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Before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and 
Procurement, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, U.S. House 
of Representatives: 

United States Government Accountability Office: 

For Release on Delivery: 
Expected at 2:00 p.m. EDT:
Wednesday, March 24, 2010: 

Information Security: 

Concerted Response Needed to Resolve Persistent Weaknesses: 

Statement of Gregory C. Wilshusen:
Director, Information Security Issues: 


GAO Highlights: 

Highlights of GAO-10-536T, a testimony before the Subcommittee on 
Government Management, Organization, and Procurement, Committee on 
Oversight and Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives.  

Why GAO Did This Study: 

Without proper safeguards, federal computer systems are vulnerable to 
intrusions by individuals who have malicious intentions and can obtain 
sensitive information. The need for a vigilant approach to information 
security has been demonstrated by the pervasive and sustained cyber 
attacks against the United States; these attacks continue to pose a 
potentially devastating impact to systems as well as the operations 
and critical infrastructures that they support. Concerned by reports 
of weaknesses in federal systems, Congress passed the Federal 
Information Security Management Act (FISMA), which authorized and 
strengthened information security program, evaluation, and annual 
reporting requirements for federal agencies.  

GAO was asked to testify on federal information security and agency 
efforts to comply with FISMA. This testimony summarizes (1) federal 
agenciesí efforts to secure information systems and (2) opportunities 
to enhance federal cybersecurity. To prepare for this testimony, GAO 
analyzed its prior reports and those from 24 major federal agencies, 
their inspectors general, and the Office of Management and Budget 

What GAO Found: 

Federal agencies have reported mixed progress in securing their 
systems and implementing key security activities. For example, in 
fiscal year 2009, agencies collectively reported an increasing 
percentage of personnel receiving security awareness training and 
specialized security training, but a decreasing rate of implementation 
for other key activities when compared to fiscal year 2008. In 
addition, federal systems continued to be afflicted by persistent 
control weaknesses. Almost all of the 24 major federal agencies had 
information security weaknesses in five key control categories, as 
illustrated in the figure below.  

Figure: Information Security Weaknesses at Major Federal Agencies for 
Fiscal Year 2009:  

[Refer to PDF for image: vertical bar graph]  

Category: Access control; 
Number of agencies: 22.  

Category: Configuration management; 
Number of agencies: 23.  

Category: Segregation of duties; 
Number of agencies: 17.  

Category: Continuity of operations; 
Number of agencies: 22.  

Category: Security management; 
Number of agencies: 23.  

Source: GAO analysis of IG, agency, and GAO reports.  

[End of figure]  

An underlying cause for information security weaknesses identified at 
federal agencies is that they have not yet fully or effectively 
implemented key elements of an agencywide information security 
program, as required by FISMA. As a result, they may be at increased 
risk of unauthorized disclosure, modification, and destruction of 
information or disruption of mission critical operations. Such risks 
are illustrated, in part, by the increasing number of security 
incidents experienced by federal agencies.  

Opportunities exist to enhance federal cybersecurity through a 
concerted response to safeguarding systems that include several 
components. First, agencies can implement the hundreds of 
recommendations GAO and inspectors general have made to resolve 
control deficiencies and information security program shortfalls. In 
addition, OMBís continued efforts to improve reporting and oversight 
as recommended by GAO could help assess agency programs. Finally, the 
White House, OMB, and certain federal agencies have undertaken several 
governmentwide initiatives that are intended to enhance information 
security at federal agencies.  

What GAO Recommends: 

In previous reports over the past several years, GAO has made hundreds 
of recommendations to agencies to mitigate identified control 
deficiencies and to fully implement information security programs.  

View [hyperlink,] or key 
components. For more information, contact Gregory C. Wilshusen at 
(202) 512-6244 or  

[End of section] 

Chairwoman Watson and Members of the Subcommittee: 

Thank you for the opportunity to participate in today's hearing on 
federal information security. As the number of reported computer 
security incidents and threats to the nation's cyber infrastructure 
steadily increase, the need for a vigilant and comprehensive approach 
to federal information security is greater than ever. In 2009, the 
federal government faced coordinated attacks against its Web sites, 
and several agencies were affected by the Gumblar Trojan, which uses 
multiple exploits to compromise legitimate web pages. In addition, the 
Conficker worm posed a threat to both federal and non-federal systems. 
Such attacks highlight the importance of developing a concerted 
response to safeguard federal information systems. 

Proper safeguards can mitigate the risk to federal computer systems 
and networks posed by individuals and groups with malicious 
intentions. While progress has been made in identifying and 
implementing these controls, much work remains. Over the past few 
years, federal agencies have reported numerous security incidents in 
which sensitive information has been lost or stolen, including 
personally identifiable information, which has exposed millions of 
Americans to the loss of privacy, identity theft, and other financial 

In my testimony today, I will discuss (1) federal agencies' efforts to 
secure information systems and (2) opportunities to enhance federal 
cybersecurity. In conducting our review, we analyzed agency, inspector 
general, Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and our reports on 
information security. We conducted the review from December 2009 to 
March 2010 in the Washington, D.C., area in accordance with generally 
accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that 
we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate 
evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and 
conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the 
evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and 
conclusions based on our audit objectives. 


To help protect against threats to federal systems, the Federal 
Information Security Management Act (FISMA)[Footnote 1] is intended to 
set forth a comprehensive framework for ensuring the effectiveness of 
information security controls over information resources that support 
federal operations and assets. Its framework creates a cycle of risk 
management activities necessary for an effective security program; 
these activities are similar to the principles noted in our study of 
the risk management activities of leading private sector organizations 
[Footnote 2]--assessing risk, establishing a central management focal 
point, implementing appropriate policies and procedures, promoting 
awareness, and monitoring and evaluating policy and control 

In order to ensure the implementation of this framework, FISMA assigns 
specific responsibilities to (1) agency heads and chief information 
officers, to develop, document, and implement an agencywide 
information security program, among other things; (2) inspectors 
general, to conduct annual independent evaluations of agency efforts 
to effectively implement information security; (3) the National 
Institute for Science and Technology (NIST), to provide standards and 
guidance to agencies on information security; and (4) OMB, which 
include developing and overseeing the implementation of policies, 
principles, standards, and guidelines on information security and 
reviewing, at least annually, and approving or disapproving, agency 
information security programs. In addition, the act requires each 
agency to report annually to OMB, selected congressional committees, 
and the Comptroller General on the adequacy of its information 
security policies, procedures, practices, and compliance with 
requirements. FISMA also requires OMB to report annually to Congress 
by March 1. 

Although Agencies Report Mixed Progress, Deficiencies in Information 
Security Controls Remain: 

FISMA requires each agency, including agencies with national security 
systems, to develop, document, and implement an agencywide information 
security program to provide security for the information and 
information systems that support the operations and assets of the 
agency, including those provided or managed by another agency, 
contractor, or other source. As part of its oversight responsibilities 
OMB requires agencies to report on specific performance measures, 

* Percentage of employees and contractors receiving IT security 
awareness training, 

* Percentage of employees with significant security responsibilities 
who received specialized security training, 

* Percentage of systems whose controls were tested and evaluated, 

* Percentage of systems with tested contingency plans, and: 

* Percentage of systems certified and accredited. 

Since the enactment of FISMA in 2002, federal agencies have generally 
reported increasing rates of implementation for key information 
security activities. However, in fiscal year 2009, agencies reported 
mixed progress in implementing these activities compared to fiscal 
year 2008. For example, governmentwide, agencies collectively reported 
that 91 percent of employees and contractors had received security 
awareness training in fiscal year 2009, up from 89 percent in fiscal 
year 2008. Agencies also reported that 90 percent of employees with 
significant information security responsibilities had received 
specialized training, up from 76 percent in fiscal year 2008. 

In other key areas, agencies reported slight decreases from fiscal 
years 2008 to 2009. Specifically, the percentage of systems for which 
security controls have been tested and reviewed decreased from 93 
percent to 89 percent, the percentage of systems with tested 
contingency plans decreased from 91 percent to 86 percent, and the 
percentage of systems certified and accredited decreased from 96 
percent to 94 percent. A summary of these percentages is shown in 
figure 1. 

Figure 1: Selected Performance Metrics for Agency Systems: 

[Refer to PDF for image: multiple vertical bar graph]  

Metric: Security awareness training; 
Fiscal year 2006: 91%; 
Fiscal year 2007: 84%; 
Fiscal year 2008: 89%; 
Fiscal year 2009: 91%.  

Metric: Specialized security training; 
Fiscal year 2006: 86%; 
Fiscal year 2007: 90%; 
Fiscal year 2008: 76%; 
Fiscal year 2009: 90%.  

Metric: Periodic testing and evaluation; 
Fiscal year 2006: 88%; 
Fiscal year 2007: 95%; 
Fiscal year 2008: 93%; 
Fiscal year 2009: 89%.  

Metric: Tested contingency plans; 
Fiscal year 2006: 77%; 
Fiscal year 2007: 86%; 
Fiscal year 2008: 91%; 
Fiscal year 2009: 86%.  

Metric: Certification and Accreditation; 
Fiscal year 2006: 88%; 
Fiscal year 2007: 92%; 
Fiscal year 2008: 96%; 
Fiscal year 2009: 94%.  

Source: GAO analysis of agency data.  

[End of figure] 

In these and other areas, inspectors general at the 24 major agencies 
have also reported weaknesses in their fiscal year 2009 audits and 
evaluations. Weaknesses in requirements such as periodic testing and 
evaluation, certification and accreditation, configuration management, 
and remedial actions were most commonly reported. For example, 

* at least 13 inspectors general reported that their agencies had 
insecure configuration settings, or had not applied needed patches in 
a timely manner, or both; 

* at least 15 inspectors general reported that their agency did not 
adequately assess security controls such as those recommended by NIST; 

* at least 11 inspectors general reported that their agencies failed 
to create a remediation plan for all identified weaknesses. 

* at least 13 inspectors general reported that documents required to 
make an informed decision regarding certification and accreditation of 
systems were either missing or incomplete, or that the accreditation 
was allowed to expire on at least one system without recertification; 

Weaknesses such as these continue to impair the government's ability 
to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of critical 
information and information systems used to support the operations and 
assets of federal agencies. Until these agencies fully implement 
information security requirements, they may be at increased risk of 
unauthorized disclosure, modification, and destruction of information 
or disruption of mission critical operations. 

Despite Reported Progress, Federal Systems Remain Vulnerable: 

GAO and agency inspectors general reviews continue to highlight 
deficiencies in the implementation of security policies and procedures 
at federal agencies. In their fiscal year 2009 performance and 
accountability reports, 21 of 24 major agencies noted that inadequate 
information system controls over their financial systems and 
information were either a material weakness or a significant 
deficiency (see figure 2).[Footnote 3] 

Figure 2: Number of Major Agencies Reporting Significant Deficiencies 
in Information Security for Financial Reporting: 

[Refer to PDF for image: pie-chart]  

Significant deficiency: 15; 
Material weakness: 6; 
No significant deficiency: 3.  

Source: GAO analysis of agency performance and accountability report, 
annual financial report, or other financial statement reports for FY 

[End of figure] 

Our audits and those of the inspectors general continue to identify 
similar conditions in both financial and non-financial systems. Most 
of the 24 major federal agencies had reported deficiencies in the 
following major categories of information security controls, as 
defined by our Federal Information System Controls Audit Manual: 
[Footnote 4] 

* access controls, which ensure that only authorized individuals can 
read, alter, or delete data; 

* configuration management controls, which provide assurance that only 
authorized software programs are implemented; 

* segregation of duties, which reduces the risk that one individual 
can independently perform inappropriate actions without detection; 

* continuity of operations planning, which provides for the prevention 
of significant disruptions of computer-dependent operations; and: 

* an agencywide information security program, which provides the 
framework for ensuring that risks are understood and that effective 
controls are selected and properly implemented. 

As shown in figure 3, agencies reported deficiencies in all five of 
the information security control areas. For example, agencies did not 
consistently configure network devices and services to prevent 
unauthorized access and ensure system integrity; assign incompatible 
duties to different individuals or groups so that one individual does 
not control all aspects of a process or transaction; and maintain or 
test continuity of operations plans for key information systems. Such 
information security control weaknesses unnecessarily increase the 
risk that the reliability and availability of data that are recorded 
in or transmitted by federal systems could be compromised. 

Figure 3: Number of Major Agencies Reporting Weaknesses by Control 
Category for Fiscal Year 2009:  

[Refer to PDF for image: vertical bar graph]  

Category: Access control; 
Number of agencies: 22.  

Category: Configuration management; 
Number of agencies: 23.  

Category: Segregation of duties; 
Number of agencies: 17.  

Category: Continuity of operations; 
Number of agencies: 22.  

Category: Security management; 
Number of agencies: 23.  

Source: GAO analysis of IG, agency, and GAO reports.  

[End of figure] 

An underlying cause for information security weaknesses identified at 
federal agencies is that they have not yet fully or effectively 
implemented key elements of an agencywide information security 
program, as required by FISMA. An agencywide security program provides 
a framework and continuing cycle of activity that includes assessing 
and managing risk, developing and implementing security policies and 
procedures, promoting security awareness and training, monitoring the 
adequacy of the entity's computer-related controls through security 
tests and evaluations, and implementing remedial actions as 
appropriate. According to inspector general, agency, and our previous 
reports, 23 of the 24 major federal agencies had weaknesses in their 
agencywide information security programs. 

The following examples, reported in 2009, illustrate that a broad 
array of federal information and systems remain at risk. 

* At the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), a bureau 
within the Department of the Treasury, key information security 
program activities were not implemented.[Footnote 5] For example, 
FinCEN did not always include detailed implementation guidance in its 
policies and procedures or adequately test and evaluate information 
security controls. 

* The information security program for the classified computer network 
at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had not been fully 
implemented.[Footnote 6] Specifically, (1) risk assessments were not 
comprehensive, (2) specific guidance was missing from policies and 
procedures, (3) the training and awareness program did not adequately 
address specialized training needs for individuals with significant 
network security responsibilities, (4) system security plans were 
incomplete, (5) the system security testing and evaluation process had 
shortcomings, (6) corrective action plans were not comprehensive, and 
(7) contingency plans were incomplete and not tested. In addition, the 
laboratory's decentralized management approach has led to weaknesses 
in the effectiveness of its classified cybersecurity program. Although 
the laboratory has taken steps to address these weaknesses, its 
efforts may be limited because LANL has not demonstrated a consistent 
capacity to sustain security improvements over the long term. 

* We identified a number of shortcomings in key program activities at 
the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).[Footnote 7] 
For example, NASA had not always (1) fully assessed information 
security risks; (2) fully developed and documented security policies 
and procedures; (3) included key information in security plans; (4) 
conducted comprehensive tests and evaluation of its information system 
controls; (5) tracked the status of plans to remedy known weaknesses; 
(6) planned for contingencies and disruptions in service; (7) 
maintained capabilities to detect, report, and respond to security 
incidents; and (8) incorporated important security requirements in its 
agreement with its contractor. 

In addition, the inspectors general at 13 of the 24 major agencies 
reported information security as major management challenge. Due to 
the persistent nature of information security vulnerabilities and the 
associated risks, we continue to designate information security as a 
governmentwide high-risk issue in our most recent biennial report to 
Congress; a designation we have made in each report since 1997. 
[Footnote 8] 

Reported Security Incidents Are on the Rise: 

Consistent with the evolving and growing nature of the threats and 
persistent vulnerabilities to federal systems, agencies are reporting 
an increasing number of security incidents and events. These incidents 
put sensitive information at risk. Personally identifiable information 
about Americans has been lost, stolen, or improperly disclosed, 
thereby potentially exposing those individuals to loss of privacy, 
identity theft, and financial crimes. Reported attacks and 
unintentional incidents involving critical infrastructure systems 
demonstrate that a serious attack could be devastating. Agencies have 
experienced a wide range of incidents involving data loss or theft, 
computer intrusions, and privacy breaches, underscoring the need for 
improved security practices. 

When incidents occur, agencies are to notify the federal information 
security incident center--the United States Computer Emergency 
Readiness Team (US-CERT). US-CERT serves as a focal point for the 
government's interaction with federal and nonfederal entities on a 24- 
hour-a-day, 7-day-a-week basis regarding cyber-related analysis, 
warning, information sharing, major incident response, and national- 
level recovery efforts. As shown in figure 4, the number of incidents 
reported by federal agencies to US-CERT has increased dramatically 
over the past 4 years, increasing from 5,503 incidents reported in 
fiscal year 2006 to about 30,000 incidents in fiscal year 2009 (over a 
400 percent increase). 

Figure 4: Incidents Reported to US-CERT, FY 2006-2009: 

[Refer to PDF for image: vertical bar graph]  

Fiscal year: 2006; 
Incidents reported: 5,503.  

Fiscal year: 2007; 
Incidents reported: 11,911.  

Fiscal year: 2008; 
Incidents reported: 16,843.  

Fiscal year: 2009; 
Incidents reported: 29,999.  

Source: GAO analysis of US-CERT data.  

[End of figure] 

Agencies report the following types of incidents and events based on 
US-CERT-defined categories: 

* Unauthorized access: Gaining logical or physical access without 
permission to a federal agency's network, system, application, data, 
or other resource. 

* Denial of service: Preventing or impairing the normal authorized 
functionality of networks, systems, or applications by exhausting 
resources. This activity includes being the victim of or participating 
in a denial of service attack. 

* Malicious code: Installing malicious software (e.g., virus, worm, 
Trojan horse, or other code-based malicious entity) that infects an 
operating system or application. Agencies are not required to report 
malicious logic that has been successfully quarantined by antivirus 

* Improper usage: Violating acceptable computing use policies. 

* Scans/probes/attempted access: Accessing or identifying a federal 
agency computer, open ports, protocols, service, or any combination of 
these for later exploit. This activity does not directly result in a 
compromise or denial of service. 

* Unconfirmed incidents under investigation: Investigating unconfirmed 
incidents that are potentially malicious, or anomalous activity deemed 
by the reporting entity to warrant further review. 

The four most prevalent types of incidents and events reported to US- 
CERT during fiscal year 2009 were: (1) malicious code comprising 23 
percent; (2) improper usage, 20 percent; (3) unauthorized access, 16 
percent; and (4) unconfirmed incidents under investigation, 36 
percent. Incidents reported to US-CERT in fiscal year 2009 are shown 
by type in figure 5. 

Figure 5: Percentage of Incidents Reported to US-CERT in Fiscal Year 
2009 by Category: 

[Refer to PDF for image: pie-chart]  

Under Investigation: 36%; 
Malicious code: 23%; 
Improper Usage: 20%; 
Unauthorized access: 16%; 
Scans/Probes/Attempted access: 4%; 
Denial of service: 1%.  

Source: GAO analysis of U.S. CERT data.  

[End of figure] 

Opportunities Exist for Enhancing Federal Cybersecurity: 

A concerted response to safeguarding federal systems includes several 
components. Agencies can take action to resolve specific security 
weaknesses, federal law and guidance can be strengthened, and 
continued effort can be made on governmentwide security initiatives. 

Over the past several years, we and agency inspectors general have 
made hundreds of recommendations to resolve significant control 
deficiencies and information security program shortfalls. Effective 
implementation of our recommendations will help agencies to prevent, 
limit, and detect unauthorized access to computerized networks and 
systems and help ensure that only authorized individuals can read, 
alter, or delete data. In addition, implementation of these 
recommendations will help agencies to better manage the configuration 
of security features for hardware and software and assure that changes 
to the configuration are systematically controlled. 

We have also recommended that agencies fully implement comprehensive, 
agencywide information security programs, including by correcting 
weaknesses in specific areas of their programs such as: (1) 
assessments of the risk to information systems; (2) information 
security policies and procedures; (3) planning for interruptions to 
information system processing; (4) training personnel in awareness of 
security policies and procedures; (5) periodic tests and evaluations 
of the effectiveness of information system controls; and (6) the 
implementation of plans of action to remediate information security 
weaknesses. The effective implementation of these recommendations will 
strengthen the security posture at these agencies. Agencies have 
implemented or are in the process of implementing many of our 

In addition, agencies can also increase their efficiency in securing 
and monitoring networks by expanding their use of automated tools as 
part of their monitoring programs for performing certain security- 
related functions. Because federal computing environments are very 
large, complex, and geographically dispersed, often consisting of tens 
or hundreds of thousands of devices, increasing automation of key 
security processes can assist in the efficient and effective 
implementation of key controls across the entire enterprise. For 
example, agencies can better use centrally administered automated 
diagnostic and analytical tools to continuously scan network traffic 
and devices across the enterprise to identify vulnerabilities or 
anomalies from typical usage and monitor compliance with agency 
configuration requirements. In addition, improving the use of 
automated tools for patch management can increase efficiency in 
mitigating known vulnerabilities on many systems within an agency. 

Strengthen FISMA and Its Implementing Guidance: 

FISMA was intended to provide (1) a comprehensive framework for 
ensuring the effectiveness of information security controls over 
information resources that support federal operations and assets and 
(2) a mechanism for improved oversight of federal agency information 
security programs. In June 2009,[Footnote 9] we proposed several 
suggested actions that could improve FISMA and its associated 
implementing guidance, including (1) clarifying requirements for 
testing and evaluating security controls; (2) requiring agency heads 
to provide an assurance statement on the overall adequacy and 
effectiveness of the agency's information security program; (3) 
enhancing independent annual evaluations; (4) strengthening annual 
reporting mechanisms; and (5) strengthening OMB oversight of agency 
information security programs. Implementing these suggestions can 
improve the implementation and oversight of federal agency information 
security programs.  

Continue Efforts to Improve Reporting and Oversight: 

FISMA specifies that OMB is to develop policies, principles, 
standards, and guidelines on information security. Each year, OMB 
provides instructions to federal agencies and their inspectors general 
for preparing the annual FISMA reports. OMB developed an online 
reporting tool during fiscal year 2009 to improve the efficiency of 
the annual reporting process. Agencies are required to use the online 
tool to submit their annual reports and OMB is to use the data 
submitted in its online reporting tool to summarize the information 
provided by the agencies and the inspectors general in its report to 

We have previously made several recommendations to OMB for improving 
its annual reporting instructions and oversight.[Footnote 10] For 
example, we have recommended that OMB update its annual reporting 
instructions to request inspectors general report on the effectiveness 
of agencies' processes for developing inventories, monitoring 
contractor operations, and providing specialized security training. 
OMB has acted to enhance its reporting instructions; however, further 
actions need to be taken to fully address these recommendations. 

We have also recommended that OMB develop metrics that (1) focus on 
the effectiveness of information security controls and (2) the overall 
impact of an agency's information security program.[Footnote 11] In 
September 2009, OMB convened a Security Metrics Taskforce to develop 
new FISMA performance measures. According to OMB's website the 
taskforce is comprised of officials from the both the federal 
community and private sector and was tasked with developing metrics 
that focus on outcomes rather than compliance that agencies will be 
required to report as part of the FISMA reporting process. In December 
2009, OMB released draft metrics for comment but has not yet released 
the final metrics. 

Continue to Enhance Federal Information Security through 
Governmentwide Initiatives: 

The White House, OMB, and certain federal agencies have undertaken 
several governmentwide initiatives that are intended to enhance 
information security at federal agencies. 

Address challenges in implementing CNCI. In January 2008, President 
Bush established the Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative 
(CNCI). The initiative, which consists of 12 projects, is intended to 
reduce vulnerabilities, protect against intrusions, and anticipate 
future threats against federal executive branch information systems. 
[Footnote 12] As we recently reported,[Footnote 13] the White House 
and federal agencies have established interagency groups to plan and 
coordinate CNCI activities. However, CNCI faces challenges in 
achieving its objectives related to securing federal information, 
including better defining agency roles and responsibilities, 
establishing measures of effectiveness, and establishing an 
appropriate level of transparency. Until these challenges are 
adequately addressed, there is a risk that CNCI will not fully achieve 
its goals. Among other recommendations, we recommended that the 
Director of OMB take action to: (1) better define roles and 
responsibilities of all key CNCI participants; (2) establish measures 
to determine the effectiveness of CNCI projects in making federal 
information systems more secure and track progress against those 
measures; (3) establish an appropriate level of transparency about 
CNCI; and (4) reach agreement on the scope of CNCI's education 
projects to ensure that an adequate cadre of skilled personnel is 
developed to protect federal information systems. OMB agreed with 3 of 
the 4 recommendations, disagreeing with the recommendation regarding 
defining roles and responsibilities. However, such definitions are key 
to achieving CNCI's objective of securing federal systems. 

Continue efforts to implement TIC and Einstein initiatives. Two 
specific initiatives of CNCI are Trusted Internet Connections (TIC) 
and Einstein. TIC is an effort to consolidate the federal government's 
external access points (including those to the Internet). TIC is also 
intended to establish baseline security capabilities and validate 
agency adherence to those security capabilities. The Einstein 
initiative is a computer network intrusion detection system that 
analyzes network flow information from participating federal agencies. 
The system is to provide a high-level perspective from which to 
observe potential malicious activity in computer network traffic of 
participating agencies' computer networks. Einstein is intended to 
alert US-CERT in real time of this activity and provides correlation 
and visualization of the derived data. We have ongoing work that 
addresses status and implementation of these initiatives. 

Continue efforts to implement FDCC. Under the Federal Desktop Core 
Configuration Initiative, OMB directed agencies that have Windows XP 
and/or Windows Vista operating systems deployed to adopt the security 
configurations developed by the National Institute of Standards and 
Technology, the Department of Defense, and DHS. The goal of this 
initiative is to improve information security and reduce overall 
information technology operating costs. We have ongoing work that 
addresses status and implementation of this initiative. 

Improve the national strategy for cybersecurity. In March 2009, we 
testified on needed improvements to the nation's cybersecurity 
strategy.[Footnote 14] In preparation for that testimony, we obtained 
the views of experts (by means of panel discussions) on critical 
aspects of the strategy, including areas for improvement. The experts, 
who included former federal officials, academics, and private sector 
executives, highlighted 12 key improvements that are, in their view, 
essential to improving the strategy and our national cybersecurity 
posture. The key strategy improvements identified by cybersecurity 
experts are listed in table 1. 

Table 1: Key Strategy Improvement Identified by Cybersecurity Experts: 

1. Develop a national strategy that clearly articulates strategic 
objectives, goals, and priorities.  

2. Establish White House responsibility and accountability for leading 
and overseeing national cybersecurity policy.  

3. Establish a governance structure for strategy implementation.  

4. Publicize and raise awareness about the seriousness of the 
cybersecurity problem.  

5. Create an accountable, operational cybersecurity organization.  

6. Focus more actions on prioritizing assets, assessing 
vulnerabilities, and reducing vulnerabilities than on developing 
additional plans.  

7. Bolster public-private partnerships through an improved value 
proposition and use of incentives.  

8. Focus greater attention on addressing the global aspects of 

9. Improve law enforcement efforts to address malicious activities in 

10. Place greater emphasis on cybersecurity research and development, 
including consideration of how to better coordinate government and 
private sector efforts.  

11. Increase the cadre of cybersecurity professionals.  

12. Make the federal government a model for cybersecurity, including 
using its acquisition function to enhance cybersecurity aspects of 
products and services.  

Source: GAO analysis of opinions solicited during expert panels.  

[End of table]  

These recommended improvements to the national strategy are in large 
part consistent with our previous reports and extensive research and 
experience in this area. Until they are addressed, our nation's most 
critical federal and private sector cyber infrastructure remain at 
unnecessary risk to attack from our adversaries. 

Since our March testimony, the Obama Administration has performed a 
review[Footnote 15] of the strategy and issued a list of short and 
long term actions, which are largely consistent with our past reports 
and recommendations, to strengthen the strategy. In response to one of 
these actions, the president appointed a cybersecurity coordinator in 
December 2009. We recently initiated a review to assess the progress 
made by the executive branch in implementing the report's 

In summary, while federal agencies continue to report increased 
compliance in implementing security training requirements, most 
federal agencies reported weaknesses in most types of information 
security controls. Additionally, agencies reported mixed progress in 
implementing key security measures while inspectors general identified 
persistent weaknesses in those areas of agencies' information security 
programs. There are multiple opportunities for the federal government 
to enhance federal cybersecurity and address these continuing 
weaknesses. These opportunities include addressing the hundreds of 
recommendations we and inspectors general have made to agencies, 
making enhancements to FISMA and its implementing guidance, and 
continuing efforts on White House, OMB, and federal agencies' 
initiatives. A concerted response by the federal government to current 
information security challenges will include acting on these 
opportunities; without such a response, federal information and 
systems will remain vulnerable. 

Chairwoman Watson, this concludes my statement. I would be happy to 
answer any questions you or other members of the subcommittee may have. 

Contact and Acknowledgments: 

If you have any questions regarding this statement, please contact 
Gregory C. Wilshusen at (202) 512-6244 or Other 
key contributors to this statement include Anjalique Lawrence 
(Assistant Director), Larry Crosland, Sharhonda Deloach, Kristi 
Dorsey, Rebecca Eyler, Nicole Jarvis, Linda Kochersberger, Mary 
Marshall, Minette Richardson, and Jayne Wilson. 

[End of section]  


[1] FISMA was enacted as title III, E-Government Act of 2002, Pub. L. 
No.107-347, 116 Stat. 

2899, 2946 (Dec. 17, 2002). 

[2] GAO, Executive Guide: Information Security Management: Learning 
from Leading Organizations, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: May 

[3] A material weakness is a significant deficiency, or combination of 
significant deficiencies, that results in more than a remote 
likelihood that a material misstatement of the financial statements 
will not be prevented or detected. A significant deficiency is a 
control deficiency, or combination of control deficiencies, that 
adversely affects the entity's ability to initiate, authorize, record, 
process, or report financial data reliably in accordance with 
generally accepted accounting principles such that there is more than 
a remote likelihood that a misstatement of the entity's financial 
statements that is more than inconsequential will not be prevented or 
detected. A control deficiency exists when the design or operation of 
a control does not allow management or employees, in the normal course 
of performing their assigned functions, to prevent or detect 
misstatements on a timely basis. 

[4] GAO, Federal Information System Controls Audit Manual (FISCAM), 
[hyperlink,] (Washington, 
D.C.: Feb. 2009). 

[5] GAO, Information Security: Further Actions Needed to Address Risks 
to Bank Secrecy Act Data, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 30, 

[6] GAO, Information Security: Actions Needed to Better Manage, 
Protect, and Sustain Improvements to Los Alamos National Laboratory's 
Classified Computer Network, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: Oct. 14, 

[7] GAO, Information Security: NASA Needs to Remedy Vulnerabilities in 
Key Networks, [hyperlink,] 
(Washington, D.C.: Oct. 15, 2009). 

[8] Most recently, GAO, High-Risk Series: An Update, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: January 

[9] GAO, Federal Information Security Issues, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: June 30, 

[10] GAO, Information Security: Agencies Continue to Report Progress, 
but Need to Mitigate Persistent Weaknesses, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: July 17, 
2009) and Information Security: Despite Reported Progress, Federal 
Agencies Need to Address Persistent Weaknesses, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: July 27, 

[11] GAO, Information Security: Concerted Effort Needed to Improve 
Federal Performance Measures, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: Sep. 14, 

[12] The White House, National Security Presidential Directive 54/ 
Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23 (Washington, D.C.: Jan. 8, 

[13] GAO, Cybersecurity: Progress Made but Challenges Remain in 
Defining and Coordinating the Comprehensive National Initiative, 
[hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: 
March 5, 2010).  

[14] GAO, National Cybersecurity Strategy: Key Improvements Are Needed 
to Strengthen the Nation's Posture, [hyperlink,] (Washington, D.C.: March 10, 

[15] The White House, Cyberspace Policy Review: Assuring a Trusted and 
Resilient Information and Communications Infrastructure (Washington, 
D.C.: May 29, 2009). 

[End of section]  

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