Bid Protests, Appropriations Law, & Other Legal Work

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  • GAO no longer adjudicates these claims. In the mid-1990s, Congress enacted two laws that transferred several functions from GAO to other government agencies. You can learn more about these functions at Functions Transferred to the Executive Branch.

  • Shortly after issuing a decision or opinion, it will be available here.

  • Certain agency officials may request decisions. Members and congressional committees may request appropriations opinions.

  • Agencies must submit requests by letter to the Comptroller General or GAO’s General Counsel, signed by an authorized official. Scanned copies of signed, dated letters are acceptable. For more information, see Procedures and Practices for Legal Decisions and Opinions. For further information on submitting requests for decisions or opinions, please contact Omari Norman (, Assistant General Counsel for Appropriations Law.

  • The Red Book and Annual Update are available electronically here.

  • GAO publishes an annual update of the Principles of Federal Appropriations Law each year, usually in March. It is meant to be read alongside the three volumes, complementing the text contained therein. The update’s contents alert the reader to the pages in the Red Book being supplemented. It is available on the Red Book page.

  • If you have questions about the Red Book, please send an e-mail to:

  • You can browse agency reports on violations of the Antideficiency Act here.

  • Yes. We offer a 2-1/2 day course on appropriations law. Read more about the Principles of Appropriations Law Course.