Nonpoint Source Water Pollution:

Greater Oversight and Additional Data Needed for Key EPA Water Program

GAO-12-335: Published: May 31, 2012. Publicly Released: Jul 2, 2012.

Additional Materials:


David C. Trimble
(202) 512-3841


Office of Public Affairs
(202) 512-4800

What GAO Found

Under section 319 of the Clean Water Act, state-selected projects to reduce nonpoint source pollution have helped restore more than 350 impaired water bodies since 2000, but other projects have encountered significant challenges. According to GAO survey results, 28 percent of projects did not achieve all objectives originally identified in the project proposal (e.g., implementing the desired number of pollution reduction practices), while many that did so still faced considerable challenges. About half such challenges were beyond staff control (e.g., bad weather or staff turnover), but the other half were challenges that generally could have been identified and mitigated before projects were proposed and selected for funding, such as gaining access to desired properties. In one state, for example, $285,000 in section 319 funds was to subsidize the cost to homeowners of repairing damaged septic systems. Once the grant was awarded, however, one homeowner signed up to participate.

The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) oversight and measures of effectiveness of states’ programs have not consistently ensured the selection of projects likely to yield measurable water quality outcomes. EPA’s 10 regional offices varied widely in their review of states’ work plans, which describe projects states plan to undertake in the upcoming year, and project selection criteria, which identify eligibility parameters for receiving section 319 funds. For example, three regional offices reported reviewing annual work plans in depth and actively influencing the types of projects selected, while three others reported limited to no involvement in such reviews, instead deferring to states’ judgment on project feasibility and selection. EPA, however, has not provided its 10 regions with guidance on how to oversee the state programs. Also, EPA’s primary measures of program effectiveness may not fully demonstrate program achievements. Section 319 requires states to report to EPA on two measures, including reductions in key pollutants. It does not limit EPA to these two measures, but the agency has chosen to use them as barometers of success for the section 319 program. States can demonstrate their achievements in additional ways—ways that may provide a more accurate picture of the overall health of targeted water bodies, such as the number and kind of living organisms in the water.

USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program is the key agricultural conservation program that can complement EPA efforts to reduce nonpoint source pollution, and its conservation practices have significantly reduced pollutants coming from agricultural land across the country. Notwithstanding its achievements, certain conservation practices can adversely affect water quality if not properly implemented—for example, by transporting polluted runoff from nutrient-laden fields into nearby water bodies. The agency’s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has procedures in place intended to ensure that its practices do not inadvertently harm water quality. During its field work, GAO identified a few instances where these procedures may not have been followed (including in watersheds where EPA’s section 319 funds had been used), and therefore sought NRCS data to determine if they were isolated instances or indicative of a more prevalent issue. NRCS’ national level data, however, are not sufficiently detailed to identify whether appropriate measures are always in place to mitigate potential water quality impacts. According to NRCS, such data are instead located in its field offices and are not analyzed by the agency.

Why GAO Did This Study

Pollution from nonpoint sources—such as runoff from farms or construction sites—remains the leading cause of impairment to the nation’s waters. Under section 319 of the Clean Water Act, each year EPA provides grants to states to implement programs and fund projects that address nonpoint source pollution; the program received $165 million in fiscal year 2012. Section 319 includes minimum conditions that states must meet to receive grants. By regulation, EPA’s 10 regional offices oversee state programs and are to ensure that states’ projects can be feasibly implemented. USDA also has programs to protect water resources.

GAO examined (1) states’ experiences in funding projects that address nonpoint source pollution, (2) the extent to which EPA oversees the section 319 program and measures its effectiveness, and (3) the extent to which key agricultural programs complement EPA efforts to control such pollution. GAO surveyed project managers, reviewed information from EPA’s 10 regional offices on oversight of state programs, and analyzed USDA data.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends, among other things, that EPA provide section 319 oversight guidance to its regional offices and that USDA analyze data to determine if measures were taken to mitigate water quality impacts in section 319 project areas. EPA agreed with the recommendations, while USDA was silent on them. Both agencies commented on specific findings, which are addressed within the report.

For more information, contact David C. Trimble at (202) 512-3841 or

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Open

    Priority recommendation

    Comments: In April 2013, EPA issued new guidance "Nonpoint Source Program and Grants Guidelines for States and Territories" for the nonpoint source program. The guidance includes a checklist that aligns with the intent of our recommendation to provide additional guidance to regional offices. In July 2016, we issued an update of EPA's progress on our recommendations. In it, we conclude that EPA's 2013 guidance does not provide specific instruction to the regional offices on how to review states' plans for project feasibility and criteria to ensure that funded projects have characteristics reflecting the greatest likelihood of tangible water quality results, as we recommended. In January 2017, EPA said that it looked broadly at ways to improve the program and remain committed to making technical and program changes as needed. We will continue to monitor EPA's efforts on this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To help protect the quality of our nation's water resources, and to strengthen EPA's implementation of its responsibilities under the Clean Water Act's section 319 nonpoint source pollution control program, the Administrator of EPA should provide specific guidance to EPA's 10 regional offices on how they are to fulfill their oversight responsibilities, such as how to review states' plans for project feasibility and criteria to ensure that funded projects have characteristics that reflect the greatest likelihood of effective implementation and tangible water quality results.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  2. Status: Open

    Priority recommendation

    Comments: In 2013, EPA issued final "Nonpoint Source Program and Grants Guidelines for States and Territories." The guidelines require EPA regions to review some watershed-based plans in each state annually, for example. The new guidelines also require that half of a state's 319 allocation be spent on implementing watershed plans, which according to EPA, emphasizes overall health of targeted waterbodies. In July 2016, we issued an update on our recommendations saying that the EPA officials said that they plan to change the program's measures of effectiveness, but have not had time or resources to do so. EPA officials said they plan to create a workgroup to focus on creating a measure for the protection of healthy water bodies in 2017. In January 2017, EPA said that it remained committed to pursue a measure for maintaining high-quality waters. Until EPA takes concrete action on this measure, we will keep this recommendation open.

    Recommendation: To help protect the quality of our nation's water resources, and to strengthen EPA's implementation of its responsibilities under the Clean Water Act's section 319 nonpoint source pollution control program, the Administrator of EPA should, in revising section 319 guidelines to states, and in addition to existing statutorily required reporting measures, emphasize measures that (1) more accurately reflect the overall health of targeted water bodies (e.g., the number, kind, and condition of living organisms) and (2) demonstrate states' focus on protecting high-quality water bodies, where appropriate.

    Agency Affected: Environmental Protection Agency

  3. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In response to our recommendation, in August 2015, USDA issued a one-time analysis of NRCS contract data for conservation practices installed between 2009 and 2012 through the EQIP program. NRCS limited the analysis to five hydrologic regions and watersheds that also had EPA 319 projects installed to limit water quality effects. NRCS then analyzed the number and type of conservation practice installed with the three conservation practices noted in our 2012 report that may have a negative impact on water quality. NRCS concluded that in the instances where the three conservation practices were installed, they were almost always accompanied by at least one other conservation practice to mitigate the effect on water quality. This type of information is the type of site-specific data that is needed to determine whether potential water quality effects are being mitigated, but as we noted in our report, NRCS does not have this information readily available to assess on a regular basis whether the program's conservation practices are having an effect on water quality or not. The NRCS report shows what is needed in the way of analysis and assessment to ensure that conservation practices are being installed correctly and that water quality is protected. That NRCS conducted the analysis this one time is helpful and addresses our recommendation. However, we note that NRCS does not regularly conduct such assessments and does not regularly assess its contracts and conservation practices to ensure that they continue to protect water quality.

    Recommendation: To help protect the quality of our nation's water resources, and to provide assurance that efforts to conserve soil resources do not work at cross-purposes with efforts to protect water quality, the Secretary of Agriculture should direct the Chief of the Natural Resources Conservation Service to analyze available information, and obtain necessary information from field offices, to determine the extent to which appropriate mitigation measures are implemented when nutrient management plans are not in use, particularly in watersheds where states are spending section 319 funds.

    Agency Affected: Department of Agriculture


Explore the full database of GAO's Open Recommendations »

Apr 24, 2018

Mar 12, 2018

Feb 22, 2018

Jan 26, 2018

Jan 19, 2018

Jan 4, 2018

Dec 22, 2017

Dec 13, 2017

Nov 15, 2017

Nov 2, 2017

Looking for more? Browse all our products here