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Employment and Training Programs: Department of Labor Should Assess Efforts to Coordinate Services Across Programs

GAO-19-200 Published: Mar 28, 2019. Publicly Released: Mar 28, 2019.
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Fast Facts

Federal agencies administer employment and training programs to help job seekers find and get work. While we identified 47 such programs in 2011, there are 43 now. Spending for these programs has decreased as well.

Multiple programs provide similar services, often to similar groups of people. While agencies have tried to manage this overlap by trying to coordinate their programs, they generally don't know whether their efforts are working.

We recommended that the Department of Labor develop a strategic plan for evaluating these programs that includes assessing what federal agencies are doing to coordinate them.

Resource Center for Participants in a SNAP Employment and Training Program

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People using computers at a resource center.

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What GAO Found

The number of federal employment and training (E&T) programs and program obligations have declined since GAO's 2011 report. In that review, GAO identified 47 E&T programs and found that 44 had overlap with at least one other program in that they provided similar services to a similar population. In fiscal year 2017, the most recent year data are available, GAO identified 43 E&T programs, or 4 fewer than in 2011 (see figure). From fiscal year 2009 to 2017, federal agencies' annual obligations for E&T programs decreased from about $20 billion to $14 billion. GAO analysis of survey data found the decrease in obligations was largely due to the expiration of funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which had provided additional funding for selected E&T programs during and after the Great Recession.

Employment and Training Programs by Agency, Fiscal Year 2017

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Survey results from federal administrators of the 43 E&T programs show that the programs continue to span nine agencies and generally overlap by providing similar services, such as employment counseling and assessment services (39 of 43) and job readiness training (38 of 43). Further, programs targeting a specific population, such as Native Americans, veterans, or youth, also provided similar services. In some cases, such overlap may be appropriate or beneficial, but it may also suggest opportunities for greater efficiency.

Almost all (38 of 43) E&T programs reported at least one action to manage fragmentation or overlap, such as co-locating services and sharing information. However, the agencies were not able to consistently provide information on the results of these actions and few evaluations encompassed multiple programs. Among studies GAO identified, six examined more than one E&T program, but only one assessed how any coordinated activities benefited the population served. None of the six studies focused on Native Americans, youth, or refugees. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) encourages agencies to conduct evaluations, and specifically requires the Department of Labor (DOL) to publish a 5-year plan describing certain E&T priorities, consistent with the purpose of aligning and coordinating certain programs. While DOL reported it took some steps, it continues to lack a strategic plan for E&T evaluations over a multi-year period. As a result, DOL does not know whether actions to manage overlap are successful.

Why GAO Did This Study

Federally funded employment and training (E&T) programs help job seekers enhance their job skills, identify job opportunities, and obtain employment. In 2011, GAO identified overlap and fragmentation among E&T programs administered by nine federal agencies. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) was enacted in 2014, in part, to improve coordination and integration among these programs.

This report examines (1) how the number of and obligations for federal E&T programs have changed since GAO's 2011 review, (2) the extent to which E&T programs continue to provide similar services to similar populations and examples of potential effects, and (3) the extent to which agencies have taken actions to address previously identified fragmentation and overlap among E&T programs and what agencies have learned about the results. To address these objectives, GAO surveyed E&T program administrators, reviewed relevant reports and studies, and interviewed federal agency officials.


GAO recommends that DOL, in consultation with other federal agencies, develop and publish a multi-year strategic plan for its evaluations of employment and training that includes assessing the completeness and results of efforts to coordinate among E&T programs. DOL agreed with our recommendation.

Recommendations for Executive Action

Agency Affected Recommendation Status
Department of Labor The Secretary of DOL should develop and publish a multi-year strategic research plan for evaluation of its employment and training programs that includes assessing the completeness and results of efforts to coordinate among E&T programs to address overlap and fragmentation. In developing this plan, DOL should also consult with other federal agencies and key stakeholders on ways to address gaps in information on how multiple programs are serving the employment and training needs of specific populations, such as Native Americans, youth, and refugees. (Recommendation 1)
Closed – Implemented
DOL agreed with this recommendation. As of October 2023, DOL has taken several steps to address this recommendation. Since our recommendation in 2019, DOL released its multi-year and annual evaluation plans that reference evaluating efforts to coordinate among employment and training programs to address fragmentation and overlap. This includes the DOL's Evidence-Building Plan for Fiscal Years 2022-2026 and the DOL Evaluation Plan for FY 2023-2024. Specifically, the DOL's Evidence-Building Plan for Fiscal Years 2022-2026 describes a five-year study that will examine the role of case management (navigators) and other approaches to help participants in a range of DOL programs gain access to and benefit from appropriate services. In May 2021, DOL held a virtual discussion with the Department of Health and Human Service (HHS) to identify areas of shared research interest around integrated service delivery such as data sharing and coordinating across multiple programs administered by different federal agencies. DOL coordinated with HHS to develop a portfolio around issues that examine coordination among the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and other partners on topics such as assessing models of coordinated services and employment strategies for low-income children and their families and understanding the value of centralized services. Further, DOL officials report that staff from DOL, HHS, and the Department of Education participate in a Joint WIOA Training and Technical Assistance Workgroup that meets monthly to discuss ways to better coordinate training and technical assistance activities among these core WIOA partners. In April 2023, HHS and DOL published updated briefs on strategies that could be used across TANF and Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) programs to serve low-income or vulnerable populations.

Full Report

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Budget obligationsEmployment and training programsEmployment and training servicesFederal agenciesFederal employmentGrant programsJob trainingAgency evaluationsVocational rehabilitationLabor force