This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-05-678R entitled 'GAO Update on the Number of Prekindergarten Care and Education Programs' which was released on July 1, 2005. This text file was formatted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) to be accessible to users with visual impairments, as part of a longer term project to improve GAO products' accessibility. Every attempt has been made to maintain the structural and data integrity of the original printed product. Accessibility features, such as text descriptions of tables, consecutively numbered footnotes placed at the end of the file, and the text of agency comment letters, are provided but may not exactly duplicate the presentation or format of the printed version. The portable document format (PDF) file is an exact electronic replica of the printed version. We welcome your feedback. Please E-mail your comments regarding the contents or accessibility features of this document to Webmaster@gao.gov. This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without further permission from GAO. Because this work may contain copyrighted images or other material, permission from the copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this material separately. June 2, 2005: The Honorable Michael B. Enzi: Chairman: Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions: United States Senate: The Honorable Lamar Alexander: Chairman: Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development: Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions: United States Senate: The Honorable George V. Voinovich: Chairman: Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia: Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs: United States Senate: Subject: GAO Update on the Number of Prekindergarten Care and Education Programs: This letter responds to your request concerning our April 2000 report, Early Education and Care: Overlap Indicates Need to Assess Crosscutting Programs (GAO/HEHS-00-78). Given the historical concern regarding the potential for program overlap among federal early childhood education and care programs, you asked that we update the list of programs providing or supporting education or care for children under the age of 5. The 2000 list included 69 programs, which were administered by 9 different agencies.[Footnote 1] To respond to your request, we replicated the keyword search from our 2000 report using the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA). After assessing the reliability of the CFDA, we determined it was suitable for our purposes. We obtained explanations regarding programs that were deleted from the CFDA. Our search yielded 254 programs, and we reviewed their descriptions to determine if they met three criteria: (1) directly funded or supported education and/or child care, (2) provided these services to children under age 5, and (3) delivered services in an educational or child care setting. Based on this review, we selected over 70 programs as potentially meeting these criteria and provided agencies with the opportunity to comment on this assessment. Generally, we found that the landscape of federal programs offered remained largely the same as in 2000. We identified 69 programs as meeting our criteria and found that 10 agencies administer these programs.[Footnote 2] While the total number of programs remained the same, there were, however, some changes in the makeup of the list. Specifically, 16 programs were removed[Footnote 3] from the list and 16 were added.[Footnote 4] The Department of Education, the agency responsible for the most programs on the list, had the biggest change, dropping 11 programs from the original list and adding 5 programs. For 13 programs in our 2000 report, agencies questioned in their comments whether the program should be included based on our criteria. For purposes of our report, we have interpreted our criteria broadly. Based on our review of the relevant legal and program documents and discussions with agency officials, we found that our criteria warrants including all but 2 of these 13 programs as providing or supporting care and education programs for children under 5 in an educational or child care setting. There are several caveats associated with this current work. This analysis does not provide information on the types of services provided by these programs, their budget outlays, or the number of children they serve. In addition, it is important to note that providing child care or education is the sole focus for some programs while for others it is only an allowable service. For these programs, some agencies noted that the utilization of these services was minimal or nonexistent. Finally, we did not examine the role that tax expenditures such as the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit or Employer Provided Child Care Tax Credit play in supporting child care or early education. The results of our analysis are provided in two enclosures. The first enclosure is a table updating the list of programs that we included in our 2000 report. The second enclosure shows additional programs that meet our criteria and merit inclusion in the list of education and child care programs. As agreed with your offices, unless you publicly announce its content earlier, we plan no further distribution of this letter until 30 days after its date. At that time, we will send copies of this letter to the Departments of Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Justice, Labor, Education, Health and Human Services, and Homeland Security, along with the Appalachian Regional Commission and General Services Administration and other interested parties. The letter will also be available on GAO's home page at http://www.gao.gov. If you have any questions about this letter, please contact me at (202) 512-7215; You may also reach me by e-mail at email@example.com. Patrick diBattista served as assistant director on this engagement. Scott Heacock was the analyst-in-charge. Sara Schibanoff and Linda Stokes were also key contributors to this letter. Signed by: Marnie Shaul: Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues: Enclosures: Enclosure I: Table 1: Update of 2000 Report List: Agriculture; 10.550 Food Distribution Program; Remains on list: [B]; Notes: Program name is currently Food Donation. Agriculture; 10.553 School Breakfast Program; Remains on list: [B]. Agriculture; 10.555 National School Lunch Program; Remains on list: [B]. Agriculture; 10.556 Special Milk Program for Children; Remains on list: [B]. Agriculture; 10.558 Child and Adult Care Food Program; Remains on list. Agriculture; 10.559 Summer Food Service Program for Children; Remains on list. Agriculture; 10.564 Nutrition, Education and Training Program; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: Agency reported that this program is no longer funded. Agriculture; 10.565 Commodity Supplemental Food Program; Remains on list: [B]. Housing and Urban Development; 14.218 Community Development Block Grants/Entitlement Grants; Remains on list. Housing and Urban Development; 14.219 Community Development Block Grants/Small Cities Program; Remains on list. Housing and Urban Development; 14.231 Emergency Shelter Grants Program; Remains on list. Housing and Urban Development; 14.235 Supportive Housing Program (transitional housing); Remains on list. Housing and Urban Development; 14.870 Resident Opportunity and Supportive Services; Remains on list. Interior; 15.043 Indian Child and Family Education (FACE); Remains on list. Justice; 16.201 Cuban and Haitian Entrant Resettlement Program; Remains on list: [B]; Notes: Program transferred to 97.009 (Cuban/Haitian Entrant Program) in 2003 under the Department of Homeland Security. Justice; 16.730 Reduction and Prevention of Children’s Exposure to Violence (Safe Start); Remains on list. Labor; 17.211 Job Corps; Remains on list; Notes: Despite being deleted from the CFDA, this program still exists and warrants inclusion according to agency. Labor; 17.247 Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers; Remains on list: [B]; Notes: Program consolidated into 17.264 (Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers) in 2002. Labor; 17.251 Native American Employment and Training Program; Remains on list; Notes: Program consolidated into 17.265 (Native American Employment and Training) in 2002. Labor; 17.255 Workforce Investment Act (WIA); Remains on list; Notes: Program consolidated into 17.258 (WIA Adult Program), 17.259 (WIA Youth Activities) in 2001. WIA also includes 17.260 (WIA Dislocated Workers), 17.263 (Youth Opportunity Grants), and 17.266 (Work Incentives Grant). All five programs are counted on this list. Appalachian Regional Commission; 23.002 Appalachia—Supplements to Federal Grant-in-Aid (area development); Remains on list; Notes: Name changed to Appalachian Area Development in 1999. General Services Administration; 39.003 Donation of Federal Surplus Personal Property; Remains on list. Education; 84.010 Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies (basic, concentration, and targeted grants); Remains on list. Education; 84.011 Migrant Education—Basic State Grant Program; Remains on list. Education; 84.027 Special Education—Grants to States; Remains on list. Education; 84.041 Impact Aid; Remains on list. Education; 84.060 Indian Education—Grants to Local Educational Agencies; Remains on list. Education; 84.162 Immigrant Education; Removed from CFDA[A] According to agency, this program no longer exists. Education; 84.173 Special Education—Preschool Grants (IDEA); Remains on list. Education; 84.181 Special Education—Grants for Infants and Families with Disabilities; Remains on list. Education; 84.186 Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities—State Grants; Remains on list. Education; 84.196 Education for Homeless Children and Youth; Remains on list. Education; 84.209 Native Hawaiian Family Based Education Centers; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: According to agency, the No Child Left Behind Act consolidated the program into one broader authority. Education; 84.213 Even Start—State Educational Agencies; Remains on list. Education; 84.214 Even Start—Migrant Education; Remains on list. Education; 84.258 Even Start—Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations; Remains on list. Education; 84.276 Goals 2000—State and Local Education Systemic Improvement Grants; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: According to agency, this program was repealed in 2000. Education; 84.282 Charter Schools; Remains on list. Education; 84.287 Twenty-First Century Community Learning Centers; Remains on list. Education; 84.288 Bilingual Education—Program Development and Implementation Grants; Removed from CFDA[A]. Education; 84.289 Bilingual Education—Program Enhancement Grants; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: According to agency, these programs no longer are authorized. All four bilingual programs, were consolidated under the No Child Left Behind Act. Education; 84.290 Bilingual Education—Comprehensive School Grants; Removed from CFDA[A]. Education; 84.291 Bilingual Education—Systemwide Improvement Grants; Removed from CFDA[A]. Education; 84.295 Ready-to-Learn Television; Remains on list. Education; 84.296 Native Hawaiian Community-Based Education Learning Centers; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: According to agency, the No Child Left Behind Act consolidated the program into one broader authority. Education; 84.298 Innovative Education Program Strategies; Remains on list. Education; 84.299 Demonstration Grants for Indian Children; Remains on list; Notes: Despite not being listed in the CFDA, this program still exists and warrants inclusion according to agency. Education; 84.303 Technology Innovation Challenge Grants; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: According to agency, this program no longer exists. Education; 84.310 Goals 2000: Parental Assistance Program; Remains on list; Notes: Name changed to Parental Assistance Centers in 2002. Education; 84.318 Technology Literacy Challenge Fund Grants; Remains on list: [B]; Notes: Name changed to Education Technology State Grants in 2003. Education; 84.321 Alaska Native Home-Based Education for Preschool Children; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: According to agency, this program was not reauthorized by the No Child Left Behind Act. Education; 84.323 Special Education—State Program Improvement Grants for Children With Disabilities; Remains on list: [B]. Education; 84.327 Special Education—Technology and Media Services for Individuals With Disabilities; Remains on list: [B]. Education; 84.332 Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration; Remains on list: [B]. Education; 84.335 Child Care Access Means Parents in School; Remains on list. Education; 84.338 Reading Excellence; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: According to agency, this program was replaced by Reading First, a program focusing on children in kindergarten to third grade. HHS; 93.101 Grants for Residential Treatment Programs for Pregnant and Postpartum Women; Remains on list; Notes: According to agency, these two programs were consolidated into 93.243 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services – Projects of Regional and National Significance), which meets our criteria. HHS; 93.102 Demonstration Grants for Residential Treatment for Women and Their Children; Remains on list. HHS; 93.125 Mental Health Planning and Demonstration Projects; Removed from CFDA[A]; Notes: According to agency, this program no longer exists. HHS; 93.558 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Remains on list. HHS; 93.566 Refugee and Entrant Assistance—State-Administered Programs; Remains on list. HHS; 93.571 Community Services Block Grant Discretionary Awards-Community Food and Nutrition[C]; Notes: Agency reported that this program did not meet our criteria; our review confirmed this. HHS; 93.575 Child Care and Development Fund; Remains on list; Notes: Name changed to Child Care and Development Block Grant in 1995. HHS; 93.576 Refugee and Entrant Assistance—Discretionary Grants; Remains on list. HHS; 93.583 Refugee and Entrant Assistance—Wilson/Fish Programs c; Notes: Agency reported that this program does not meet our criteria; our review confirmed this. HHS; 93.584 Refugee and Entrant Assistance—Targeted Assistance; Remains on list. HHS; 93.600 Head Start; Remains on list. HHS; 93.645 Child Welfare Services—State Grants; Remains on list. HHS; 93.667 Social Services Block Grant; Remains on list. [A] In some cases, programs were deleted from the CFDA. In other instances, they were transferred or consolidated. [B] The agency questioned whether its program meets our criteria. For purposes of our report, we have interpreted out criteria broadly and have determined that each of the programs listed meets the criteria. For example, we determined that grants to state agencies and nutrition programs in school settings are forms of support and that some of the children who benefit will meet our age criteria. [C] This program is not included in the 2005 list. [End of table] Enclosure II: Table 2: Additional Programs: Interior: 15.130 Indian Education--Assistance to Schools. 15.144 Indian Child Welfare Act--Title II Grants. Justice: 16.575 Crime Victim Assistance. 16.736 Transitional Housing Assistance for Victims of Domestic Violence, Stalking, or Sexual Assault[A]. Education: 84.245 Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational and Technical Institutions. 84.356 Alaska Native Educational Programs[A]. 84.359 Early Reading First[A]. 84.362 Native Hawaiian Education[A]. 84.365 English Language Acquisition Grants[A]. HHS: 93.569 Community Services Block Grant. 93.577 Early Learning Fund[A]. 93.596 Child Care Mandatory and Matching Funds of the Child Care and Development Fund. [A] Program added to CFDA since 2000 report. [End of table] (130468): FOOTNOTES  This report was a follow-up to a 1994 report in which we found that there were 90 early childhood programs at the federal level: Early Childhood Programs: Multiple Programs and Overlapping Target Groups (GAO/HEHS-95-4FS, Oct. 31, 1994).  The one additional agency that is now part of our list is the Department of Homeland Security, which absorbed a program that had previously been included under the Department of Justice in our 2000 report.  Of the programs removed, 13 were no longer in the CFDA because they had been ended, consolidated, or transferred since 2000, 1 was consolidated into another, and we determined that 2 should not be in the 2005 list based on agency comments and our review of relevant legal and program documents.  Of the programs added, 12 were additional programs that warranted inclusion and 4 stem from the CFDA making further distinctions among WIA programs than it did in 2000.