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Highlights

Each year the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) receives thousands of Clean Water Act permit applications from project proponents wishing to fill waters and wetlands. The first step in the permitting process is to determine if the waters and wetlands are jurisdictional. Prior to 2001, if migratory birds used the waters or wetlands as habitat, they were usually jurisdictional. In 2001, the Supreme Court--in Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (SWANCC)--struck down the migratory bird rule, leaving the Corps to rely on other jurisdictional criteria. GAO was asked to describe the (1) regulations and guidance used to determine jurisdictional waters and wetlands and related developments since SWANCC, (2) extent to which Corps district offices vary in their interpretation of these regulations and guidance, and (3) extent to which Corps district offices document their practices and make this information publicly available.

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Recommendations

Recommendations for Executive Action

Agency Affected Recommendation Status
Department of the Army In light of the uncertainty of the impact of differences in district offices' interpretation and application of the regulations, the Secretary of the Army in consultation with the Administrator of EPA should survey the district offices to determine how they are interpreting and applying the regulations and whether significant differences exist among the Corps' 38 districts.
Closed - Implemented
The Corps has conducted two surveys of its district offices to determine whether the districts are interpreting and applying federal regulations differently when making jurisdictional determinations. In May 2004, the Corps conducted a preliminary survey to identify the practices being used by its districts to make jurisdictional determinations. In March and April 2005, the Corps conducted a more comprehensive survey of the districts' practices. This on-line survey, developed using the responses received from preliminary survey, consisted of more than 250 questions.
Department of the Army In light of the uncertainty of the impact of differences in district offices' interpretation and application of the regulations, the Secretary of the Army in consultation with the Administrator of EPA should evaluate whether and how the differences in the interpretation and application of the regulations among the Corps district offices need to be resolved, recognizing that some level of flexibility may be needed because of differing climatic, hydrologic, and other relevant circumstances among the districts.
Closed - Implemented
The Corps has taken a series of actions to address our recommendation. First, on June 5, 2007, the Corps issued a regulatory guidance letter that describes the processes that districts are to use to make, document, and approve jurisdictional determinations and make that information available to the public. In addition, the Corps developed a guidebook that contains instructions to aid field staff in completing standardized forms documenting their jurisdictional determination decisions. According to Corps staff, this instructional guide will address many of the differences in district office practices identified by GAO and the survey. Finally, on June 26, 2008, the Corps issued a regulatory guidance letter clarifying and providing guidance on when an approved jurisdictional determination is required and the process for coordinating with EPA.
Department of the Army In light of the uncertainty of the impact of differences in district offices' interpretation and application of the regulations, the Secretary of the Army in consultation with the Administrator of EPA should require districts to prepare and make publicly available documentation specifying the interpretation and application of the regulations they use to determine whether a water or wetland is jurisdictional.
Closed - Implemented
The Corps' regulatory program has made guidance developed to aid the field offices in determining and documenting the Corps' jurisdiction over "waters of the United States available on its website. This guidance, developed as a consequence of the Supreme Court's SWANCC and Rapanos and Carabell decisions, include the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Jurisdictional Determination (JD) Form Instructional Guidebook, joint EPA and Corps memoranda clarifying those waters over which the Corps will assert jurisdiction and detailing coordination procedures for jurisdictional decisions forwarded to headquarters for review and approval. In addition, the site provides links to guidance outlining requirements for making, documenting, and approving jurisdictional determinations as well as division and district memos implementing the Rapanos and Carabell decision.

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