Defense Business Transformation:

DOD Should Improve Its Planning with and Performance Monitoring of the Military Departments

GAO-17-9: Published: Dec 7, 2016. Publicly Released: Dec 7, 2016.

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Zina D. Merritt
(202) 512-5257
merrittz@gao.gov

 

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What GAO Found

The Department of Defense (DOD) and the military departments have established roles and responsibilities for senior business transformation positions, such as Chief Management Officers (CMOs) and Deputy CMOs (DCMOs), who are responsible for business transformation efforts—actions to increase the efficiency of or to decrease the costs associated with DOD's business functions, such as acquisitions and logistics. However, DOD has had challenges retaining individuals in some positions, as shown in the figure.

Turnover in Chief Management Officer (CMO) and Deputy CMO (DCMO) Positions since 2010

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DOD and the military departments have issued strategic or business transformation plans, but DOD has not coordinated with the military departments to align their strategic planning efforts for business transformation with those of the department. For example, the military department CMOs or DCMOs do not have a defined role in DOD's strategic planning process to develop department-wide business transformation goals and objectives. Further, DOD has not aligned the military departments' goals and objectives to those of the department in DOD's Agency Strategic Plan. Leading practices for results-oriented management state that goals should align throughout an organization. In doing so, DOD would be better positioned to ensure that the military departments' strategic planning—as well as goals and objectives—directly contribute to those of the department.

The DOD DCMO has used DOD's principal business governance forum—the Defense Business Council—to monitor some department-wide business transformation efforts, but has not effectively monitored the military departments' performance on business transformation efforts. For example, defense business systems certification and approval initiatives were the most frequently discussed forum items since October 2015, while military department performance on business transformation efforts were not discussed. The DOD DCMO instead relied on the military departments to conduct their own performance monitoring. GAO found that the Council's charter does not specifically outline its responsibility for monitoring the military departments' performance. Without improved department-wide monitoring, DOD may not be well-positioned to assess the overall impact of its efforts to achieve business transformation.

Why GAO Did This Study

While DOD maintains military forces with unparalleled capabilities, it continues to confront management weaknesses related to its business functions that support these forces. GAO designated DOD's approach to business transformation as high risk in 2005 because DOD had not taken steps to achieve business reform on a strategic, department-wide basis.

This report (1) describes the roles and responsibilities established by DOD and the military departments for overseeing business transformation and the continuity of leadership in senior business transformation positions, (2) assesses the extent to which DOD has coordinated with the military departments to align strategic planning efforts for business transformation, and (3) evaluates the extent to which the DOD DCMO has used the Defense Business Council to effectively monitor department-wide performance. GAO reviewed documentation, including summaries from Defense Business Council meetings, and interviewed cognizant officials.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends that DOD define a role for the military department CMOs or DCMOs in DOD's strategic planning process, and align DOD's and the military departments' goals and objectives for business transformation in its Agency Strategic Plan. GAO also recommends that DOD take action to improve its monitoring of the military departments' performance. DOD concurs with GAO's recommendations.

For more information, contact Zina D. Merritt at (202) 512-5257, or merrittz@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Open

    Comments: DOD concurred with this recommendation. In May 2017, the Acting DCMO issued a memorandum outlining a DOD strategic planning framework. In the memo, he stated that he expects all components, including the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, to support this effort. The DOD strategic planning framework is intended to align DOD core business functions with the Office of Management and Budget's reform categories. As part of this framework, DOD components are tasked with conducting thorough reviews of their business operations, identifying reform initiatives, and developing performance goals and measures to monitor and assess implementation of reform activities. In addition, as of September 2017, DOD is developing a draft of its Agency Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2018-2022, which officials stated is intended to communicate the department's strategic goals and objectives for its business operations, among other things. DOD intends to submit the plan to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2018. After the department approves the plan, we will assess the extent to which the military department CMOs or DCMOs were included in the strategic planning process for developing the department-wide goals and objectives for business transformation documented in the plan.

    Recommendation: The Deputy Secretary of Defense, in his capacity as the CMO and as part of DOD's strategic planning process, should define a role for the military department CMOs or DCMOs in developing department-wide goals and objectives for business transformation.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  2. Status: Open

    Comments: DOD concurred with this recommendation. As of September 2017, DOD is developing a draft of its Agency Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2018-2022, which officials stated is intended to communicate the department?s strategic goals and objectives for its business operations, among other things. DOD intends to submit the plan to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2018. After the department approves the plan, we will monitor the extent the military departments align their goals and objectives for business transformation with the department-wide goals and objectives in the plan.

    Recommendation: The Deputy Secretary of Defense, in his capacity as the CMO and as part of DOD's strategic planning process, should coordinate with the military department CMOs or DCMOs to align the military departments' goals and objectives for business transformation with department-wide goals and objectives, including in DOD's Agency Strategic Plan.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

  3. Status: Open

    Comments: DOD concurred with this recommendation. In May 2017, the Acting DCMO issued a memorandum outlining a DOD strategic planning framework. In the memo, he stated that he expects all components, including the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, to support this effort. As part of this framework, DOD components are tasked with conducting thorough reviews of their business operations, identifying reform initiatives, and developing performance goals and measures to monitor and assess implementation of reform activities. DOD plans to include the reform initiatives and specific performance goals and measures in its Agency Strategic Plan for Fiscal Years 2018-2022. As of September 2017, DOD is developing a draft of its plan and expects to submit the plan to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2018. After the department approves the plan, we will monitor the extent to which DOD's CMO and DCMO track the military department's performance on identified reform initiatives.

    Recommendation: The Deputy Secretary of Defense, in his capacity as the CMO and in coordination with the DOD DCMO, should take action, as appropriate and necessary, to improve the monitoring of the military departments' performance on business transformation efforts. This could be done by revising the Defense Business Council's charter to make the council responsible for monitoring such performance to reflect the responsibilities of the DOD DCMO to monitor performance across the entire department.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

 

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