realize additional cost avoidance opportunities and better insight into the consumption of software in the future.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  103. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: NASA agreed with, and implemented this recommendation. Specifically, NASA issued guidance in July 2017 requiring NASA personnel involved in software license management to complete the NASA Software Management training. In addition, in February 2017, NASA initiated software license management training that addressed negotiations, laws and regulations, and contract terms. Sufficient software license management training should allow NASA personnel involved with managing licenses to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their roles more effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Adminitrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  104. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2018, National Science Foundation developed a Software Management Centralization Plan to improve the acquisition and management of its software assets, including designating a central authority to oversee the agency's software agreements. The plan also outlines how the agency's software inventory capability will be implemented and describes the activities that will enable effective management of software throughout its lifecycle. By implementing this recommendation, the department is better able to ensure that it consistently and cost-effectively managing its software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the National Science Foundation should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  105. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The National Science Foundation has demonstrated that it is regularly tracking and maintaining an inventory of software licenses using an asset management tracking tools. Specifically, it has implemented a software assessment management tool that supports the management process of discovering, capturing, tracking, and reporting of software assets. Additionally, in August 2018, the agency developed the software centralization plan that outlines the process for inventory management, which is under the supervision of the Change Control Board and has implemented quarterly reviews of the inventory. As a result, the agency can ensure that it has the appropriate number of license for each item of software in use to reconcile with current use.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the National Science Foundation should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  106. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2018, the National Science Foundation (NSF) reported that it continues to analyze software license data and has access to additional data to better inform investment decision making since the implementation of its automated tool. NSF reported that benefits resulting from the use of its automated tool will begin to be realized next year after usage of the application has allowed for the accumulation of data for trending. However, NSF did not provide documentation demonstrating the current agency-wide software license data it uses to inform investment decisions and identify opportunities to reduce costs. We will follow-up with the agency to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the National Science Foundation should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  107. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2018, the National Science Foundation developed the Software Centralization Management plan that requires the agency to ensure that personnel with roles in software asset management are trained in relevant software management topics. Specifically, the IT acquisition staff receives training in the areas of contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations and work with the Office of General Counsel as required. Sufficient software license management training should allow NSF employees to develop the skills and knowledge to perform their roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the National Science Foundation should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: National Science Foundation

  108. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Priority recommendation

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) implemented GAO's recommendation by updating its Information Technology Asset Management (ITAM) Policy to address the weaknesses identified in our report. Specifically, in December 2016, NRC updated its ITAM policy to include guidance on providing training relevant to software license management and considering the entire software license management life-cycle phases. By establishing comprehensive software licensing policy, NRC is better able to ensure that it is consistently and cost-effectively managing its software throughout the agency.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  109. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken steps to implement this recommendation. For example, in April 2018, NRC Software Manager developed the Software Management Centralization Plan to meet ensure compliance with applicable Federal mandates and guidelines, including those from the Office of Management and Budget, the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act. The plan includes establishing a centralized compliance function and procurement processes. By employing a centralized software license management approach, NRC should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  110. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2018, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reported that automated tools were used to generate a list of all information technology assets in the NRC environment, including software. The tools used by the current service provider were not configured to collect and report on software licenses. A manual effort was used to gather and verify data associated with the software on the list to complete a comprehensive baseline inventory of software licenses. NRC has outlined a plan for transitioning to automated tools by the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2019. We plan to follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  111. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2018, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) stated that a manual effort is underway to gather and verify data associated with the software on the list to complete a comprehensive inventory of software licenses. NRC also reported that it has developed requirements for an information technology asset management tool to support the establishment of a comprehensive inventory of software licenses that is estimated to be deployed in first quarter of fiscal year 2019. Upon deployment of an automated tool, NRC reported that it will be able to regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of all software licenses. We plan to follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  112. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2018, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reported that the agency has analyzed agency-wide software license data. For example, NRC has optimized the number of licenses recently purchased in both the IBM and Microsoft Enterprise Agreements. However, supporting documentation was not provided. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  113. Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2018, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reported that the agency plans to provide software license management training to all key personnel. NRC also reported that its software training is currently being developed by the Office of Management and Budget, the Federal Acquisition Institute and the Defense Acquisition University. We will follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  114. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) concurred with this recommendation and in September 2015, reported that it had developed a guide to capture enterprise architecture (EA) lifecycle activities including software licensing management, acquisition, and requirements during several points of the project lifecycle. In April 2018, OPM reported they have no changes to the status of this recommendation, but expect substantive updates later this year. We will continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  115. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) concurred with this recommendation and in September 2015 reported that it is finalizing a revised Life Cycle Management draft policy which will use stage gate reviews to evaluate the progress of projects including software licenses throughout the agency. According to OPM, once the new policy is approved, OPM subject matter experts will review project documentation during stage gates reviews to make written recommendations on whether projects should continue. OPM's Investment Review Board will then review that recommendation and other procurement documentation to make a final recommendation to the OPM Director. In April 2018, OPM reported they have no changes to the status of this recommendation, but expect substantive updates later this year. We will continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  116. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) concurred with this recommendation and in September 2015 OPM reported that it acquired an enterprise architecture repository tool and is collecting information on its software applications. OPM also reported that it is assembling and performing quality reviews on hardware and software lists currently maintained in spreadsheets, in its EA Systems database, and Remedy database in order to consolidate the entire hardware and software asset inventory. In April 2018, OPM reported they have no changes to the status of this recommendation, but expect substantive updates later this year. We will continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  117. Status: Open

    Comments: The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) concurred with this recommendation and in September 2015 OPM reported that it acquired an enterprise architecture repository tool and is collecting information on its software applications. In April 2018, OPM reported they have no changes to the status of this recommendation, but expect substantive updates later this year. We will continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  118. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, OPM concurred with our recommendations and noted actions the agency plans to take. In April 2018, OPM reported they have no changes to the status of this recommendation, but expect substantive updates later this year. We will continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  119. Status: Open

    Comments: In written comments to our report, OPM concurred with our recommendations and noted actions the agency plans to take. In April 2018, OPM reported they have no changes to the status of this recommendation, but expect substantive updates later this year. We will continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Director of the Office of Personnel Management should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Office of Personnel Management

  120. Status: Open

    Priority recommendation

    Comments: In May 2018, the Small Business Administration (SBA) reported that it has developed and implemented enterprise policies to better manage its software. In addition, SBA reported that it is developing software asset policy and anticipates having it in place in fiscal year 2018. We plan to follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  121. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Small Business Administration (SBA) has centralized the agency software license management through its Office of the Chief Information Officer. In October 2017, SBA developed processes for its software approval installation process that includes the roles of the software asset manager to among other things, review the software status and update the issued software license and user information into the inventory. By employing a centralized software license management approach, SBA should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  122. Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, the Small Business Administration (SBA) reported that the agency has taken several key steps to establish and build a comprehensive enterprise software inventory such as the use of Microsoft enterprise inventory tools. In May 2018, SBA officials stated that a comprehensive software license inventory was established and agreed to provide supporting documentation. We plan to follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  123. Status: Open

    Priority recommendation

    Comments: In August 2017, the Small Business Administration (SBA) reported that it has replaced multiple standalone inventory tracking tools with Microsoft System Center 2016 which provides the SBA enterprise with a single automated tool capability. In May 2018, SBA officials stated that it was regularly tracking and maintaining a comprehensive software license inventory and agreed to provide us with supporting documentation. We plan to follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  124. Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, the Small Business Administration (SBA) reported on actions taken to analyze agency-wide software license data. For example, SBA reported that its Office of the Chief Information Office is leading an agency-wide effort to ensure that SBA is only purchasing the number of licenses needed during the renewal of software licensing contracts. In May 2018, we requested supporting documentation demonstrating the agency analyzing agency-wide software license data. We plan to follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  125. Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, the Small Business Administration (SBA) reported on actions taken to provide software license management training. For example, SBA reported that officials in the Office of the Chief Information Officer have held multiple sessions on Microsoft licensing practices as well as software licensing, in general. In May 2018, SBA agreed to provide supporting documentation. We plan to follow up with the agency to obtain supporting documents and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Small Business Administration

  126. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2016, the Social Security Administration (SSA) developed an agency-wide policy for the management of software licenses including identifying clear roles, responsibilities, and central oversight authority for agency wide software licenses. By implementing this recommendation, the department is better able to ensure that it is consistently and cost-effectively managing its software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  127. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In August 2016, the Social Security Administration (SSA) developed an agency-wide policy for the management of software licenses including its plan for a centralized software license management approach. Specifically, while the Chief Information Officer is responsible for managing and overseeing IT asset management, SSA established the Information Technology Asset Management Steering committee to plan, build, guide, and enforce all aspects of the policy. Additionally, SSA established informal workgroups to share software license management plans and processes. Specifically, agency components are required to provide basic requirements and plans to our Division of Resource Management and Acquisitions. The division and independent software license experts provide the agency component with results of market research and recommendations for the best acquisition. By employing a centralized software license management approach, SBA should be able to more consistently and cost-effectively make agency-wide decisions on software licenses.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should employ a centralized software license management approach that is coordinated and integrated with key personnel for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  128. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In May 2018, the Social Security Administration reported that it is tracking more than 95.5 percent of the software in use at the agency. The agency provided evidence of its software expense by operating system platforms and automated tools used in developing this comprehensive inventory. As a result of implementing a department wide inventory of software licenses, the agency is more likely to be able to ensure compliance with software license agreements, allow for agency wide visibility that consolidates redundant applications, and enable the identification of cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  129. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In May 2018, the Social Security Administration (SSA) provided evidence that it used automated tools to establish an inventory of its software expense by operating system platforms and reported that it is tracking more than 95.5 percent of the software in use at the agency. SSA provided examples of reports showing the percentage of software expense per operating system platform. As a result of implementing a department-wide inventory of software licenses, SSA is more likely to be able to ensure compliance with software license agreements, allow for agency-wide visibility that consolidates redundant applications, and enable the identification of cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  130. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Social Security Administration (SSA) agreed with and has taken steps to implement our recommendation. In August 2017, SSA reported that it currently gathers data and conducts yearly exercises concerning its Microsoft software and reported on efforts to provide SSA the capability to analyze agency-wide software license data. As a result of these reviews, the department is able to identify software license cost savings opportunities and make better investment decisions.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should analyze agency-wide departmental software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  131. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In July 2018, SSA demonstrated that the agency provides software license management training to appropriate personnel on contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management. As a result, SSA will be able to develop the skills and knowledge of employees so they can perform their roles more effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Commissioner of the Social Security Administration should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: Social Security Administration

  132. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: USAID has developed an agency-wide comprehensive policy and procedures for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified in our report. For example, in April 2015 USDAID issued a standard operating procedure that documents the roles and responsibilities for managing its enterprise software licenses and establishes procedures for tracking and maintaining an agency-wide software license inventory using automated tools and for analyzing software inventory data. In addition, in November 2016, USAID implemented procedures to provide appropriate agency personnel sufficient training on software license management. By establishing comprehensive software licensing policy and procedures, USAID is better positioned to ensure that it consistently and cost-effectively manages its software throughout the department.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should develop an agency-wide comprehensive policy for the management of software licenses that addresses the weaknesses we identified.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

  133. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has implemented this recommendation. USAID provided evidence that it has established and maintains a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency enterprise-wide software licenses. In addition, USAID established a documented process to review and update of the inventory. A comprehensive inventory will better ensure compliance with software license agreements, and allow USAID agency-wide visibility that can help consolidate redundant applications and the identification of other cost-saving opportunities.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should establish a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools for the majority of agency software license spending and/or enterprise-wide licenses.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

  134. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: USAID has established a process and procedures to track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics. For example, in April 2015 USDAID issued a standard operating procedure that documents the roles and responsibilities for tracking and updating the software inventory for new purchases, maintenance renewal and the retirement of software. In addition, in September 2016, USAID provided several documents on its software inventory tracking efforts including the agency's September 2016 updated software and hardware master inventory tracking report, demonstrating that USAID regularly tracks and maintains its inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics. Implementing this recommendation will help USAID ensure that its software licenses are used in compliance with licensing agreements and cost-effectively deployed.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should regularly track and maintain a comprehensive inventory of software licenses using automated tools and metrics.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

  135. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The US Agency for International Development (USAID) agreed with and has implemented this recommendation. USAID developed standard operating procedures for analyzing agency-wide software data and began to analyze its agency-wide software license data, such as costs and business value to identify opportunities to reduce costs through consolidation and/or elimination of software. For example, USAID held software license rightsizing discussions on the results of its analyses of fiscal year 2016 software license data to inform investment decisions. As a result of these actions, in fiscal year 2016 USAID realized cost savings of $639,561 through the reduction and elimination of selected software license contracts.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should analyze agency-wide software license data, such as costs, benefits, usage, and trending data, to identify opportunities to reduce costs and better inform investment decision making.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

  136. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: USAID agreed with this recommendation and subsequently implemented a program to provide appropriate agency personnel training on software license management including training on contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisitions, security planning and configuration management. In addition, in October 2016 USAID issued its Asset Management Training Plan documenting the training schedule and topics to be delivered in 2016 and 2017 to the agencys Asset Management Team and individual training sessions for new hires. For example, in November 2016, USAID provided software license training focused on both the agencys software license renewal process and new software procurement process. As a result, USAID staff involved in managing software licenses should have the skills and knowledge to better perform their roles effectively and efficiently.

    Recommendation: To ensure the effective management of software licenses, the Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development should provide software license management training to appropriate agency personnel addressing contract terms and conditions, negotiations, laws and regulations, acquisition, security planning, and configuration management.

    Agency Affected: United States Agency for International Development

 

Explore the full database of GAO's Open Recommendations »

Aug 2, 2018

Jun 13, 2018

May 24, 2018

May 23, 2018

May 22, 2018

Mar 14, 2018

Jan 30, 2018

Jan 10, 2018

Nov 21, 2017

Looking for more? Browse all our products here