Each year, hundreds of millions of people are sickened with malaria and more than 1 million people die. Over 80 percent of all malaria deaths occur in Africa, most of them in children under the age of 5. This burden continues despite the existence of relatively simple, safe, effective, and inexpensive methods to prevent and treat malaria. The U.S. government supports the efforts of malaria-endemic countries to control malaria, both directly through agencies such as the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and indirectly through its contributions to multinational organizations such as the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) and its participation in the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Partnership. However, concerns have been raised that current global malaria control efforts may not be as effective as they could be. In light of these concerns, Congress asked us to examine U.S. involvement in global efforts to combat malaria. In this report, we (1) describe investments that have been made by the U.S. government to support the implementation of national malaria control programs in malaria-endemic countries, both directly and in partnership with other organizations; and (2) describe key challenges to the implementation of national malaria control programs and strategies for addressing those challenges.
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