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Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO reviewed possible conflicts of interest when federal employees do similar work both inside and outside of government, focusing on: (1) the extent and characteristics of employees' approved activities outside the federal government; (2) agency regulations and procedures for monitoring outside activities; (3) approved activities that could create the appearance of conflicts of interest; and (4) whether the Office of Government Ethics (OGE) has provided guidance to agencies on approving and monitoring employees' outside activities or reviewed agency controls over such activities.

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Recommendations

Recommendations for Executive Action

Agency Affected Recommendation Status
Office of Government Ethics 1. To help avoid ethics problems relating to employees' outside activities, the Director, OGE, should ensure that the Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Commerce and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fully adopt and comply with applicable restrictions on employees' compensation for outside speeches, articles, and appearances that relate to federal responsibilities.
Closed - Implemented
In 1991, OGE completed reviews of NIH and the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration in HHS. In 1992, OGE issued new standard-of-conduct regulations. OGE started follow-up reviews at HHS in September 1993 and completed followup with Commerce to ensure that applicable restrictions are enforced. Recent OGE reports on Commerce and EPA showed no problems concerning outside employment. An audit of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention under HHS is due to be issued in August 1994. While the audit found no serious problems with outside employment, OGE did make recommendations for improving procedures relating to outside employment. In the fall of 1994, OGE is again to audit NIH to determine its progress in dealing with outside employment.
Office of Government Ethics 2. To help avoid ethics problems relating to employees' outside activities, the Director, OGE, should provide agencies with guidance and criteria on the acceptance of compensation for consulting activities that relate to agencies' responsibilities, programs, and operations.
Closed - Implemented
OGE provided additional guidance on consulting activities in its final standards-of-conduct regulations issued on August 7, 1992. It provided clarification as to how the regulations apply to consulting in the summary section, and section 2635.802 of the regulations. See Fed. Reg. Vol. 57, No. 53, pages 35040 and 35062.
Office of Government Ethics 3. To help avoid problems relating to employees' outside activities, the Director, OGE, should revise the proposed OGE standard-of-conduct regulations to require that each agency establish, when appropriate and necessary on the basis of its particular mission and operations, adequate prior agency review of employee's outside activities and periodic update of approvals.
Closed - Implemented
In the final standard-of-conduct regulations, OGE, in section 2635.803 "prior approval for outside employment and activities", stated the following: "Where it is deemed necessary--for the purpose of administering its ethics program, an agency shall--require employees--to obtain prior approval before engaging in specific types of outside activities."

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