One of EPA's chemical assessment programs maintains a database of chemicals' toxicity and effects on human health. This information contributes to the development of policies and regulations.
EPA's IRIS Program has not produced timely chemical assessments, and most of its ongoing assessments have experienced delays. Although EPA began soliciting nominations in an annual survey, starting in December 2019, EPA didn't provide sufficient guidance on how to prioritize and submit nominations to meet user needs.
We recommended issuing guidance and criteria for nominating and selecting chemicals for assessment.
What GAO Found
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program has not produced timely chemical assessments, and most of its 15 ongoing assessments have experienced delays. As we reported in March 2019, the IRIS Program has taken some actions to make the assessment process more transparent, such as increasing communication with EPA offices and releasing supporting documentation for review earlier in the draft development process, but the need for greater transparency in some steps of the assessment process remains. Specifically, the IRIS Program does not publicly announce when assessment drafts move to certain steps in their development process or announce reasons for delays in producing specific assessments. Without such information, stakeholders who may be able to help fill data and analytical gaps are unable to contribute. This could leave EPA without potential support that could help overcome delays.
Delays of Milestones by Quarter for a Selection of the Integrated Risk information System's Assessments in Development 2019 - 2024
In mid-2018, EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) instituted changes to the way it solicits nominations for chemical assessments prepared by the IRIS Program but did so without providing sufficient guidance or criteria, raising questions about its ability to meet EPA user needs. For example, ORD issued a new survey to EPA program and regional offices but did not provide them with guidance for selecting chemicals for nomination, and ORD did not make explicit the criteria it was using for selecting nominations to include in the IRIS Program's list of assessments in development. Furthermore, despite a significant decline in survey participation between 2018 and 2019, EPA did not indicate whether the agency has assessed the quality of information generated by the survey. Leading program management practices state that agency management should internally communicate the necessary, quality information to achieve the entity's objectives and should monitor and evaluate program activities. Without evaluating the quality of the information produced by the survey, ORD cannot know if the survey is achieving its intended purpose and whether ORD has the information necessary to meet user needs.
Why GAO Did This Study
EPA's IRIS Program prepares chemical toxicity assessments that contain EPA's scientific position on the potential human health effects of exposure to chemicals; at present, the IRIS database contains more than 570 chemical assessments. In March 2019, GAO reported on the IRIS Program's changes to increase transparency about its processes and methodologies, including the use of systematic review. However, GAO also found that EPA decreased the number of ongoing assessments in December 2018 from 22 to 13 and continued to face challenges in producing timely assessments.
This report evaluates (1) EPA's progress in completing IRIS chemical assessments since 2018; and (2) EPA's recent actions to manage the IRIS Program, and the extent to which these actions help the Program meet EPA user needs.
GAO reviewed and analyzed EPA documents and interviewed officials from EPA; GAO also selected three standards for program management, found commonalities among them, and compared ORD's management of the IRIS Program against these leading practices.
GAO is making five recommendations, including that EPA provide more information publicly about where chemical assessments are in the development process; and issue guidance for selecting chemicals for nomination and criteria for selecting nominations for assessment. EPA partially agreed with two of our recommendations and disagreed with the other three.
Recommendations for Executive Action
|Environmental Protection Agency||1. The Administrator should direct the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Research and Development to provide more information publicly about where chemical assessments are in the development process, including internal and external steps in the process, and changes to assessment milestones. (Recommendation 1)|
|Environmental Protection Agency||2. The Administrator should direct the Assistant Administrators of program offices and Regional Administrators to develop and make available guidance for chemical assessment nominations. Such guidance could include information such as how to select chemicals for IRIS assessment nomination or for high priority needs, criteria explaining how Assistant and Regional Administrators determine which nominations to support and which they may choose not to support, and how to document these decisions. (Recommendation 2)|
|Environmental Protection Agency||3. The Administrator should direct the Assistant Administrator of the Office of Research and Development to issue criteria for how chemical assessment nominations are selected for inclusion in the IRIS Program's list of assessments in development and provide quality information about such topics as defining high-priority chemicals, prioritizing assessment work, and determining the IRIS Program's capacity to undertake work. (Recommendation 3)|
|Environmental Protection Agency||4. The Administrator of EPA should direct the Office of Research and Development to continue evaluating the survey process used to solicit IRIS user needs and assess key elements, such as its purpose and timing, to facilitate the collection of quality information. (Recommendation 4)|
|Environmental Protection Agency||5. The Administrator of EPA should include in ORD's strategic plan (or subsidiary strategic plans) identification of EPA's universe of chemical assessment needs; how the IRIS Program is being resourced to meet user needs; and specific implementation steps that indicate how IRIS will achieve the plan's objectives, such as specific metrics to define progress in meeting user needs. (Recommendation 5)|