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Highlights

What GAO Found

Among the 27 agencies that GAO studied, all have fully or partially defined goals or purposes for their architectures, 11 have fully or partially established a method or metrics for measuring outcomes resulting from the use of their architectures, while 5 have fully or partially measured and reported outcomes and benefits.

Agencies cited a lack of guidance as a key reason why they have not established methods and metrics for measuring outcomes and benefits. Although the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued recent enterprise architecture guidance to agencies, OMB has not yet provided sufficient details on the method and metrics that could be used to measure architecture program outcomes.

Why GAO Did This Study

According to OMB, the federal executive branch plans to spend at least $75 billion on information technology (IT) investments in fiscal year 2012. In response to a statute which mandates that GAO identify duplicative activities within federal agencies, GAO previously identified enterprise architecture as a mechanism for reducing duplication and overlap in investments. An architecture is a "blueprint" that describes how an organization operates in terms of business processes and technology, how it intends to operate in the future, and how it plans to transition to the future state. Knowing whether architecture outcomes are being achieved requires defining the architecture's goals, establishing a method and metrics to measure architecture outcomes, and periodically measuring and reporting these outcomes. To assess agencies' use of architecture as a mechanism for reducing duplication and overlap, GAO committed to determine the extent to which agencies are measuring and reporting architecture outcomes and benefits. To do this, GAO reviewed relevant documentation from 27 major federal agencies, reviewed the results of a GAO survey on the benefits of using architecture, and interviewed agency officials.

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Recommendations

GAO is making recommendations to the agencies and OMB to improve measurement and reporting of architecture outcomes. In commenting on a draft of this report, OMB and most of the agencies generally agreed with the findings and recommendations.

Recommendations for Executive Action

Agency Affected Recommendation Status
Department of Homeland Security 1. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Homeland Security has implemented this recommendation. Specifically, in March 2014 and May 2015, the Department submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included outcome metrics to measure cost savings/avoidance gained from system consolidation and consolidating and sharing services through use of its architecture. In addition, in August 2016, it documented a method for measuring the cost savings.
Department of Agriculture 2. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
In August 2020, the Department of Agriculture demonstrated that it had substantially addressed the recommendation. The department implemented an enterprise architecture value survey process, and conducted the first survey in February 2020. The department stated that the survey is to take place biannually and is the department's documented method of collecting and measuring consistent and actionable data to determine how enterprise architecture contributes meaningful value across the department. The survey requests information such as the number of legacy systems that were identified and subsequently decommissioned and the number of applications that have been eliminated as a result of application rationalization through use of enterprise architecture. The department stated that it will release the second survey in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, and the differences in the responses between the first and second surveys will be presented to the CIO Council to show the impact of enterprise architecture.
Department of Education 3. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Education has implemented this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had established a metric to measure the extent to which the ratio of spending on development, modernization, and enhancement increased relative to steady-state spending, through use of its enterprise architecture activities; however, we also reported that it had yet to establish a method to measure this metric. Since then, in its May 2014 Enterprise Modernization Roadmap, the Department documented the method used for measuring this metric.
Department of Commerce 4. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
The Department of Commerce has not implemented this recommendation. Since we reported in 2012 that the department had established metrics for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes but not a method for measuring the metrics, the department issued an Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement Plan in April 2018. This plan included outcome metrics; however, the department had not documented a method for measuring the metrics. In January 2020, the department's Office of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) stated that the department recently appointed a new CIO (acting) and was in the process of revisiting strategic planning initiatives and implementation to ensure they are congruent with the IT strategic vision and objectives. The Office of the CIO also said it was hiring a new Chief Enterprise Architect, which would impact previous initiatives and strategies. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to implement the recommendation.
Department of Defense 5. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
In January 2021, the Department of Defense stated that it expects to implement the recommendation by December 2021, and described steps it plans to take. We will monitor the department's efforts.
Department of the Air Force 6. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Not Implemented
In April 2019, the Department of the Air Force's Associate Deputy Chief Information Officer (CIO) stated that the recommendation should be closed based on a March 2016 memo from the Office of the Department of Defense (DOD) CIO to the DOD Inspector General. According to the March 2016 memo, DOD no longer planned to publish a DOD Instruction, which had been planned, along with an enterprise architecture management plan, to include an approach to measuring enterprise architecture value. The memo said that the DOD CIO no longer viewed the need to publish an instruction related to DOD enterprise architecture because of changes to existing DOD structures and processes that addressed what would have been the intent of an instruction on enterprise architecture. The memo went on to describe structures and processes for developing, managing, and applying DOD's architecture that it said fulfilled what would have been the intent of a DOD Instruction on enterprise architecture, including governance, requirements, acquisition, portfolio management, and budgeting. However, the memo did not discuss measuring architecture outcomes. The Department of the Air Force confirmed that it plans no further action to address this recommendation.
Department of the Navy 7. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
In September 2020, the Department of the Navy described steps it was taking to develop a baseline enterprise architecture, and stated that it expects to implement the recommendation by December 2021.
Department of the Army 8. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
As of August 2020, the Department of the Army had taken steps to address this recommendation, but more remains to be done. Specifically, in December 2013, the department developed its Army Business Management Strategy, which included metrics to measure the number of business systems retired over five years and cost savings and avoidance through use of the Army's business enterprise architecture. However, the department had not demonstrated that it had documented the steps to measure the metrics. In August 2020, the department stated that it was working towards achieving Enterprise Architecture Management Maturity Framework Level 3 certification. In addition, the department described its goals, which include establishing an enterprise architecture performance and accountability framework. However, the department did not say when it planned to complete the framework. We will continue to monitor the Army's efforts to establish an approach for measuring architecture outcomes in accordance with our recommendation.
Department of Energy 9. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
As of February 2021, the Department of Energy had taken steps to implement the recommendation, but had not fully implemented it. Specifically, in March 2020, the department developed a draft plan to measure business architecture performance. We will monitor the department's efforts to finalize and implement its plan.
Social Security Administration 10. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The Social Security Administration has implemented this recommendation. In November 2012, the agency established an approach, including a documented method and metric to measure information technology procurement cost savings attributed to enterprise architecture. Specifically, the agency documented its approach for measuring fiscal year 2012 architecture outcomes, which it used to measure fiscal year 2013 outcomes.
Department of the Interior 11. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of the Interior has addressed our recommendation. In February 2014, the Department submitted to the Office of Management and Budget its Enterprise Roadmap, which established architecture outcome metrics. For example, the roadmap included a metric associated with measuring the cost savings or avoidance achieved through the use of architecture planning and analysis. The department also provided its methodology for measuring this outcome.
Department of Justice 12. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Justice has implemented this recommendation. Specifically, in March 2019, the department demonstrated that it had established an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including cost savings associated with data center consolidation.
Department of Transportation 13. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Transportation has implemented our recommendation to establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes. The department's April 2013 Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement Plan described enterprise architecture metrics that it planned to adopt, such as how the architecture program contributes to cost savings or avoidance. The department approved the metrics in September 2014. In November 2015, the department subsequently identified its method of measuring how the enterprise architecture program has contributed to cost savings or avoidance from consolidating or sharing services.
Department of Labor 14. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
The Department of Labor has not addressed the recommendation. In August 2020, the department stated that it was continuing to evaluate processes for reviewing and assessing enterprise architecture value.
Department of the Treasury 15. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
We reported in September 2012 that the Department of the Treasury had established enterprise architecture metrics, but that it had not established a method for measuring its architecture outcomes. In March 2014, the department submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included new metrics associated with the department's enterprise architecture (e.g., cost savings/avoidance related to data center consolidation). The department also reported that it had achieved a decrease in infrastructure spending as a percentage of its IT budget from 45.9 percent in fiscal year 2010 to 37.6 percent in fiscal year 2013, as a result of data center consolidation. In September 2015, the department demonstrated that it had established a method for measuring the outcomes.
Department of Veterans Affairs 16. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Veterans Affairs has addressed the intent of this recommendation. In July 2015, it developed an Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement Methodology and Implementation Plan. The plan includes a process for identifying, approving, monitoring, and evaluating architecture measures, and is based on a four-level performance measurement framework that takes into consideration the maturity of the enterprise architecture. For example, level 1 is focused on architecture completeness measures, while level 4 is focused on measuring the contribution of enterprise architecture to outcomes related to the department's strategic goals and objectives. As of July 2016, the department had yet to reach the fourth level of its performance measurement framework; however, department officials reported that as the enterprise architecture matures, it plans to measure architecture contributions to outcomes related to strategic goals and objectives.
Department of State 17. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
As of January 2021, the Department of State had taken steps to address the recommendation, but had not sufficiently addressed it. In February 2020, the department developed an enterprise architecture plan, which stated that the the department planned to achieve cost savings through elimination of duplicative systems and applications. Then, in July 2020, the department's Bureau of Information Resource Management reported that through use of enterprise architecture, it had identified potential duplication. In December 2020, the department also developed an enterprise architecture measurement methodology, which included metrics to measure progress in completing activities, such as measuring the number of architecture alignment assessments completed per quarter and completing an annual stakeholder satisfaction survey and analysis. However, the methodology did not include metrics to measure outcomes (i.e., the results of such products and services).
Environmental Protection Agency 18. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
The Environmental Protection Agency has not implemented this recommendation. In October 2020, the agency stated that it has been rebuilding its enterprise architecture program and described activities that were underway. The agency also stated that the program was examining industry best practices on architecture metrics to determine which would be best for its enterprise architecture program and planned to identify at least one metric in fiscal year 2021. We will continue to monitor the agency's efforts to implement the recommendation.
General Services Administration 19. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The General Services Administration has implemented this recommendation. Specifically, its February 2014 Enterprise Roadmap included a metric to measure cost savings and avoidance related to application rationalization. The agency also documented its method for measuring this metric.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration 20. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has not yet implemented this recommendation. In July 2019, NASA's Associate Chief Information Officer for Enterprise Service and Integration said the agency was in the process of developing an enterprise architecture policy directive and procedural requirements. He anticipated that they would be completed in October 2020.
National Science Foundation 21. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The National Science Foundation demonstrated that it established metrics to measure outcomes it attributed to its enterprise architecture. According to its 2013 Enterprise Modernization Roadmap, the agency planned to achieve cost avoidance through data center consolidation and by moving its email system to the cloud. The agency also demonstrated that it had established a method to measure the cost avoidance.
Small Business Administration 22. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
As of June 2020, the Small Business Administration had not implemented this recommendation. In August 2019, SBA developed an enterprise architecture program performance guide and value measurement plan. According to the plan, the agency plans to measure cost savings/avoidance and reduction of duplication. However, the agency has not demonstrated that it has documented the steps to be followed to measure the outcomes. Specifically, it did not demonstrate that it had established a method to measure the cost savings/avoidance or the number of duplicate investments reduced.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 23. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Closed - Implemented
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) implemented our recommendation. NRC issued an Information Technology/Information Management Enterprise Roadmap in May 2015, which included metrics to measure enterprise architecture benefits. Specifically, the roadmap included a metric to measure the level at which investments are meeting or are expected to meet intended benefits as a result of using enterprise architecture. The agency also demonstrated that it has established a documented methodology to measure this metric.
Office of Personnel Management 24. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should fully establish an approach for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes, including a documented method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics that are measurable, meaningful, repeatable, consistent, actionable, and aligned with the agency's enterprise architecture's strategic goals and intended purpose.
Open
In February 2020, a Senior Analyst in the Office of Personnel Management's (OPM) Office of Internal Oversight and Compliance stated that, as of January 2020, OPM's Office of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) had established an approach for developing an enterprise architecture. The liaison also stated that, since May 2019, the office of the CIO had established bi-weekly checkpoints with leadership and stakeholders to monitor and report progress and to document established metrics. However, the agency has not demonstrated that it has established a documented method and metrics for measuring enterprise architecture outcomes.
Department of Homeland Security 25. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Homeland Security has implemented this recommendation. The department has periodically measured and reported to the Office of Management and Budget outcomes attributed to its enterprise architecture, including cost savings gained from consolidating and sharing services.
Department of Agriculture 26. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
In August 2020, the Department of Agriculture demonstrated that it had established an approach to measuring enterprise architecture outcomes; however, it had not yet measured and reported them. The department conducted a survey in February 2020 that collected information such as the number of legacy systems that were identified and subsequently decommissioned, and the number of applications that have been eliminated as a result of application rationalization through use of enterprise architecture. The department stated that it will release the second survey in the first quarter of fiscal year 2021, and the differences in the responses between the first and second surveys will be presented to the CIO Council to show the impact of enterprise architecture. The department did not state when it plans to report the results. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to implement the recommendation.
Department of Education 27. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Education has implemented this recommendation. We reported in September 2012 that the department had reported an architecture outcome in its October 2011 Office of the Chief Information Officer Organization Performance report. Specifically, the department had reported that the ratio of development, modernization and enhancement (DME)spending to steady state spending had increased from 10 percent of total information technology (IT) spending in fiscal year 2011 to 13 percent of total IT spending in fiscal year 2012 as a result of its architecture activities. However, we also reported that the department had yet to periodically (i.e., repeatedly) measure and report the metric. Since then, the department reported to top agency officials at an August 2013 Investment Review Board meeting and in its May 2013 draft Enterprise Roadmap submission to the Office of Management and Budget that the department had achieved its DME spending target of 17 percent.
Department of Commerce 28. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
The Department of Commerce has not implemented this recommendation. In April 2018, the department issued an Enterprise Architecture Value Measurement Plan; however, the department has not demonstrated that it has measured and reported enterprise architecture outcomes. In January 2020, the department's Office of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) stated that the department recently appointed a new CIO (acting) and was in the process of revisiting all strategic planning initiatives and implementation to ensure they are congruent with the IT strategic vision and objectives. The Office of the CIO also said it was hiring a new Chief Enterprise Architect, which would impact previous initiatives and strategies. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to implement the recommendation.
Department of Defense 29. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
In January 2021, the Department of Defense stated that it expects to implement the recommendation by December 2021, and described steps it plans to take. We will monitor the department's efforts.
Department of the Air Force 30. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of the Air Force implemented a key element of this recommendation. Although the Air Force's method to ensure consistency was not fully documented, it did start reporting outcomes. Specifically, the department began periodically reporting architecture-related outcomes, including the numbers of defense business systems decommissioned, to top agency officials.
Department of the Navy 31. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
In September 2020, the Department of the Navy described steps it was taking to develop a baseline enterprise architecture. The department also stated that it had established an enterprise architecture working group that meets weekly to assess the outcomes of enterprise architecture efforts and report to the department's Chief Technology Officer. The department further stated that when outcomes are not meeting desired outcomes, the working group makes recommendations that are forwarded to the department's Chief Information Officer for approval and resourcing. However, the department did not provide supporting documentation. The department stated that it expects to implement the recommendation by December 2021.
Department of the Army 32. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of the Army implemented a key element of this recommendation. Although the department had not fully documented a method to consistently measure outcomes, it did start reporting critically important information. Specifically, regarding the Generating Force segment (now known as the Business Mission Area), in December 2013, the Under Secretary of the Army issued an Army Business Management Strategy, which reported that 59 systems were retired in 2013 through use of enterprise architecture. In its May 2014 briefing to the Defense Business Council, the Army reported the number of business systems that were retired using enterprise architecture during 2014, and the cost savings associated with the retirements, demonstrating that the Business Mission Area had periodically reported architecture benefits to top agency officials.
Department of Energy 33. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
As of February 2021, the Department of Energy had not implemented the recommendation. In March 2020, the department developed a draft plan to measure business enterprise architecture performance. However, the department had not demonstrated that it had measured and reported architecture outcomes. We will monitor the department's efforts to finalize and implement the plan.
Social Security Administration 34. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Social Security Administration has implemented this recommendation. In November 2012, the agency issued a report on fiscal year 2012 architecture outcomes and benefits, and again in November 2013 on fiscal year 2013 architecture outcomes and benefits, to its Chief Information Officer. The outcomes were associated with consolidating hardware requirements and bundling purchases. In the agency's March 2014 Enterprise Roadmap submitted to the Office of Management and Budget, the agency's Chief Information Officer reported cost savings associated with its architecture efforts.
Department of the Interior 35. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of the Interior has addressed this recommendation. Specifically, the department's Chief Financial Officer submitted the department's February 2014 Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which reported $8.7 million in fiscal year 2013 cost savings as a result of enterprise architecture efforts. In addition, the department measured and reported on four key metrics, including the number of legacy investments identified for retirement resulting from architecture planning and analysis. Specifically, the department measured and reported these metrics in December 2014 and May 2015, relative to baseline and targets, and reported them in its May 2015 Enterprise Roadmap, submitted to OMB. The Director of IT Planning and Portfolio Management stated that the department's Chief Information Officer has authority to commit resources and make changes to the architecture program, and reviewed the measurements before they were delivered to OMB.
Department of Justice 36. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Justice has met the intent of this recommendation. Specifically, in March 2019, the department demonstrated that it had measured and reported data center cost savings and avoidance through use of its enterprise architecture to OMB.
Department of Transportation 37. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Transportation has met the intent of our recommendation based on recent and planned future actions. In November 2015, the department measured how the architecture program has contributed to cost savings. Specifically, the Department's Chief Information Officer and Chief Technology Officer approved a November 2015 Enterprise Architecture Metrics Report that reported architecture-related cost savings by measuring the cost of operating or maintaining applications, systems, or infrastructure components that were removed from service. The report also stated that the metric will be used as a baseline for measurement in future years.
Department of Labor 38. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
The Department of Labor has not addressed the recommendation. In August 2020, the department stated that it was evaluating processes for reviewing and assessing enterprise architecture value.
Department of the Treasury 39. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
In March 2014, the Department of the Treasury submitted its Enterprise Roadmap to the Office of Management and Budget, which included metrics associated with the department's enterprise architecture (e.g., cost savings/avoidance related to data center consolidation). The department also reported that it had achieved a decrease in infrastructure spending as a percentage of its IT budget from 45.9 percent in fiscal year 2010 to 37.6 percent in fiscal year 2013, as a result of data center consolidation. In September 2015, the department demonstrated that it had established an approach for periodically measuring this metric.
Department of Veterans Affairs 40. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
In January 2020, the Department of Veterans Affairs stated that it plans to measure enterprise architecture performance by the end of March 2020. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address the recommendation.
Department of State 41. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
In January 2021, the Department of State demonstrated that it had made substantial progress in implementing the recommendation. Specifically, in July 2020, the department's Bureau of Information Resource Management reported to senior executives that it had identified 275 cases of potential duplication through use of its enterprise architecture.
Environmental Protection Agency 42. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
The Environmental Protection Agency has not implemented this recommendation. In October 2020, the agency stated that it has been rebuilding its enterprise architecture program and described activities that were underway. The agency also stated that the program was examining industry best practices on architecture metrics to determine which would be best for its enterprise architecture program, and planned to identify at least one metric in fiscal year 2021. We will continue to monitor the agency's efforts to implement the recommendation.
General Services Administration 43. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The General Services Administration (GSA) has implemented key aspects of this recommendation. Specifically, the agency reported cost avoidance through the use of architecture analysis to identify and eliminate applications. In addition, GSA periodically reported these results to GSA review boards. For example, it reported these results in July 2014 and in February 2015. GSA also reported fiscal year 2015 cost savings/avoidance related to eliminating applications to the Office of Management and Budget.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration 44. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has not implemented this recommendation. In July 2019, NASA's Associate Chief Information Officer for Enterprise Service and Integration said the agency was in the process of developing an enterprise architecture policy directive and procedural requirements. He anticipated that they would be completed in October 2020.
National Science Foundation 45. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The National Science Foundation measured outcomes it attributed to its enterprise architecture, and reported them to the Office of Management and Budget in November 2016. For example, it measured cost avoidance in fiscal years 2012 through 2015 associated with data center consolidation and moving its email system to the cloud.
Small Business Administration 46. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
As of June 2020, the Small Business Administration (SBA) had not implemented this recommendation. SBA's Office of the CIO stated that it achieved IT cost savings and avoidance as a result of IT infrastructure service and support reduction and data center optimization in fiscal years 2014 through the third quarter of fiscal year 2019. In a March 2020 memo to GAO, the Chief Information Officer explained that the agency's enterprise architecture team reviewed IT acquisition requests, which led to reducing duplicative IT investments and resulted in the cost savings and avoidance. However, the agency did not demonstrate that it had reliably measured the cost savings and avoidance. Specifically, it did not provide documentation demonstrating how it calculated most of the savings it reported.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 47. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Closed - Implemented
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken steps to address the intent of our recommendation. Specifically, in May 2015, it issued an Information Technology/Information Management Enterprise Roadmap which identified NRC enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits. The roadmap reported this information to NRC top agency officials and the Office of Management and Budget.
Office of Personnel Management 48. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Agriculture, the Air Force, the Army, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Homeland Security, the Interior, Labor, the Navy, State, Transportation, the Treasury, and Veterans Affairs; the Attorney General; the Administrators of the Environmental Protection Agency, General Services Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and Small Business Administration; the Commissioners of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Social Security Administration; and the Directors of the National Science Foundation and the Office of Personnel Management should periodically measure and report enterprise architecture outcomes and benefits to top agency officials (i.e., executives with authority to commit resources or make changes to the program) and to OMB.
Open
In February 2020, a Senior Analyst in the Office of Personnel Management's (OPM) Office of Internal Oversight and Compliance stated that, as of January 2020, OPM's Office of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) had established an approach for developing an enterprise architecture. The liaison also stated that, since May 2019, the office of the CIO had established bi-weekly checkpoints with leadership and stakeholders to monitor and report progress and to document established metrics. However, the agency has not provided documentation demonstrating that it has measured and reported enterprise architecture outcomes.
Department of Housing and Urban Development 49. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Health and Human Services and Housing and Urban Development should ensure that enterprise architecture outcomes are periodically measured and reported to top agency officials.
Closed - Implemented
The Department of Housing and Urban Development has fully implemented our recommendation. Specifically, since it reported outcomes for 2011, the department has measured architecture outcomes and reported them again to an agency executive committee, as well as to the Office of Management and Budget. For example, it reported progress in reducing the number of technology products that duplicate existing capabilities through use of its architecture. According to agency officials, the department's Chief Information Officer reviewed and approved the report in April 2013 and an executive committee reviewed the architecture outcomes before they were submitted to the Office of Management and Budget in May 2013.
Department of Health and Human Services 50. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, the Secretaries of the Departments of Health and Human Services and Housing and Urban Development should ensure that enterprise architecture outcomes are periodically measured and reported to top agency officials.
Open
As of January 2020, the Department of Health and Human Services had not implemented this recommendation. Specifically, it had not demonstrated that it had measured architecture metrics that it had established in its April 2014 Enterprise Roadmap. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to implement the recommendation.
Office of Management and Budget 51. To enhance federal agencies' ability to realize enterprise architecture benefits, and to assist agencies in measuring and reporting outcomes achieved through enterprise architecture, the Director of OMB should ensure that the planned December 2012 guidance for enterprise architecture value measurement and reporting includes (1) sufficient details on the method and metrics that agencies could use to measure their architecture program's value and (2) a requirement for agencies to include in their April 2013 enterprise roadmap submissions a measurement method (i.e., steps to be followed) and metrics, and report on the outcomes and benefits achieved through enterprise architecture.
Open
As of December 2019, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) had not fully addressed our recommendation. In March 2013, the office required agencies to submit annually an Enterprise Roadmap, which was to include an appendix on enterprise architecture outcomes. To prepare the appendix, the office provided agencies with a template to document architecture metrics and measurement methods. The template included examples of outcome metrics and a field where agencies were to document measurement methods. However, OMB did not provide details on the methods that agencies could use to measure architecture outcomes or require that agencies include the steps to be followed for measuring outcomes. In March 2019, OMB said that it was working with agencies to determine approaches for measuring and reporting outcomes achieved through enterprise architecture. However, as of December 2019, OMB had not demonstrated that it had fully addressed the recommendation. We will continue to follow up with OMB on its efforts to implement the recommendation.

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