Fast Facts

Federal nutrition guidelines are the basis for nutrition assistance programs that serve older adults. However, the guidelines focus on a healthy population and not on the needs of many older adults, such as those with common health conditions and those over age 70. Most older adults have more than one chronic condition, such as diabetes or heart disease.

As the population ages, demand for federal nutrition assistance programs will increase. We recommended that the Department of Health and Human Services develop a plan to focus on older adults’ needs in a future update to the guidelines.

Senior citizens sharing a meal

Senior citizens sharing a meal

Skip to Highlights
Highlights

What GAO Found

Research shows that nutrition can affect the health outcomes of older adults. Federal nutrition guidelines provide broad guidance for healthy populations, but do not focus on the varying nutritional needs of older adults. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) data show that the majority of older adults have chronic conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease. Research shows that such individuals may have different nutritional needs. As older adults age, they may also face barriers, such as a reduced appetite, impairing their ability to meet their nutritional needs. HHS plans to focus on older adults in a future update to the guidelines, but has not documented a plan for doing so. Documenting such a plan could help ensure guidelines better address the needs of the population.

Of the six federal nutrition assistance programs serving older adults, four have requirements for food that states and localities provide directly to participants, and federal agencies oversee states' monitoring of these requirements. In HHS's and U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) meal programs, states must ensure meals meet requirements. Yet, HHS does not gather information from states, such as approved menus, to confirm this, and localities in two of the four selected states said state monitoring of menus was not occurring. Further, USDA regional officials told GAO they lack information on how meal programs operate at adult day care centers as they primarily focus on other sites for their on-site reviews. Additional monitoring could help HHS and USDA ensure meal programs meet nutritional requirements and help providers meet older adults' varying needs.

Examples of Lunches Served to Older Adults through Nutrition Programs in Selected States

U:\Work in Process\Publishing\FY20 Rpt\01-100\18\Graphics\Highlights A-5 v02_102892-01.tif

In the states GAO selected, meal and food providers of the four nutrition programs with nutrition requirements reported various challenges, such as an increased demand for services. Providers in three of the four states reported having waiting lists for services. Providers of HHS and USDA meal programs in all four states also reported challenges tailoring meals to meet certain dietary needs, such as for diabetic or pureed meals. HHS and USDA have provided some information to help address these needs. However, providers and state officials across the four states reported that more information would be useful and could help them better address the varying nutritional needs of older adults.

Why GAO Did This Study

The U.S. population is aging and, by 2030, the U.S. Census Bureau projects that one in five Americans will be 65 or older. Recognizing that adequate nutrition is critical to health, physical ability, and quality of life, the federal government funds various programs to provide nutrition assistance to older adults through meals, food packages, or assistance to purchase food. This report examines (1) the relationship of older adults' nutrition to health outcomes and the extent to which federal nutrition guidelines address older adults' nutritional needs, (2) nutrition requirements in federal nutrition assistance programs serving older adults and how these requirements are overseen, and (3) challenges program providers face in meeting older adults' nutritional needs. GAO reviewed relevant federal laws, regulations, and guidance and conducted a comprehensive literature search; visited a nongeneralizable group of four states—Arizona, Louisiana, Michigan, and Vermont—and 25 meal and food distribution sites, selected for a high percentage of adults 60 or older, and variations in urban and rural locations, and poverty level; and interviewed officials from HHS, USDA, states, national organizations, and local providers.

Skip to Recommendations

Recommendations

GAO is making five recommendations, including that HHS develop a plan to include nutrition guidelines for older adults in a future update, and that HHS and USDA improve oversight of meal programs and provide additional information to meal providers to help them meet older adults' nutritional needs. HHS and USDA generally concurred with our recommendations.

Recommendations for Executive Action

Agency Affected Recommendation Status
Administration for Community Living 1. The Administrator of ACL should work with other relevant HHS officials to document the department's plan to focus on the specific nutritional needs of older adults in the 2025-2030 update of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, which would include, in part, plans to identify existing information gaps on older adults' specific nutritional needs. (Recommendation 1)
Open
As of February 2021, HHS's ACL published Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025, which includes a chapter on older adults with information on dietary pattern recommendations; current nutrition intakes; special considerations for older adults; and information on supporting healthy eating including government resources on nutrition and feeding programs that could benefit older adults. ACL stated that the next edition of the Dietary Guidelines will build on the recommendations for older adults in the current edition and that the process to update the 2025-2030 edition of the Dietary Guidelines will likely continue to focus on updating evidence from birth to older adulthood. ACL also stated that federal scientists will determine which topics and questions should be addressed in the evidence review to inform the next edition, and that through ACL's National Nutritionist-a co-lead on the Older Individuals Collaboration on Nutrition-ACL will have a voice in recommending areas of the DGAs to explore with respect to older adults. We will consider this recommendation closed when these efforts are completed.
Administration for Community Living 2. The Administrator of ACL should direct regional offices to take steps to ensure states are monitoring providers to ensure meal consistency with federal nutrition requirements for meals served in the congregate and home-delivered meal programs. (Recommendation 2)
Open
In September 2020, HHS stated that the central and regional offices of ACL, including both the program and evaluation offices, plans to collaborate on the development of plans to ensure state compliance with federal requirements. In addition, the National Resource Center on Nutrition and Aging will continue to develop and provide, in concert with regional offices, informational resources related to meeting federal nutrition requirements for meals served in the congregate and home-delivered meal programs. We will consider this recommendation closed when the ACL provides additional information on its plans to ensure state compliance with federal requirements and the additional resources provided through the National Resource Center related to meeting federal nutrition requirements for meals served in the congregate and home-delivered meal programs.
Food and Nutrition Service 3. The Administrator of FNS should take steps to improve its oversight of CACFP meals provided in adult day care centers. For example, FNS could amend its approach for determining federal onsite reviews of CACFP meal providers to more consistently include adult day care centers. (Recommendation 3)
Open
In May 2020, the Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service told us that, in an effort to improve oversight of the CACFP meals provided in adult day care centers, it will place a special interest on lessons learned from onsite local reviews that are conducted by states where the adult portion of the CACFP is administered separately by the state department of aging and thus, adult day care institutions are always selected for local onsite reviews as part of their management evaluation. Further, Food and Nutrition Service told us it will commit to sharing this information with other state agencies that administer the CACFP. Food and Nutrition Service estimates completing this action by the end of calendar year 2020. We will review the status of this recommendation upon receipt of Food and Nutrition Service updates at the end of 2020.
Administration for Community Living 4. The Administrator of ACL should centralize information on promising approaches for making meal accommodations to meet the nutritional needs of older adult participants in the congregate and home-delivered meal programs, for example in one location on its National Resource Center on Nutrition and Aging website, to assist providers' efforts. (Recommendation 4)
Open
In September 2020, HHS stated that ACL is currently finalizing contract requirements for a new National Resource Center on Nutrition and Aging. The contract will be awarded during Fiscal Year 2021. The department also stated that there will be increased funds for this contract. Further, the department stated that the National Resource Center will expand training resources and grants to enhance nutrition program implementation and meet the nutritional needs of older adult participants in the congregate and home-delivered meal programs. In addition, the department stated that the National Resource Center will continue to develop and provide, in concert with regional offices, informational resources related to meeting the nutritional needs of older adult participants in the congregate and home-delivered meal programs. We will consider closing this recommendation when this effort is complete.
Food and Nutrition Service 5. The Administrator of FNS should take steps to better disseminate existing information that could help state and local entities involved in providing CACFP meals meet the varying nutritional needs of older adult participants, as well as continue to identify additional promising practices or other information on meal accommodations to share with CACFP entities. (Recommendation 5)
Open
In May 2020, the Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service told us that it will take several actions over the next 12 months to address our recommendation. Food and Nutrition Service actions will include holding listening sessions specifically focused on the adult day care side of the program at two national CACFP conferences this year to understand the specific information providers are looking for the address the needs of older adults and identify promising strategies for accommodating those needs; review existing guidance for training opportunities and areas that could benefit from further clarifications; and updating the Adult Day Care Handbook to include promising practice examples to address specific information and concerns gathered from the listening sessions, GAO's report findings, and further clarifications from existing guidance. Food and Nutrition Service also told us it will use multiple channels to ensure the handbook is widely disseminated to state agencies and adult day care program operators. We will review the status of this recommendation upon receipt of additional updates from Food and Nutrition Service regarding the aforementioned actions to be taken over the next 12 months.

Full Report

GAO Contacts