The United States and its international partners have implemented a broad range of sanctions targeting Iran to deter it from developing a nuclear program, supporting terrorism, and continuing human rights abuses.
Several U.S. agencies play key roles in implementing the following sanctions:
- The United States has banned almost all non-humanitarian U.S. trade and investment with Iran and has prohibited firms from knowingly transshipping U.S. goods to Iran through other nations. U.S. agencies have conducted investigations to uncover Iranian procurement networks and prosecute firms and individuals that violate the trade and transshipment bans. Nonetheless, Iran has obtained some U.S. military and dual-use goods that were illegally transshipped through intermediaries in third-party nations.
- The Iranian economy relies heavily on revenue from its oil and gas industry and the United States has tried to limit Iran’s ability to explore for, extract, refine, or transport its petroleum resources. However, foreign firms have reportedly sold refined petroleum products to Iran.
- The United States has enacted financial sanctions which restrict Iranian access to the U.S. financial system. U.S. and international sanctions have adversely affected the Iranian economy.
Forecasts of Iran’s Gross Domestic Product Made before and after Imposition of U.S. and International Sanctions
Note: The Economist Intelligence Unit is the research and analysis division of The Economist Group, the sister company to The Economist newspaper. HIS Global Insight is a provider of global market and economic information.
Excerpted from GAO-13-326
GAO-15-258R: Published: Jan 13, 2015. Publicly Released: Jan 13, 2015.
GAO’s reviews of open sources published between November 8, 2013, and December 1, 2014, identified five foreign firms that were reported to have engaged in commercial activity in Iran’s energy sector during this time period. For six additional firms that GAO had previously identified as reported to have engaged in commercial activity in Iran’s energy sector, GAO found insufficient informatio...
GAO-14-598R: Published: May 23, 2014. Publicly Released: May 23, 2014.
Illustration of the Process for Identifying Persons Meeting Sanctions Requirements under Section 5(b) of the Iran Sanctions ActaThe four working groups include, for example, members from the Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, and the intelligence community, among others. These working groups are responsible for identifying potential violations of multiple proliferation-related sanct...
GAO-14-218R: Published: Jan 7, 2014. Publicly Released: Jan 7, 2014.
GAO's review of open sources published between October 1, 2012, and November 7, 2013, identified four foreign firms that were reported to have engaged in commercial activity in Iran's energy sector during this time period, including one previously-unidentified firm--China Oilfield Services Limited. In addition, since the last report issued in December 2012, GAO moved four firms--INA, ONGC Videsh L...
GAO-13-326: Published: Feb 25, 2013. Publicly Released: Feb 25, 2013.
Since 2010, congressional legislation, such as the Comprehensive Iran Accountability, Sanctions, and Divestment Act of 2010 (CISADA), as well as a number of executive orders, have established additional U.S. financial sanctions targeting Iran. For example, CISADA authorized the imposition of sanctions on foreign financial institutions that facilitated certain activities or financial transactions b...
GAO-10-928T: Published: Jul 29, 2010. Publicly Released: Jul 29, 2010.
This testimony discusses our work on the implementation of U.S. sanctions against Iran. It discusses the continuing challenges the United States faces in (1) deterring the illegal transshipment of U.S. goods to Iran, (2) restricting foreign investment in Iran's energy sector, and (3) assessing the overall effectiveness of U.S. sanctions. In addition, it discusses how the Comprehensive Iran Sanctio...
GAO-10-375: Published: Mar 4, 2010. Publicly Released: Mar 4, 2010.
In 1995, the United States banned exports to Iran of most U.S. goods without a Treasury Department license. In 2008, the U.S. media, citing U.S. government statistics, reported that U.S. firms were exporting numerous goods to Iran. The statistics are maintained by the Census Bureau and are based on data filed by exporters or their agents. The United States has also generally banned unlicensed tran...