Medicaid, which provides health care for low-income and medically needy people, has an early screening and treatment benefit to help young people get the health care services they need. Goals of the benefit include getting blood lead screenings for young children and well-child exams for at least 80% of eligible young people.
59% of those eligible got at least one recommended exam in 2017
3 states met the 80% target
Data on blood lead screenings is incomplete, so nobody knows how many young children were screened. Our recommendations include improving lead screening data and evaluating state performance in meeting targets.
Percentage of Medicaid Beneficiaries Aged 20 and Under Receiving At Least One Recommended Well-Child Screening in Fiscal Year 2017, By State
This map shows the percentage of beneficiaries receiving at least one recommended well-child screening in each state.
What GAO Found
Approximately half of all Medicaid beneficiaries aged 20 and under received screenings and services recommended under the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment (EPSDT) benefit in fiscal year 2017, but nearly as many did not. For example, GAO's analysis of state-reported data found that about 59 percent of all beneficiaries (20.2 million) who should have received at least one recommended well-child screening received one. About 48 percent of beneficiaries aged 1 to 20 (18.3 million) received a preventive dental service in fiscal year 2017. Older beneficiaries tended to have lower rates of screening.
Number of Medicaid Beneficiaries Receiving and Not Receiving Well-Child Screenings in Fiscal Year 2017, by Age Group
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), the agency that oversees Medicaid, including EPSDT, has taken steps to improve the quality of information that states report about the provision of EPSDT services. CMS has also set some EPSDT performance measure targets for states; yet, the agency has not taken other steps to oversee the EPSDT benefit, such as
- collecting the data necessary to evaluate whether states are complying with CMS's policy for beneficiaries to receive a blood lead screening;
- taking action, as needed, based on assessments of the appropriateness of some performance measures, such as well-child screening measures; and
- using state-reported information to regularly evaluate states against CMS's EPSDT targets, or assisting states in planning improvements to meet the targets.
Absent these steps, CMS's oversight is limited and beneficiaries may not be receiving appropriate EPSDT services when they need them.
Why GAO Did This Study
The EPSDT benefit is key to ensuring that Medicaid beneficiaries aged 20 and under receive periodic screening services, such as well-child screenings, and diagnostic and treatment services, such as physical therapy and eyeglasses, to correct or ameliorate conditions discovered during a screening.
GAO was asked to examine the extent to which Medicaid beneficiaries aged 20 and under receive health care services under the EPSDT benefit. Among other things, GAO examined (1) what is known about the provision of EPSDT services based on CMS-required annual state reporting, and (2) CMS oversight of the EPSDT benefit. To do this, GAO analyzed annual state reporting data from fiscal years 2010 through 2017, the most current year data were available; CMS documentation; and federal internal control standards. GAO also interviewed CMS officials and Medicaid officials from 16 states selected, in part, on the variation in number of beneficiaries and geographic diversity.
GAO is making six recommendations to CMS regarding its oversight of the EPSDT benefit, including collecting appropriate blood lead screening data; taking action, if needed, after assessing the appropriateness of performance measures and targets for EPSDT; and evaluating states' performance in meeting CMS's EPSDT targets. CMS agreed with three recommendations, but disagreed with three others regarding performance measures and targets. GAO maintains that these recommendations are valid, as discussed in this report.
Recommendations for Executive Action
|Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services||The Administrator of CMS should work with states and relevant federal agencies to collect accurate and complete data on blood lead screening for Medicaid beneficiaries in order to ensure that CMS is able to monitor state compliance with its blood lead screening policy, and assist states with planning improvements to address states' compliance as needed. (Recommendation 1)||
|Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services||The Administrator of CMS should regularly assess the appropriateness of performance measures and targets for the EPSDT benefit, and take any necessary actions to ensure their relevance and use, including adding, changing, or removing measures, or targets, and regularly communicating performance measures and targets to states. (Recommendation 2)||
|Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services||The Administrator of CMS should conduct regular evaluations of state performance by comparing states' performance measurement data with CMS's EPSDT targets to identify gaps in states' performance and areas for improvement. (Recommendation 3)||
|Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services||The Administrator of CMS should assist states with planning needed improvements, including providing focused assistance, to resolve gaps in states' performance in meeting CMS's EPSDT targets. (Recommendation 4)||
|Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services||The Administrator of CMS should develop a plan with time frames and interim milestones for using T-MSIS data to generate the necessary data from the CMS-416 to improve EPSDT oversight and streamline state reporting. (Recommendation 5)||
|Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services||The Administrator of CMS should develop a plan with time frames and interim milestones for using T-MSIS data to generate the necessary data from the Child Core Set to improve EPSDT oversight and streamline state reporting. (Recommendation 6)||