This is the accessible text file for CG Presentation number GAO-09-
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Ensuring Accountability In A Time Of Financial And Fiscal Stress: 

American Institute of CPAs: 
National Governmental Accounting and Auditing Update Conference: 
Washington, D.C. 

August 10, 2009: 

By Gene L. Dodaro: 
Acting Comptroller General of the United States: 
U.S. Government Accountability Office: 



* American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: 
* Financial Institutions and Markets: 
* Long-Term Fiscal Outlook: 

American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: 

* Signed February 17, 2009; 

* Purpose: 

- preserve and create jobs and promote recovery; 
- assist those most impacted by the recession; 
- invest in science and health-care technology; 
- invest in infrastructure; 
- stabilize state and local government budgets. 

* Total cost (tax and spending): $787 billion, including over
$580 billion in additional spending (CBO Estimate). 

GAO responsibilities include: 

* conducting bimonthly reviews of selected states’ and localities’ use 
of funds; 

* commenting on recipient reports on the number of jobs created or 

* reviewing areas such as trade adjustment assistance, new education 
incentive grants, and efforts to increase small business lending; 

* monitoring downturn’s long-term effect on states (health care costs). 

State and Local Reporting Strategy for Bimonthly Reviews: 

* Longitudinal study of 16 states and the District of Columbia: 

- Localities sampled within selected states; 
- About two-thirds of population and two-thirds of the 
intergovernmental assistance funds. 

Figure: Map of the United States: 

[Refer to PDF for image: map] 

The map indicates the location of 16 states and the District of 

1. Arizona
2. California
3. Colorado
4. Florida
5. Georgia
6. Illinois
7. Iowa
8. Massachusetts
9. Michigan
10. Mississippi
11. New Jersey
12. New York
13. North Carolina
14. Ohio
15. Pennsylvania
16. Texas
17. Washington, D.C. 

Source: GAO analysis. 

[End of figure] 

Reporting Objectives: 

Describe states’ and localities’: 

* Use of funds; 

* Up-front safeguards and ongoing monitoring, audits, and evaluations; 

* Plans to evaluate the impact of funds. 

Program–Specific Reviews Across States: 

* April report focused on 3 largest programs -- Medicaid, Highway 
Infrastructure Investment & State Stabilization Funds. 

* July report covered 9 programs representing 87% of estimated FY 2009 
Federal Recovery Act outlays to states and localities. 

Figure: Programs in GAO Review: 87% of estimated Fiscal Year 2009 
Federal Recovery Act Outlays to States and Localities: 

[Refer to PDF for image: illustration] 

Medicaid: 63%; 
State Fiscal Stabilization Fund: 13%; Highways: 6%; 
Other Selected programs: 5%: 
* IDEA, Parts B and C, 1%; 
* WIA Youth Programs, 1%; 
* ESEA, Title i, Part A: 1%; 
* Less than 1%: 
- Byrne Grants; 
- Weatherization Assistance Program; 
- Public Housing Capital Fund; 
Other programs not in study: 13%. 

Source: GAO analysis of data from CBO and Federal Fund Information for 

[End of figure] 

Figure: Projected versus Actual Federal Outlays to States and 
Localities under the Recovery Act: 

[Refer to PDF for image: vertical bar graph] 

Fiscal year: 2009; 
Estimated outlay: $48.9 billion; 
Actual Federal Outlays as of July 24, 2009: $37.2 billion. 

Fiscal year: 2010; 
Estimated outlay: $107.7 billion. 

Fiscal year: 2011; 
Estimated outlay: $63.4 billion. 

Fiscal year: 2012; 
Estimated outlay: $23.3 billion. 

Fiscal year: 2013; 
Estimated outlay: $14.4 billion. 

Fiscal year: 2014; 
Estimated outlay: $9.1 billion. 

Fiscal year: 2015; 
Estimated outlay: $5.7 billion. 

Fiscal year: 2016; 
Estimated outlay: $2.5 billion. 

Source: GAO analysis of data from CBO, and Federal Funds 
Information for States. 

[End of figure] 

Figure: Comparison of State and Local Recovery Act Funding: 

[Refer to PDF for image: two pie-charts] 

Fiscal year 2009: 
Health: 64%; 
Education and training: 18%; 
Transportation: 8%; 
Income Security: 6%; 
Community Development: 3%; 
Energy and environment: 1%. 

Fiscal year 2012: 
Health: 1%; 
Education and training: 19%; 
Transportation: 30%; 
Income Security: 17%; 
Community Development: 16%; 
Energy and environment: 17%. 

Source: GAO analysis of CBO and FFIS data. 

[End of figure] 

GAO Recommendations: Overview: 

Accountability and Transparency: 

* Leverage Single Audit as an effective oversight tool: 
- Move to earlier reporting on internal controls; 
- Focus on Recovery Act programs; 
- Give relief for low-risk programs; 
- Fund more timely, effective Single Audits. 

Reporting on Impact: 

* Provide examples of reporting on jobs created and retained. 

* Clarify new or existing program performance measures. 

Communications and Guidance: 

* Clarify data quality and reconciliation requirements. 

* Specify data certification and approval requirements. 

* Ensure more direct communication on funds flowing to each state. 

American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: 

Challenges for federal, state and local officials: 

* Expectations for “an unprecedented level of transparency and 

* Qualified personnel need to implement proper controls and 
accountability at all levels of government. 

* Close and ongoing coordination needed among federal, state, and local 

* Accountability community: special responsibility to ensure collective 
efforts are well-coordinated. 

[End of section] 

Financial Institutions and Markets: 

GAO Role in Financial Rescue: 

* Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) oversight. 

* Auditors of FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund, FHFA, TARP, and U.S. 
Government Financial Statements. 

* Financial Regulatory System. 

* INTOSAI Task Force on Global Financial Crisis. 

* Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 created $700 billion 
TARP in October 2008. 

* GAO given statutory oversight role. 

* GAO’s TARP reports’ recommendations focus on accountability and 
transparency and follow 3 themes: 
- Monitoring the use of funds to meet the Act’s objectives; 
- Articulating a better communication strategy; 
- Ensuring effective Treasury management structure. 

Figure: Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) Initiatives and Projected 
Combined Assistance as of June 2009 (TARP: $643.1 billion): 

[Refer to PDF for image: illustration] 

This illustration is a circle with TARP at the hub. Surrounding the hub 
are the following initiatives: 

TARP Initiative: Making Home Affordable Plan ($50 billion); 
Type: Direct payment. 

TARP Initiative: Capital Assistance Program (TBD); 
Type: Investment. 

TARP Initiative: Targeted Investment Program ($40.0 billion); 
Type: Investment. 

TARP Initiative: Capital Purchase Program ($218 billion); 
Type: Investment. 

TARP Initiative: Systematically Significant Failing Institutions 
Program ($70.0 billion); 
Type: Investment. 

TARP Initiative: Asset Guarantee Program ($12.5 billion); 
Type: Insurance or guarantee. 

TARP Initiative: Public/Private Investment Program ($100 billion); 
Type: Loan, Investment, and guarantee combination. 

TARP Initiative: Consumer and Business Lending Initiative ($70.0 
Type: Loan and investment combination. 

TARP Initiative: Automotive Industry Financing Program ($82.6 billion); 
Type: Loan and investment combination. 

Outside the circle is a depiction of funding contributions from FDIC 
and Federal Reserve. 

[End of figure] 

Financial Institutions and Markets: FDIC’s Deposit Insurance Fund: 

Most recent audit of financial statements completed May 2009. Clean 
opinion, but: 

* Reported losses from actual and anticipated failures of $42 billion. 

* Reported Fund reserves of $17 billion were well below statutory 
minimum level. 

* Highlighted additional exposures to Fund from potential financial 
institution failures and systemic risk initiatives. 

Financial Institutions and Markets: Consolidated Financial Statement 

* Ultimate effect of federal government's actions will be reflected in 
the U.S. government's consolidated financial statements for fiscal year 
2009 and beyond. 

* Nature and magnitude of these actions have created new challenges for 
federal financial reporting. 

Financial Institutions and Markets: Looking Ahead: 


* Analysis of proposals for the structure of Fannie Mae and Freddie 

Financial Regulation: 

* Framework for Modernizing the Financial Regulatory System. 

Modernizing the U.S. Financial Regulatory System: 

Financial Regulation: A Framework for Crafting and Assessing Proposals 
to Modernize the Outdated U.S. Financial Regulatory System (GAO-09-216, 
Jan. 8, 2009): 

* Explains the origins of the current financial regulatory system. 

* Describes market developments and changes that pose challenges to the 
current system. 

* Presents an evaluation framework that Congress and others can use to 
craft or evaluate potential regulatory reform efforts. 

Outdated Regulatory System: 

Risks posed by: 

* Emergence of large, complex, and interconnected financial 

* Less-regulated entities are playing increasingly critical roles in 
the financial system. 

* New and complex products pose challenges to system stability and 
consumer protection. 

For Crafting or Assessing Regulatory Reform Proposals: GAO Framework: 
9 Essential Characteristics: 

* Clearly defined regulatory goals in statute. 

* Appropriately comprehensive. 

* Systemwide focus. 

* Flexible and adaptable. 

* Efficient and effective. 

* Consistent consumer and investor protections. 

* Regulators provided with independence, prominence, authority, and 

* Consistent financial oversight. 

* Minimal taxpayer exposure. 

Global Financial Crisis Task Force: 

* Created by International Governing Board in November 2008. 


* Enhance the knowledge base of NAOs on financial and economic matters 
related to the crisis. 

* Provide a source of information to help governments and the global 
community respond to the crisis. 

Membership: U.S.A. is lead, other countries include: 

United Kingdom;

Federal Financial Management: Need to Continue Progress: 

* Significant improvements in federal financial management--but still a 
long way to go. 

* Important to ensure that information for decision-making is reliable. 

Federal Financial Management: Key Challenges: 

* Improve internal control—enhanced accountability and reduced improper

* Obtain clean opinion on U.S. government’s consolidated financial 

* Improve extent and reliability of cost information for evaluating 
federal program operations. 

* Implement more effective federal financial management systems. 

* Improve federal grant accountability. 

* Streamline and enhance relevance and effectiveness of federal 
accountability requirements and practices. 

Long-Term Challenges: 

Today’s focus—understandably—is on: 

* Dealing with financial system stress. 

* Addressing the economic downturn. 

But...Underlying issues still need to be addressed: 

* Long-term fiscal challenge. 

Figure: Long-Term Fiscal Challenge: Debt Held by the Public as a Share 
of GDP Under Two Fiscal Policy Simulations (Percent of GDP): 

[Refer to PDF for image: multiple line graph] 

Historical high: 109% in 1946. 

Year: 2005; 
Baseline extended: 37.5; 	
Alternative: 37.5. 

Year: 2006; 
Baseline extended: 37.1; 	
Alternative: 37.1. 

Year: 2007; 
Baseline extended: 36.9; 
Alternative: 36.9. 

Year: 2008; 
Baseline extended: 40.8; 
Alternative: 40.8. 

Year: 2009; 
Baseline extended: 54.8; 
Alternative: 54.9. 

Year: 2010; 
Baseline extended: 60.1; 
Alternative: 60.6. 

Year: 2011; 
Baseline extended: 62; 
Alternative: 64.1. 

Year: 2012; 
Baseline extended: 61.6; 
Alternative: 66.3. 

Year: 2013; 
Baseline extended: 60.7; 
Alternative: 68.4. 

Year: 2014; 
Baseline extended: 60.1; 
Alternative: 71.1. 

Year: 2015; 
Baseline extended: 59.5; 
Alternative: 74. 

Year: 2016; 
Baseline extended: 59; 
Alternative: 77.3. 

Year: 2017; 
Baseline extended: 58.5; 
Alternative: 80.6. 

Year: 2018; 
Baseline extended: 56.1; 
Alternative: 82.3. 

Year: 2019; 
Baseline extended: 56.1; 
Alternative: 86.6. 

Year: 2020; 
Baseline extended: 56.2; 
Alternative: 91.2. 

Year: 2021; 
Baseline extended: 56.5; 
Alternative: 96. 

Year: 2022; 
Baseline extended: 57.1; 
Alternative: 101.2. 

Year: 2023; 
Baseline extended: 58; 
Alternative: 106.7. 

Year: 2024; 
Baseline extended: 59.2; 
Alternative: 112.5. 

Year: 2025; 
Baseline extended: 60.8; 
Alternative: 118.8. 

Year: 2026; 
Baseline extended: 62.6; 
Alternative: 125.3. 

Year: 2027; 
Baseline extended: 64.7; 
Alternative: 132.3. 

Year: 2028; 
Baseline extended: 67.2; 
Alternative: 139.7. 

Year: 2029; 
Baseline extended: 70.1. 
Alternative: 147.5. 

Year: 2030; 
Baseline extended: 73.1; 
Alternative: 155.6. 

Year: 2031; 
Baseline extended: 76.6; 
Alternative: 164.2. 

Year: 2032; 
Baseline extended: 80.4; 
Alternative: 173.2. 

Year: 2033; 
Baseline extended: 84.4; 
Alternative: 182.5. 

Year: 2034; 
Baseline extended: 88.7; 
Alternative: 192.1. 

Year: 2035; 
Baseline extended: 93.2; 
Alternative: 202. 

Year: 2036; 
Baseline extended: 98; 
Alternative: 212.4. 

Year: 2037; 
Baseline extended: 103.2; 
Alternative: 223.1. 

Year: 2038; 
Baseline extended: 108.5; 
Alternative: 234.1. 

Year: 2039; 
Baseline extended: 114.1; 
Alternative: 245.4. 

Year: 2040; 
Baseline extended: 119.9; 
Alternative: 257.1. 

Year: 2041; 
Baseline extended: 125.9; 
Alternative: 269.1. 

Year: 2042; 
Baseline extended: 132.2; 
Alternative: 281.4. 

Year: 2043; 
Baseline extended: 138.6; 
Alternative: 294.1. 

Year: 2044; 
Baseline extended: 145.3; 
Alternative: 306.9. 

Year: 2045; 
Baseline extended: 152.2; 
Alternative: 320.2. 

Year: 2046; 
Baseline extended: 159.3; 
Alternative: 333.8. 

Year: 2047; 
Baseline extended: 166.6; 
Alternative: 347.7. 

Year: 2048; 
Baseline extended: 174.2; 
Alternative: 362. 

Year: 2049; 
Baseline extended: 182.1; 
Alternative: 376.8. 

Year: 2050; 
Baseline extended: 190.2; 
Alternative: 391.9. 

Source: GAO. March 2009 simulations. 

Note: Data from GAO's simulations based on the 2008 Trustees' 
assumptions for Social Security and Medicare. We also run simulations 
using CBO's Social Security and Medicare projections; the results are 
not materially different. 

[End of figure] 

Some Measures: 

Impact on Debt held by the public: 

* FY 2005 actual: $4.6 trillion (37.5% of GDP). 

* FY 2008 actual: $5.8 trillion (40.8% of GDP). 

* FY 2009 projected: $8.5 trillion (59.9% of GDP). 

* FY 2010 projected: $9.9 trillion (67.1% of GDP). 

Impact on Social Security: 

* Projected gap between expected outlays & revenue widened from $6.6 
trillion in 2008 to $7.7 trillion in 2009. 

* Negative cash flow 2016 (compared to 2017). 

* Trust fund exhaustion 2037 (compared to 2041). 

[End of presentation] 

On the Web: 

Web site: 


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U.S. Government Accountability Office: 
441 G Street NW, Room 7149: 
Washington, D.C. 20548: 


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permission from GAO. However, because this work may contain
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[End of section]