Direct-To-Consumer Genetic Tests: Misleading Test Results Are Further Complicated by Deceptive Marketing and Other Questionable Practices
In 2006, GAO investigated companies selling direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests and testified that these companies made medically unproven disease predictions. Although new companies have since been touted as being more reputable--Time named one company's test 2008's "invention of the year"--experts remain concerned that the test results mislead consumers. GAO was asked to investigate DTC genetic tests currently on the market and the advertising methods used to sell these tests. GAO purchased 10 tests each from four companies, for $299 to $999 per test. GAO then selected five donors and sent two DNA samples from each donor to each company: one using factual information about the donor and one using fictitious information, such as incorrect age and race or ethnicity. After comparing risk predictions that the donors received for 15 diseases, GAO made undercover calls to the companies seeking health advice. GAO did not conduct a scientific study but instead documented observations that could be made by any consumer. To assess whether the tests provided any medically useful information, GAO consulted with genetics experts. GAO also interviewed representatives from each company. To investigate advertising methods, GAO made undercover contact with 15 DTC companies, including the 4 tested, and asked about supplement sales, test reliability, and privacy policies. GAO again consulted with experts about the veracity of the claims.