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    Results:

    Topic: Transportation

    98 publications with a total of 232 open recommendations including 8 priority recommendations
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Administrator of NHTSA should determine a completion date for the agency's website consolidation effort. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Transportation: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Administrator of NHTSA should, while the agency continues its website consolidation effort, take interim steps to improve the usability of the auto recall areas of NHTSA.gov by addressing the website usability difficulties we identified. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Transportation: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Jennifer Grover
    Phone: (202) 512-7141

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Assistant Administrator for the Office of Global Strategies should ensure that data regarding the root causes of security deficiencies and corrective actions are consistently captured in accordance with TSA guidance. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Assistant Administrator for the Office of Global Strategies should update TSA's data systems to include more specific categories for TSA's data on the root causes and corrective actions related to security deficiencies. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: David Wise
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should develop and implement a comprehensive plan to better manage departmental initiatives related to automated vehicles. This plan should include leading principles such as goals, priorities, steps to achieve results, milestones, and performance measures to track progress. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should develop an evaluation plan for the Infrastructure for Rebuilding America (INFRA) program in advance of issuing the notice of funding opportunity and ensure the program's evaluation plan clearly defines how all review teams should apply criteria, assess applications, and assign ratings to ensure that all applications are consistently reviewed. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should ensure all program applicants be notified in writing of the outcomes of the application selection process. For unsuccessful applicants, the notification should include a brief explanation of the decision. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should require INFRA program teams document their decision-making rationale throughout all levels of review in the application selection process. (Recommendation 3)

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Administrator of FRA should revise the methodology for the analysis of safety in quiet zones to take into account relevant changes over time--including changes in train and automotive traffic, or in the physical characteristics of the grade crossing. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Transportation: Federal Railroad Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Administrator of FRA should develop guidance for Inspectors on the nature and frequency of quiet zone inspections. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Transportation: Federal Railroad Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Carol Harris
    Phone: (202) 512-4456

    14 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office establishes and implements specific time frames for determining key strategic implementation details, including how the program will transition from the current state to the final TIM state. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office establishes a schedule that provides planned completion dates based on realistic estimates of how long it will take to deliver capabilities. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office establishes new time frames for implementing the actions identified in the organizational change management strategy and effectively executes against these time frames. (Recommendation 3)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office defines and documents the roles and responsibilities among product owners, the solution team, and any other relevant stakeholders for prioritizing and approving Agile software development work. (Recommendation 4)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office establishes specific prioritization levels for current and future features and user stories. (Recommendation 5)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office implements automated Agile management testing and deployment tools, as soon as possible. (Recommendation 6)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office updates the Systems Engineering Life Cycle Tailoring Plan to reflect the current governance framework and milestone review processes. (Recommendation 7)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office establishes thresholds or targets for acceptable performance-levels. (Recommendation 8)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office begins collecting and reporting on Agile-related cost metrics. (Recommendation 9)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office ensures that program velocity is measured and reported consistently. (Recommendation 10)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The TSA Administrator should ensure that the TIM program management office ensures that unit test coverage for software releases is measured and reported accurately. (Recommendation 11)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Under Secretary for Management to ensure that appropriate DHS leadership reaches consensus on needed oversight and governance changes related to the frequency of reviewing Agile programs, and then documents and implements associated changes. (Recommendation 12)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Under Secretary for Management to ensure that the Office of the Chief Technology Officer completes guidance for Agile programs to use for collecting and reporting on performance metrics. (Recommendation 13)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Under Secretary for Management to ensure that DHS-level oversight bodies review key Agile performance and cost metrics for the TIM program and use them to inform management oversight decisions. (Recommendation 14)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Jennifer Grover
    Phone: (202) 512-7141

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Administrator of TSA should explore and pursue methods to assess the deterrent effect of TSA's passenger aviation security countermeasures; such an effort should identify FAMS—a countermeasure with a focus on deterring threats—as a top priority to address. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: DHS concurred with this recommendation and said it would take steps to implement it. When we confirm what actions TSA has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Administrator of TSA should systematically evaluate the potential cost and effectiveness tradeoffs across countermeasures, as TSA improves the reliability and extent of its information on the effectiveness of aviation security countermeasures. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: DHS concurred with this recommendation and in its September 2017 response to our report, DHS stated that TSA will continue efforts to improve both its analysis of information related to security effectiveness and its cost information, leading to better informed cost-benefit decisions for individual countermeasures. To address the intent of our recommendation, TSA will need to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of individual aviation security countermeasures and then use this information to systematically evaluate the potential cost and effectiveness tradeoffs across countermeasures. When we confirm what actions TSA has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To assess and validate the effectiveness of PHMSA's Risk Ranking Index Model (RRIM) in prioritizing pipelines for inspection, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of PHMSA to document the decisions and underlying assumptions for the design of RRIM, including what data and information were analyzed as part of determining each component of the model, such as the threat factors, weights, risk tiers, and inspection frequency.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To assess and validate the effectiveness of PHMSA's RRIM in prioritizing pipelines for inspection, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of PHMSA to establish and implement a process that uses data to periodically review and assess the effectiveness of the model in prioritizing pipelines for inspection and document the results of these analyses.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Dave Wise
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct NHTSA to define, document, and externally communicate the agency's roles and responsibilities in relation to connected vehicle data privacy.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As described in the 60-day letter from October 17, 2017, NHTSA plans to create a vehicle data privacy page to be added to their website that will include information on the types of personal data collected by motor vehicles and provide links to additional resources, including the Federal Trade Commission(FTC) and industry groups. On this web page, NHTSA also plans to outline its roles and responsibilities related to vehicle data privacy. In addition, NHTSA will consult with FTC as it develops the web page content and allow for industry and public comments. We will continue to monitor NHTSA's actions related to these efforts.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To better position DOT and FHWA to effectively guide the transformation of federal surface transportation programs to a more performance-oriented approach, and to help states and MPOs overcome anticipated challenges, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FHWA to take the following two actions: 1. Develop a formal TPM implementation plan to include overarching implementation goals, specific actions FHWA plans to take to help states and MPOs successfully implement TPM, and corresponding timelines. 2. Publicly communicate this plan and approach to build a shared understanding of the goals and purpose of the transformation with its grantees.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of December 2017, FHW A stated it is developing a comprehensive TPM implementation plan that will contain overall implementation goals and timeframes for key deliverables and actions. Additionally, FHWA said it will make states and MPOs aware of training and guidance available to them and develop a strategy to communicate the impacts of federal funding investments. FHW A said it would finalize the plan by May 2018 and make it public by July 2018.
    Director: Gerald L. Dillingham, Ph.D.
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To increase transparency and obtain information to better inform decisions on whether to investigate potentially unfair or deceptive practices in the air ambulance industry, the Secretary of Transportation should take steps, once complaints are collected, to make pertinent aggregated complaint information publicly available for stakeholders, such as the number of complaints received by provider, on a monthly basis.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the Department has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To increase transparency and obtain information to better inform decisions on whether to investigate potentially unfair or deceptive practices in the air ambulance industry, the Secretary of Transportation should assess available federal and industry data and determine what further information could assist in the evaluation of future complaints or concerns regarding unfair or deceptive practices.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the Department has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To increase transparency and obtain information to better inform decisions on whether to investigate potentially unfair or deceptive practices in the air ambulance industry, the Secretary of Transportation should consider consumer disclosure requirements for air ambulance providers, which could include information such as established prices charged, business model and entity that establishes prices, and extent of contracting with insurance.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the Department has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works should direct the Director of Civil Works to determine whether existing tools and capabilities (such as the Corps' analyses and models related to inland harbors' conditions and freight traffic, as well as shoaling effects at coastal ports) can be adapted to help evaluate other factors when allocating funds from the Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund. The Corps should report to Congress on the feasibility, limitations, and potential costs and on an estimate of any additional funds needed to use such an approach to meet the statutory requirements.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Department of the Army: Office of the Assistant Secretary (Civil Works)
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Carol C. Harris
    Phone: (202) 512-4456

    5 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help improve the modernization of FMCSA's IT systems, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to update FMCSA's IT strategic plan to include well-defined goals, strategies, measures, and timelines for modernizing its systems.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help improve the modernization of FMCSA's IT systems, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to ensure that the IT investment process guidance lays out the roles and responsibilities of all working groups and individuals involved in the agency's governance process.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help improve the modernization of FMCSA's IT systems, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to finalize the restructure of the Office of Information Technology, including fully defining the roles and responsibilities of the CIO.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help improve the modernization of FMCSA's IT systems, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to ensure that appropriate governance bodies review all IT investments and track corrective actions to closure.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help improve the modernization of FMCSA's IT systems, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to ensure that required operational analyses are performed for Aspen, Motor Carrier Management Information System, Sentri 2.0, and Unified Registration System on an annual basis.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Rebecca Shea
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    8 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure that NTTFI is able to provide quality information to support management and program oversight efforts, the Secretary of the Interior should direct the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs to coordinate with the Federal Highway Administration and tribal stakeholders and reexamine the need for road-description and condition data currently collected in the NTTFI and eliminate fields that do not serve an identified purpose.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that NTTFI is able to provide quality information to support management and program oversight efforts, the Secretary of the Interior should direct the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs to for fields determined to have continued relevance for management and program oversight take steps to improve the quality of these data by clarifying guidance in the NTTFI coding guide that tribes use to collect data and by providing additional guidance on steps needed to ensure that data are consistently reported.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that NTTFI is able to provide quality information to support management and program oversight efforts, the Secretary of the Interior should direct the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs to establish a process to monitor data to facilitate timely and targeted corrections to missing or erroneous data.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve the DMR, the Secretary of the Interior should direct the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs to develop a means to document when the level of service for each road section was last evaluated.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve the DMR, the Secretary of the Interior should direct the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs to develop and maintain documentation supporting the unit costs of maintenance used to estimate maintenance needs.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve the DMR, the Secretary of the Interior should direct the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs to develop a process for more complete and accurate reporting occurring under existing authority of Road Maintenance Program funds expended for performed maintenance on BIA roads.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve data on reasons for student absences, the Secretary of the Interior should direct the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs to provide guidance to BIE schools to collect data on student absences related to road and weather conditions.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To best align resources allocation decisions to needs, the Secretary of the Interior should direct the Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs to review the formula to fund transportation at BIE schools and determine, with BIA and tribal stakeholders, what adjustments, such as distinguishing between gravel and paved roads, are needed to better reflect transportation costs for schools.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To leverage and build upon the ongoing efforts within individual DOT modal administrations and to address concerns raised by experts regarding collaboration and coordination, data quality and analytics, regulation development, project delivery processes, and addressing emerging issues, the Secretary of Transportation should: (1) conduct a department-wide review of DOT's current efforts to address these concerns; and (2) develop an action plan with specific steps to implement improvements, as identified, in these areas.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help FAA better manage and oversee its portfolio of R&D activities, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA to take a more strategic approach to identifying research priorities across the agency, including developing guidance to identify long-term priorities and emerging issue areas, as part of FAA's portfolio development process.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of June 2017, FAA officials said they were redesigning the agency?s National Aviation Research Plan (NARP) to, among other things, better align research to agency outcomes. FAA officials said that the redesigned NARP will provide the agency a strategic view of R&D and a better understanding of the driving forces for research, such as longer term strategic needs and emerging issues. The officials also said that the redesigned NARP will allow for a more effective framework from which to prioritize research. FAA plans to finalize the redesign of the NARP by February 2019.
    Recommendation: To help FAA better manage and oversee its portfolio of R&D activities, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA to clarify its portfolio development guidance to call for each Program Planning Teams to disclose the process it used for prioritizing and selecting research projects so that decision-making is more transparent for FAA management.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of June 2017, FAA officials said they were developing guidance that will require the Program Planning Teams to identify and document their process for prioritizing and selecting research projects. FAA plans to finalize the guidance by November 2017.
    Recommendation: To help FAA better manage and oversee its portfolio of R&D activities, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA to develop guidance to ensure that future National Aviation Research Plans (NARP) and R&D Annual Reviews meet statutory requirements to the extent practicable, including (a) The NARP lists activities that are carried under cooperative agreements. (b) The NARP describes the rationale for the prioritized research programs. (c) The NARP identifies how resources were allocated for long-term and near-term research. (d) The NARP identifies REDAC recommendations that are accepted, not accepted, and the reasons for non-acceptance. (e) The NARP provides a detailed description of technology transfer to government, industry, and academia. (f) The Annual Review describes new technologies developed and the dissemination of research results to the private sector. (g) The Annual Review allows a comparison to the NARP. (h) The Annual Review is prepared and presented in accordance with agency performance reporting requirements.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of June 2017, FAA officials said they were redesigning the National Aviation Research Plan (NARP) and R&D Annual Review to include, among other things, information required by statute. FAA plans to finalize the redesign of the NARP and Annual Review by February 2019.
    Director: Rebecca Gambler
    Phone: (202) 512-8777

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve the usefulness of airport wait time data that CBP currently reports on its public website, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection to report airport wait time data for different categories of travelers.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Alicia Puente Cackley
    Phone: (202) 512-8678

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure that the government is not exposed to more liability risk than intended, the Secretary of Transportation should ensure that the FAA Administrator prioritizes the development of a plan to address the identified weakness in the cost-of-casualty amount, including setting time frames for action, and update the amount based on current information.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Transportation agreed with the recommendation. As of May 2017, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) plans to seek feedback from the commercial space and insurance industries to obtain views on an appropriate cost-of-casualty amount and implications of any changes. After receiving this input, FAA will determine whether to modify the cost-of-casualty amount and initiate action. We will continue to monitor FAA's actions in response to this recommendation.
    Director: Mark Goldstein
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure future large-scale rehabilitation projects are in line with leading project management practices, WMATA should develop a policy that requires and includes relevant procedures specifying that, prior to starting large-scale projects, WMATA should use detailed data on the conditions of assets to develop project objectives and scope.

    Agency: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To ensure future large-scale rehabilitation projects are in line with leading project management practices, WMATA should develop a policy that requires and includes relevant procedures specifying that, prior to starting large-scale projects, WMATA should evaluate and compare alternative ways of accomplishing the project objectives, including estimates for the alternatives' costs and impacts.

    Agency: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To ensure future large-scale rehabilitation projects are in line with leading project management practices, WMATA should develop a policy that requires and includes relevant procedures specifying that, prior to starting large-scale projects, WMATA should develop a comprehensive project management plan for the selected alternative--to include key elements such as detailed plans for managing the project's scope, schedule, and cost--for those projects that may not be designated major capital projects.

    Agency: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Shelby S. Oakley
    Phone: (202) 512-3841

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve the awareness of how risk-significant radioactive sources are transported within the United States and to better determine whether Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is meeting its goal of providing reasonable assurance for preventing the theft or diversion of these dangerous materials, the Chairman of NRC should take actions to collect information from licensees on the number of shipments and mode of transport for such sources--for example, by identifying the extent to which an existing NRC database (e.g., the National Source Tracking System) may be used to capture this information.

    Agency: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: In its 60-day response letter from NRC to GAO, NRC repeated its position on this recommendation as stated in its formal agency response that was included as appendix III in the report. In both cases, NRC states that it disagrees with this recommendation. NRC disagrees that the specific number of shipments by mode of transport is always needed. NRC explained that existing information collection requirements already exist for category 1 quantities and that it had previously determined that collection of shipment information for category 2 quantities was not necessary. NRC also stated that NSTS would not be the appropriate database to capture shipment information; it is not designed to capture real-time information. In addition, NRC does not consider the proposed collection activity to be of sufficient benefit to justify the additional cost of capturing the information. Therefore, NRC does not believe that adopting this recommendation would result in significant improvements to safety. Despite its disagreement with this recommendation, we will continue to monitor whether NRC takes any actions that would result in addressing the concern GAO raised.
    Recommendation: To further enhance the security of radioactive sources during ground transport, the Chairman of NRC, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of Homeland Security, should identify an approach to verify that motor carriers are meeting NRC's Part 37 security requirements applicable to transportation, for example by having DOT inspectors verify compliance with NRC Part 37 security requirements during their on-site investigations.

    Agency: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: As noted in the NRC comments on the GAO report, the NRC agrees in general with the second recommendation to explore with Federal partners an approach to verify that motor carriers meet 10 CFR Part 37 transportation security requirements. The NRC commits to exploring how the respective agencies can verify that motor carriers are meeting the NRC's applicable Part 37 transportation security requirements. This recommendation will remain open until NRC presents evidence that it has acted on it.
    Recommendation: To further enhance the security of radioactive sources during ground transport, the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Chairman of NRC and the Secretary of Homeland Security, should consider examining the potential costs and security benefits associated with lowering the Highway Route Controlled Quantity (HRCQ) threshold so that more, or all, category 1 shipments are classified as HRCQ shipments.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In its 60-day response letter, NRC stated that it recognizes that HRCQ thresholds fall under the jurisdiction of DOT. The NRC commits to exploring with DOT the potential costs and security benefits associated with lowering the HRCQ threshold so that more if not all , of the shipments of Category 1 quantities of radioactive material may be classified as HRCQ shipments. In its 60-day response letter, DOT concurred with this recommendation and stated that it planned to consult with NRC and the Department of Homeland Security Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, and its internal stakeholders to evaluate potential costs and security benefits of lowering the HRCQ threshold, which they expect to complete by January 15, 2018. This recommendation will remain open until evidence is presented by NRC and DOT that they have examined the costs and benefits of lowering the HRCQ threshold.
    Director: Mark Goldstein
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: Given DOT's new discretionary grant programs and similar challenges we have found with previous DOT programs, the Secretary of Transportation should issue a directive that governs department-wide and modal administration discretionary grant programs. Such a directive should include requirements to: (1) develop a plan for evaluating project proposals in advance of issuing a notice of funding availability that defines the stages of the process, including how the process will be overseen to ensure a consistent review of applications; (2) document key decisions, including the reason for any rating changes and the officials responsible for those changes, and how high-level concerns raised during the process were addressed; and (3) align stated program purpose and policy priorities with the evaluation and selection process.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: DOT concurred with this recommendation. To fully implement this recommendation, DOT must issue a directive, to address our concerns and require DOT's operating administrations to develop and document procedures for all phases of the process for its discretionary grants.
    Recommendation: To better address FTA's stated policy priority of regional resilience and to minimize fragmentation of federal efforts, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FTA Administrator to (a) examine the projects FTA funded under the Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (DRAA) discretionary transit resilience grant program for potential duplication with other resilience efforts and (b) determine whether it is appropriate to realign funds for FTA-supported projects for other purposes authorized under the DRAA, or request a rescission of funds for any of the FTA-supported projects.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions DOT has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Gerald L. Dillingham, Ph.D.
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To respond to changes in the aviation and commercial space-transportation industries, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to fully examine and document whether the current regulatory framework is appropriate for aircraft that could be considered space support vehicles, and if not, suggest legislation or develop regulatory changes, or both, as applicable.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Cackley, Alicia P
    Phone: (202) 512-8678

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To better ensure spaceport operators' understanding of FAA's financial responsibility regulations for commercial space launches, the Secretary of Transportation should ensure that the FAA Administrator provides additional communication to clarify FAA's interpretation of the financial responsibility regulations for commercial space launches. The forms of communication could include, among other things, issuing additional guidance or using other forums to clarify when a spaceport operator is a third party to a launch and when it is not.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To continue the agency's efforts to improve state and local emergency preparedness for rail accidents involving hazardous materials, the Secretary of Transportation should, after the rulemaking is finalized, develop a process for regularly collecting information from state emergency response commissions on the distribution of the railroad-provided hazardous-materials-shipping information to local planning entities.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To inform DOT's development of its national freight strategy and associated freight efforts, such as states' development of freight plans, newly established freight funding programs, and advancing DOT's efforts to implement national freight policies, in the development of the freight data strategy, the Secretary of Transportation should include a specific plan to identify: (1) appropriate freight data sources, information, and analytic tools for transportation modes involved in the freight network and supply chains; (2) data gaps that could help both the agency and states and local governments in the development of their freight plans, and an approach for addressing obstacles to developing high-quality, reliable supply chain information; (3) current and planned efforts that can provide insights into supply chains and their impacts on freight networks; and (4) how DOT plans to use the supply chain information and analytical tools to inform freight planning and programming.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To determine whether CSA interventions influence motor carrier safety performance, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to identify and implement, as appropriate, methods to evaluate the effectiveness of individual intervention types or common intervention patterns to obtain more complete, appropriate, and accurate information on the effectiveness of interventions in improving motor carrier safety performance. In identifying and implementing appropriate methods, FMCSA should incorporate accepted practices for designing program effectiveness evaluations, including practices that would enable FMCSA to more confidently attribute changes in carriers' safety behavior to CSA interventions.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To understand the efficiency of CSA interventions the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to update FMCSA's cost estimates to determine the resources currently used to conduct individual intervention types and ensure FMCSA has cost information that is representative of all states.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To enable FMCSA management to monitor the agency's progress in achieving its effectiveness and efficiency outcomes for CSA interventions and balance priorities, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to establish and use performance measures to regularly monitor progress toward both FMCSA's effectiveness outcome and its efficiency outcome.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    4 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: As DOT, in response to the Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act, conducts additional evaluation and analysis of ECP brakes and updates the regulatory impact analysis, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) to take into account, in the updated regulatory impact analysis conducted in response to the FAST Act, potential uncertainty in key variables and assumptions, such as, but not limited to, fuel prices and future rail traffic of crude oil and ethanol, discuss this uncertainty, and present ranges of possible scenarios.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: DOT disagreed with this recommendation, asserting that we based our findings for this recommendation only on the views of industry and experts interviewed as part of our review. However, our justification for this recommendation is primarily based on data that DOT received from railroads, on what DOT reported in the rulemaking documents, and on clear criteria from OMB and others for conducting such analyses. To fully implement this recommendation, DOT should update its 2015 ECP Brake rule and the supporting regulatory impact analyses for ECP brakes, DOT should provide a range of possible scenarios and acknowledge uncertainty in certain estimates which could help increase confidence in those estimates and address stakeholder concerns.
    Recommendation: As DOT, in response to the FAST Act, conducts additional evaluation and analysis of ECP brakes and updates the regulatory impact analysis, the Secretary of Transportation should direct FRA and PHMSA to create a plan to collect data from railroads' ongoing and future operational experiences using ECP brakes. The plan should include details on how the agency will work with railroads to collect this data, ensure that such data are reliable, and analyze these data to conduct a retrospective analysis of the ECP brakes requirement that could help inform any potential future actions regarding ECP brakes.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions DOT has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: As DOT, in response to the FAST Act, conducts additional evaluation and analysis of ECP brakes and updates the regulatory impact analysis, if, based on its updated analysis, DOT promulgates a new rule on the applicable ECP brake system requirements, the Secretary of Transportation should direct FRA and PHMSA to require that freight railroads, once they equip with ECP brakes in response to the requirement, collect and provide data to FRA on their ongoing operational experience with ECP brakes.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions DOT has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: As DOT, in response to the FAST Act, conducts additional evaluation and analysis of ECP brakes and updates the regulatory impact analysis, the Secretary of Transportation should direct FRA and PHMSA to publish information--including data inputs, formulas, and results of all simulations and assumptions regarding DOT's use of the LS-DYNA model used and related analyses to support the 2015 final rule--that would allow a third party to fully assess and replicate the analysis.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions DOT has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Jenny Grover
    Phone: (202) 512-7141

    5 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure effective evaluation of air marshal training, the TSA Administrator should direct OTD to implement a mechanism for regularly collecting and incorporating incumbent air marshals' feedback on the training they receive from field office programs.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To ensure effective evaluation of air marshal training, the TSA Administrator should direct OTD to take additional steps to improve the response rates of the training surveys it conducts.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To provide reasonable assurance that air marshals are complying with recurrent training requirements and have the capability to carry out FAMS's mission, the TSA Administrator should direct FAMS to specify in policy who at the headquarters level has oversight responsibility for ensuring that field office Supervisory Air Marshals-in-Charge or their designees meet their responsibilities for ensuring that training completion records are entered in a timely manner.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To provide reasonable assurance that air marshals are complying with recurrent training requirements and have the capability to carry out FAMS's mission, the TSA Administrator should direct FAMS to specify in policy who at the headquarters level is responsible for ensuring that headquarters personnel enter approved air marshals' training exemptions into the Federal Air Marshal Information System, and define the timeframe for doing so.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To provide reasonable assurance that air marshals are complying with recurrent training requirements and have the capability to carry out FAMS's mission, the TSA Administrator should direct FAMS to develop and implement standardized methods, such as examinations and checklists, for determining whether incumbent air marshals continue to be mission ready in key skills.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Mark Goldstein
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Department of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to develop an efficiency measure or measures that demonstrate the linkage between the federal funding of bridges and the desired performance outcomes, such as maintained or improved bridge conditions, and report the resulting information to Congress.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2016, the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) reported to GAO that FHWA will review bridge project information and cost data that is currently being collected and review Office of Management and Budget's guidance and other examples for developing meaningful performance measures and measures that were proposed in prior FHWA proposed rulemaking efforts. Following those reviews, FHWA reported that an applicable efficiency measure will be developed that links federal funding and condition of bridges. FHWA reported that this review and evaluation will be completed by January 31, 2018 and once the efficiency measure is implemented it will be reported and incorporated in one of FHWA's existing reports to Congress.
    Director: Rebecca Shea
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To maximize resources for the Inland Waterways Trust Fund, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue should consult with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to explore options to obtain proprietary data to enhance IRS's efforts to ensure taxpayer compliance with the inland waterways fuel tax.

    Agency: Department of the Treasury: Internal Revenue Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202) 512-28334

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To enhance FAA's risk-based approach for oversight of repair stations, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to develop and implement a process in Flight Standards for incorporating into SAS the volume of critical maintenance that each U.S. airline contracts to repair stations.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA did not concur with this recommendation. In July 2017, GAO confirmed that FAA does not plan to implement the recommendation because the agency believes the subjective nature of volume of work makes it an ineffective risk indicator. While FAA does not specifically assess volume of work as a primary factor in determining risk at repair stations, the agency does monitor many risks factors as primary risk indicators. Many of these risk indicators are associated with important aspects of work volume such as high workforce turnover; changes in management; rapid growth or downsizing; changes in aircraft complexity/programs; financial conditions; age of fleet and increases in aircraft discrepancies. FAA considers these factors and the criticality of a specific maintenance action on the safe operation of an aircraft to be primary risk indicators.
    Recommendation: To enhance FAA's risk-based approach for oversight of repair stations, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to develop and implement an evaluative process with measurable performance goals and measures to determine the effectiveness of SAS as the SMS safety assurance component.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2017, GAO confirmed that FAA plans to develop overall program goals and metrics as part of the next implementation phase of its new Safety Assurance System. These metrics are expected to be fully developed based on the final design of the new system and the program requirements identified, which is scheduled to be completed in December 2017.
    Director: Susan A. Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve PHMSA's oversight of the explosives classification process, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the PHMSA Administrator to develop and implement a systematic approach for improving the guidance PHMSA provides test labs.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: PHMSA concurred with this recommendation and said it would take steps to implement it. When we confirm what actions PHMSA has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Mark Goldstein
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve access to and awareness and applicability of ITS resources for ITS deployment, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the ITS Joint Program Office (JPO), in coordination with the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), to develop a strategy to raise awareness of JPO's training, technical assistance, and knowledge resources for transit ITS deployment in the transit community.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Transportation agreed with GAO's recommendation and stated that its Professional Capacity Building Program has two initiatives under development that will raise awareness of existing Intelligent Transportation System knowledge resources. First, the department will develop an overall course catalog that will describe all existing resources offerings. Second, the department will develop a new strategic plan that will utilize information from the updated course catalog as well as internal analyses to determine which new knowledge resources need to be developed to meet the needs of the transit community. As of June 2017, GAO is awaiting the Department's response regarding the status of its efforts to implement this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To improve access to and awareness and applicability of ITS resources for ITS deployment, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the ITS JPO, in coordination with FTA, to include ITS adoption by small urban and rural transit providers in ITS monitoring efforts.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Transportation agreed with GAO's recommendation and stated that the Federal Transit Administration is considering the development of a small urban and rural Intelligent Transportation System survey component as part of its 2019 Intelligent Transportation System Deployment Survey. As of June 2017, GAO is awaiting the Department's response regarding the status of its efforts to implement this recommendation.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    5 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To promote the transition to improved crash test standards, to strengthen FHWA's oversight of the roadside safety hardware's crash-testing process, and to make more information available to states and industry on how roadside safety hardware performs in actual conditions, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FHWA to direct FHWA's division offices to help ensure, through their oversight of states' standards and design specifications, that states have written policies in place to require the installation of appropriately crash-tested roadside safety hardware on the National Highway System to address inconsistent practices across states.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT concurred with this recommendation and stated that FHWA will review existing state policies and procedures regarding the installation of appropriately crash-tested roadside safety hardware on the National Highway System and complete this review by July 2017. Based on these findings, DOT stated that FHWA will, by December 2017, direct its division offices to work with state Departments of Transportation to modify or improve state DOT written policies as appropriate.
    Recommendation: To promote the transition to improved crash test standards, to strengthen FHWA's oversight of the roadside safety hardware's crash-testing process, and to make more information available to states and industry on how roadside safety hardware performs in actual conditions, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FHWA to monitor and periodically report to Congress (or report through the agency's publicly available website) progress states and the industry are making in transitioning to the MASH crash-testing standards for roadside safety hardware.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT concurred with this recommendation and stated FHWA will collect information on states' progress in implementing a policy to use MASH-tested hardware and post this information on FHWA's website. DOT also stated that FHWA will coordinate with the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials to monitor the progress of the MASH transition and to have this monitoring process in place by July 2017.
    Recommendation: To promote the transition to improved crash test standards, to strengthen FHWA's oversight of the roadside safety hardware's crash-testing process, and to make more information available to states and industry on how roadside safety hardware performs in actual conditions, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FHWA to provide additional guidance to crash test labs and accreditation bodies to ensure that labs have a clear separation between device development and testing in cases where lab employees test devices that were developed within their parent organization.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT concurred with this recommendation and stated that FHWA will conduct outreach to determine how conflicts of interest are viewed and addressed by labs and by the accrediting bodies. FHWA will also determine how to most effectively provide any additional guidance on mitigating potential these conflicts within its current legal authority. DOT stated FHWA will complete this outreach by June 2017 and issue additional guidance communicating FHWA's expectations by December 2017.
    Recommendation: To promote the transition to improved crash test standards, to strengthen FHWA's oversight of the roadside safety hardware's crash-testing process, and to make more information available to states and industry on how roadside safety hardware performs in actual conditions, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FHWA to develop a process for third-party verification of results from crash-test labs.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT concurred with this recommendation and stated that FHWA will conduct outreach to identify potential processes for third party review of results from crash labs. DOT stated FHWA will complete this outreach by July 2017.
    Recommendation: To promote the transition to improved crash test standards, to strengthen FHWA's oversight of the roadside safety hardware's crash-testing process, and to make more information available to states and industry on how roadside safety hardware performs in actual conditions, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FHWA to support additional research and disseminate results on roadside safety hardware's in-service performance, either as part of future phases of FHWA's current pilot study on guardrail end terminals' performance or as part of FHWA's broader research portfolio.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT concurred with this recommendation and stated that FHWA is conducting a pilot effort to establish a protocol for the collection of data from crashes involving guardrail terminals, and that this pilot will be completed by November 2018. In addition, DOT stated that FHWA continues to support additional research through the National Research Council and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program.
    Director: Jennifer Grover
    Phone: (202) 512-7141

    6 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure TSA's actions in overseeing and facilitating airport security are based on the most recent available risk information that assesses vulnerabilities system-wide and evaluates security events, and that these actions are orchestrated according to a strategic plan that reflects the agency's goals and objectives and its progress in meeting those goals, the Administrator of TSA should update the Risk Assessment of Airport Security to reflect changes to its risk environment, such as those updates reflected in Transportation Sector Security Risk Assessment (TSSRA) and JVA findings, and share results of this risk assessment with stakeholders on an ongoing basis.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure TSA's actions in overseeing and facilitating airport security are based on the most recent available risk information that assesses vulnerabilities system-wide and evaluates security events, and that these actions are orchestrated according to a strategic plan that reflects the agency's goals and objectives and its progress in meeting those goals, the Administrator of TSA should establish and implement a process for determining when additional risk assessment updates are needed.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure TSA's actions in overseeing and facilitating airport security are based on the most recent available risk information that assesses vulnerabilities system-wide and evaluates security events, and that these actions are orchestrated according to a strategic plan that reflects the agency's goals and objectives and its progress in meeting those goals, the Administrator of TSA should develop and implement a method for conducting a system-wide assessment of airport vulnerability that will provide a more comprehensive understanding of airport perimeter and access control security vulnerabilities.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure TSA's actions in overseeing and facilitating airport security are based on the most recent available risk information that assesses vulnerabilities system-wide and evaluates security events, and that these actions are orchestrated according to a strategic plan that reflects the agency's goals and objectives and its progress in meeting those goals, the Administrator of TSA should use security event data for specific analysis of system-wide trends related to perimeter and access control security to better inform risk management decisions.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure TSA's actions in overseeing and facilitating airport security are based on the most recent available risk information that assesses vulnerabilities system-wide and evaluates security events, and that these actions are orchestrated according to a strategic plan that reflects the agency's goals and objectives and its progress in meeting those goals, the Administrator of TSA should update the 2012 Strategy for airport security to reflect changes in risk assessments, agency operations, and the status of goals and objectives. Specifically, this update should reflect: (1) information from the Risk Assessment of Airport Security, as well as information contained in the most recent TSSRA and JVAs; (2) new airport security-related activities; (3) the status of TSA efforts to address goals and objectives; and (4) finalized outcome-based performance measures and performance levels--or targets--for each relevant activity and strategic goal.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure TSA's actions in overseeing and facilitating airport security are based on the most recent available risk information that assesses vulnerabilities system-wide and evaluates security events, and that these actions are orchestrated according to a strategic plan that reflects the agency's goals and objectives and its progress in meeting those goals, the Administrator of TSA should establish and implement a process for determining when additional updates to the Strategy are needed.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Jennifer Grover
    Phone: (202) 512-7141

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To better ensure that FAMS uses its resources to cover the highest-risk flights, in addition to considering risk when determining how to divide FAMS's international flight coverage resources among international destinations, the Director of FAMS should incorporate risk into FAMS's method for initially setting its annual target numbers of average daily international and domestic flights to cover.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration: Office of Law Enforcement - Federal Air Marshal Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2016, we found that FAMS officials considered risk when selecting specific domestic and international flights to cover, but they did not consider risk when deciding how to initially divide their annual resources between domestic and international flights. Rather, each year FAMS considered two variables--travel budget and number of air marshals--to identify the most efficient way to divide the agency's resources between domestic and international flights. As a result, we recommended that FAMS incorporate risk into FAMS's method for initially setting its annual target numbers of average daily international and domestic flights to cover. In March 2017, TSA officials reported that FAMS was continuing to identify ways to refine the methodology FAMS uses to allocate resources between international and domestic flights. Specifically, TSA officials noted that FAMS was considering ways to incorporate information on the travel patterns of known or suspected terrorists, trends in TSA PreCheck passenger data, airport screening capabilities, and other factors. FAMS officials also reported that, as part of this effort, they were reviewing their International Concept of Operations. It is unclear how these steps will address the recommendation. To fully address this recommendation, FAMS should incorporate risk into its method for initially setting its annual target numbers of average daily international and domestic flights to cover.
    Recommendation: To better ensure that FAMS uses its resources to cover the highest-risk flights, the Director of FAMS should conduct and document a risk assessment--systematically collecting information on and assigning value to current risks--to further support FAMS's domestic resource allocation decisions, including the identification of high-priority geographic areas.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration: Office of Law Enforcement - Federal Air Marshal Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2016, we reported that FAMS's choice of domestic geographic focus areas and resource allocation levels were based on professional judgment, not risk assessment. With regard to the geographic focus areas, for example, FAMS officials explained that they did not conduct a risk assessment to inform this decision, but rather selected these areas in consultation with 30 subject matter experts from various offices within TSA based on their intuitive, qualitative perceptions of threats, vulnerabilities, potential impacts, history, and the demographics of the areas. Without fully incorporating risk when determining such priorities, FAMS cannot reasonably ensure it is targeting its resources to the highest-risk flights. As a result, we recommended that FAMS conduct and document a risk assessment--systematically collecting information on and assigning value to current risks--to further support FAMS's domestic resource allocation decisions, including the identification of high-priority geographic areas. In March 2017, TSA officials explained that they were continuing to develop their "risk-by-flight" initiative--a long-term effort to develop a method of assigning each domestic flight a relative risk score to assist in identifying high-risk flights. At the time of our report in 2016, FAMS officials estimated that the risk-by-flight tool would probably be ready for use within 7 to 10 years. In March 2017, TSA officials stated that they had developed a prototype Risk-Based Resource Deployment Decision Aid, which they refer to as R2D2. TSA officials further reported that the DHS Science and Technology Directorate had contracted for the development of a risk engine--based on the R2D2 data--to assign risk values to all U.S.-carrier domestic and international flights. TSA officials reported that this contract runs through early 2018. To fully address this recommendation, FAMS should conduct and document a risk assessment to further support FAMS's domestic resource allocation decisions, including the identification of high-priority geographic areas.
    Director: Susan A. Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To strengthen FRA's grants management practices, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FRA Administrator to enhance the process outlined in the Grants Manual to monitor project performance for future grants to include: (1) performance measures directly linked to project goals, and (2) fully incorporating timely and actionable information on grantee performance into FRA's review process to help determine whether current efforts are in line with the overall project goals.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT agreed with this recommendation and stated that FRA will enhance the grants management manual content linking performance measures to project goals, and incorporating timely and actionable information on grant performance into monitoring and oversight activities. DOT stated FRA would complete these actions by June 30, 2017.
    Recommendation: To strengthen FRA's grants management practices, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FRA Administrator to develop and provide written guidance to grantees to include FRA's expectations on the type of information grantees should provide, such as guidance specific to deliverables and milestones for each grant project.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT agreed with this recommendation and stated that FRA will identify gaps in existing guidance and develop and disseminate revised guidance to grantees. DOT stated FRA would complete these actions by December 31, 2017.
    Recommendation: To strengthen FRA's grants management practices, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FRA Administrator to analyze training needs and formalize a training plan for grantees and agency staff, which could include training on grant-specific procedures and policies.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT agreed with this recommendation and FRA developed a revised formal training plan in March 2017. As of May 2017, we are reviewing this plan.
    Director: Heather Krause
    Phone: (202) 512-6806

    5 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help enhance efforts to expand shared services and improve the management of the Administrative Services Franchise Fund (ASFF), the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to make pricing information, such as ranges of prices, for the ASFF's lines of business publicly available, as appropriate, to help potential customers and agency decision makers understand prices and different choices of services.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with the recommendation. According to FAA, representatives from FAA's Administrative Services Franchise Fund are serving on the Office of Management and Budget's Shared Services Governance Board--a decision-making body for government-wide shared services initiatives. The Board is working with the General Services Administration's Unified Shared Services Management office on the standardization of publicly available pricing information for the FAA fund and other funds across the government and the forum in which to publish such information. FAA expects to provide an update on how it is addressing this recommendation by November 30, 2017.
    Recommendation: To help enhance efforts to expand shared services and improve the management of the ASFF, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to make the ASFF's strategic goals and performance metrics publicly available to help potential customers and agency decision makers understand how the fund is performing on the services provided.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with the recommendation. According to FAA, representatives from FAA's Administrative Services Franchise Fund are serving on the Office of Management and Budget's Shared Services Governance Board--a decision-making body for government-wide shared services initiatives. The Board is working with the General Services Administration's Unified Shared Services Management office on the standardization of performance metrics for shared service providers (including the FAA fund) and the forum on which to publically share such information. FAA expects to provide an update on how it is addressing this recommendation by November 30, 2017.
    Recommendation: To help enhance efforts to expand shared services and improve the management of the Treasury Franchise Fund (TFF), the Secretary of the Treasury should make pricing information, such as ranges of prices, for the Administrative Resource Center Information Technology Services and Shared Services Programs (SSP) lines of business publicly available, as appropriate, to help potential customers and agency decision makers understand prices and different choices of services.

    Agency: Department of the Treasury
    Status: Open

    Comments: Treasury concurred with the recommendation. In March 2017, GAO contacted Treasury for a status update on how the recommendation is being addressed. We will update the status when the update is received.
    Recommendation: To help enhance efforts to expand shared services and improve the management of the TFF, the Secretary of the Treasury should develop a more complete set of performance metrics for the TFF's SSP line of business to help managers of the SSP line of business, current and potential customers, and agency decision makers monitor and oversee how the fund is performing on the services provided.

    Agency: Department of the Treasury
    Status: Open

    Comments: Treasury concurred with the recommendation. In March 2017, GAO contacted Treasury for a status update on how the recommendation is being addressed. We will update the status when the update is received.
    Recommendation: To help enhance efforts to expand shared services and improve the management of the TFF, the Secretary of the Treasury should develop an operating reserve policy that documents all existing review processes that relate to management of the TFF's operating reserves. These documented policies should include information on how fund managers are to assess the operating reserves, including guidelines to evaluate, use, and maintain the operating reserves over time.

    Agency: Department of the Treasury
    Status: Open

    Comments: Treasury concurred with the recommendation. In March 2017, GAO contacted Treasury for a status update on how the recommendation is being addressed. We will update the status when the update is received.
    Director: David J. Wise
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To enhance the agency's ability to effectively respond in the event of a real-world vehicle cyberattack, the Secretary of Transportation should direct NHTSA to work expeditiously to finish defining and then to document the agency's roles and responsibilities in response to a vehicle cyberattack involving safety-critical systems, including how NHTSA would coordinate with other federal agencies and stakeholders involved in the response.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: As of May 2017, DOT had taken steps to address our recommendation, defining NHTSA's roles and responsibilities to address cybersecurity incidents that involve automotive safety critical systems under its existing processes and authorities. NHTSA also recognized the need to coordinate with other entities, including other federal agencies. However, NHTSA expects that it will need to update and improve its response and coordination plan based on new learning, experience, executive orders, and federal guidance. In addition, NHTSA plans to conduct a pilot program in fiscal year 2018 to determine whether adjustments to its current processes need to be made in light of the Department of Homeland Security's National Cyber Incident Response Plan.
    Director: Gerald L. Dillingham, Ph.D.
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help FAA better manage and understand the uncertainties of its forecasts, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA to apply risk-management practices to analyze and report on uncertainty. Specifically, the FAA should, for both the Aerospace and TAF forecasts, analyze and report the forecast's uncertainty, establish forecast error thresholds, and develop an approach that will prompt forecast review when error thresholds are exceeded, and, for TAF forecasts, monitor and publish multi-year historical error performance, as FAA does for the Aerospace Forecast.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help FAA better manage and understand the uncertainties of its forecasts, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA to fully document its methods and assumptions in developing the Aerospace and TAF forecasting models to provide greater transparency to internal users and external stakeholders.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Cindy Brown Barnes
    Phone: (202) 512-7215

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Chairman of the National Mediation Board should develop and implement written policies and processes to reflect the agency's current procurement environment.

    Agency: National Mediation Board
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2016, NMB indicated it was reviewing its procurement policies and would develop and implement new policies that reflect the outsourced procurement environment in which the agency is now operating. It anticipated that the drafting of these new policies would be completed in fiscal year 2017. In February 2017, GAO began another review of NMB. The status of this recommendation will be updated at the conclusion of that review, estimated for 2018.
    Director: Lori Rectanus
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    7 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help improve the accuracy of Drive-thru data to allow agencies to better manage their leased-vehicle fleet data, the Administrator of GSA should evaluate the 9,999-mile/month electronic safeguard for Drive-thru odometer readings to determine if a lower threshold could improve the accuracy of customer data and adjust this safeguard accordingly.

    Agency: General Services Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: In January 2017, GSA reported that it had examined the reported monthly miles for all GSA Fleet leased vehicles for fiscal years 2015 and 2016. Analysis showed that there are a number of vehicles that consistently report mileage between 5,000-9,999 miles per month and that changing the threshold to 7,999 would require an average of 226 customers per month to override the electronic safeguard. GSA will not change the safeguard but will add a warning message when the monthly mileage exceeds 4,999 per month and is more than 3 times the vehicle's monthly average.
    Recommendation: To provide better assurance that Fleet Service Representatives (FSR) are having conversations with leasing customers about utilization in accordance with GSA expectations, the Administrator of GSA should develop a mechanism to help ensure that these conversations occur.

    Agency: General Services Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: In January 2017, GSA stated that it had reviewed the Customer Visit Checklist which FSRs use, and had codified a checklist to be used for all visits between FSRs and GSA Fleet customers. GSA provided GAO with a copy of the revised checklist. The new checklist includes a requirement to discuss vehicle utililization and the need to "right-size" a vehicle fleet.
    Recommendation: To help strengthen the leased-vehicle justification processes across federal agencies, the Administrator of GSA should examine the Federal Property Management Regulations to determine if these regulations should be amended to require that vehicle justifications are clearly documented and readily available, and adjust them accordingly.

    Agency: General Services Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: In March 2017, GSA reported that it had reviewed the Federal Property Management Regulations and determined that the section that relates to vehicle utilization (101-39.301) needs to be rewritten. GSA will draft a rewritten section of the FPMR. The draft will then undergo further a public review and comment period.
    Recommendation: To improve the justification process, the Secretary of the Department of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Air Force to modify the current process to ensure that each leased vehicle in the agency's fleet meets the agency's utilization criteria or has readily available justification documentation.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: In March 2017, DOD provided GAO with a copy of a DOD memo that requires vehicles to meet utilization criteria or to have justifications electronic format or in hard copy with other vehicle information.
    Recommendation: To improve their justification process, the Secretary of the Department of Veterans Affairs should direct the Under Secretary for Health to modify the current process to ensure that each leased vehicle in the agency's fleet meets the agency's utilization criteria or has readily available justification documentation.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of March 2017, VA stated that they were still working to address these recommendations.
    Recommendation: To facilitate the elimination of unnecessary vehicles, the Secretary of the Department of the Interior should direct the NPS Director to take corrective action to address each leased vehicle that has not met the agency's utilization criteria or passed the justification process. This corrective action could include (1) reassigning vehicles within the agency to ensure they are utilized or (2) returning vehicles to GSA.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: In June 2016, DOI provided documentation of steps it has taken to ensure vehicles have utilization or justification documentation as well as documentation of corrective action taken to address vehicles that have not passed these processes.
    Recommendation: To facilitate the elimination of unnecessary vehicles, the Secretary of the Department of Veterans Affairs should direct the Under Secretary for Health to take corrective action to address each leased vehicle that has not met the agency's utilization criteria or passed the justification process. This corrective action could include (1) reassigning vehicles within the agency to ensure they are utilized or (2) returning vehicles to GSA.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of March 2017, VA was in the process of working with GSA to ensure that VA's new fleet management system could produce reports on utilization. VA is also in the process of amending its current fleet policy to reflect utilization criteria.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    6 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure that planned improvements to Amtrak's routes are implemented and their outcomes can be evaluated, the President of Amtrak should prioritize the adoption of Amtrak's strategic management system in all of Amtrak's remaining lines of business and functional departments.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2017, Amtrak officials indicated that Amtrak was rolling-out its strategic management system in several departments and plans were in place to extend the roll out over time. According to Amtrak officials, senior management meets monthly to discuss progress being made in the company's various strategic initiatives, however the officials noted that full implementation of the strategic management system would take time, and did not provide an estimated completion date. We will continue to monitor Amtrak's progress in adopting the strategic management system across its various business lines and functional departments.
    Recommendation: To ensure that planned improvements to Amtrak's routes are implemented and their outcomes can be evaluated, the President of Amtrak should externally report how Amtrak's initiatives meet the goals established under the Amtrak's strategic management system.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2017, Amtrak officials confirmed that Amtrak disagrees with this recommendation and has not taken action to implement it. Officials reported that much of Amtrak's business takes place in an environment that is increasingly competitive and prefers to keep its deliberation on these initiatives confidential. As we reported in January 2016, while we agree that there is value to keeping business proprietary information and deliberations confidential, Amtrak should be able to externally report progress without disclosing confidential deliberations or information to show how its initiatives are meeting the goals established under its strategic management system. Without this reporting, it is difficult for the company to demonstrate to Congress and other stakeholders how Amtrak is improving its financial and operating performance, and whether it is making the most efficient use of federal funds. Thus, we continue to believe that our recommendation is valid and that Amtrak should fully implement it. We will continue to monitor any steps taken by Amtrak to report outcomes of initiatives taken under Amtrak's strategic management system.
    Recommendation: To improve the consistency and completeness of Amtrak's financial reporting and to provide Congress with accurate information to make funding decisions, the President of Amtrak should make the format of its monthly performance reports and its 5-year financial plan consistent to show all of Amtrak's revenues and expenses by major function for each line of business.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2017, Amtrak officials confirmed that Amtrak disagrees with this recommendation and has not taken action to implement it. According to Amtrak, the 5-year financial plan and monthly performance reports serve different purposes and their utility would be lost if it attempted to "standardize" them. As we reported in January 2016, we continue to believe that it is important to improve the consistency and completeness of Amtrak's financial reporting and to provide Congress with accurate information to use in making funding decisions. The intent of our recommendation is that Amtrak provide a mechanism to show how its financial results in its monthly performance reports are comparable to the financial targets by line of business that are in its 5-year financial plan. Because Amtrak has not taken action to implement this recommendation, the inconsistency between the two reports makes it difficult to compare Amtrak's past results with its future forecasts. As a result, Congress and the states lack a clear view into the financial performance of the company that they help fund. Thus, we continue to believe that our recommendation is valid and that Amtrak should fully implement it. We will continue to monitor steps taken by Amtrak to improve the consistency and completeness of Amtrak's financial reporting.
    Recommendation: To improve the consistency and completeness of Amtrak's financial reporting and to provide Congress with accurate information to make funding decisions, the President of Amtrak should ensure that Amtrak's depreciation expenses are appropriately allocated to its lines of business once the underlying capital asset data are determined reliable.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2017, Amtrak officials confirmed that Amtrak disagrees with this recommendation and has not taken action to implement it. According to Amtrak, reporting of depreciation costs is of limited use for management accounting for several reasons, including that many of Amtrak's key assets, such as bridges and tunnels on the Northeast Corridor are fully depreciated, and that Amtrak's financial system includes a synthetic capital charge, which serves as a proxy for depreciation and is currently allocated across routes. As we reported in January 2016, we agree that given the long-lived nature of Amtrak's capital assets, depreciation calculated for financial reporting purposes may not provide an appropriate measure of the economic costs of using the related assets. While Amtrak may be capturing depreciation or economic costs through its synthetic capital charge (which serves as a proxy for depreciation and which Amtrak does not publicly report), as we also mention in this report, Amtrak may be misstating its line-of-business financial results by not allocating depreciation costs to its lines of business. There are a number of methods or models used to calculate depreciation or economic costs. However, regardless of the method used, it is important that the data used to calculate depreciation or the economic costs of using long-lived assets--historical cost, useful life, residual value--are complete, accurate, and timely. Thus, we continue to believe that our recommendation is valid and that Amtrak should fully implement it. We will continue to monitor steps taken by Amtrak to improve the consistency and completeness of Amtrak's financial reporting.
    Recommendation: To help Congress in assessing Amtrak's need for federal assistance for state-supported routes and to help Amtrak to develop strategies to reduce the costs of its services, the President of Amtrak should delineate the specific costs and activities for state-supported routes that are covered by the federal government and communicate this information to Congress, such as in Amtrak's annual budget request.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In March 2017, Amtrak provided GAO with financial reports that Amtrak had submitted to the Federal Railroad Administration that provide details of the revenues, costs, state payments, and operating losses for each of the state-supported routes for fiscal year 2016. Although these reports include some information on the costs of state-supported routes that are covered by the federal government, Amtrak has not provided this specific information to Congress to help with assessing Amtrak's need for federal assistance for these routes, as GAO recommended. Amtrak officials told us that the company plans to report to Congress information on the expected revenues and costs for state-supported routes in the Five Year Business Line Plans required by the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act. According to Amtrak officials, they plan to submit the Five Year Business Line Plans to Congress on June 2, 2017. GAO will review those plans when published and continue to monitor Amtrak's efforts to delineate and report to Congress the specific costs and activities for state-supported routes that are covered by the federal government.
    Recommendation: In addition, to better inform congressional decision making regarding the funding of Northeast Corridor infrastructure improvements, the Northeast Corridor Commission should work with its members to establish criteria for its members to use in selecting and prioritizing capital projects to be included in future editions of its 5-year capital plan.

    Agency: Northeast Corridor Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2017, the Northeast Corridor (NEC) Commission published the Northeast Corridor Capital Investment Plan, Fiscal Years 2018-2022 which documents planned capital investments to the NEC over the five year period. The plan identifies criteria for Commission members (Amtrak, states, and commuter railroads that operate on the NEC) to use in selecting and prioritizing certain projects that could be advanced over the coming five years. However, the plan does not establish such criteria for all investments in the plan. Specifically, the plan establishes criteria for selecting "unfunded projects"--including major bridge and tunnel projects and basic infrastructure improvements--that could be advanced if additional funding became available. These criteria are (1) shared use by commuter and intercity rail; (2) age and condition, with priority for replacing the oldest assets beyond their useful lives; (3) critical need for continued operation of existing service; and (4) project readiness to begin construction in the next five years. However, these criteria do not cover "funded projects," or those for which a funding source has been identified, including projects funded by Amtrak and the commuter railroads through their required contributions to the NEC Commission's Baseline Capital Charge program. According to the NEC Commission officials, the Commission members have yet to establish specific criteria for funded projects due to challenges in working with Amtrak's legacy capital planning process. Amtrak has traditionally allocated funding amounts to the various segments of the NEC where the company plans to make improvements, but its planning process does not identify the specific assets to be repaired in the coming year, or the criteria for selecting these assets. NEC Commission members said they would continue to work with Amtrak to develop clear criteria for selecting and prioritizing funded projects for inclusion in future editions of the NEC's 5-year capital improvement plan. We will continue to monitor progress made by the Commission and Amtrak in this area.
    Director: Michele Mackin
    Phone: (202) 512-4841

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure that actions taken to improve the test and evaluation process address identified challenges, the Administrator of TSA should finalize all aspects of the third party testing strategy before implementing further third party testing requirements for vendors to enter testing.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: In its response to this recommendation, the Department of Homeland Security concurred and identified initial planned actions to implement the finalize third party strategy. Subsequently, in the Spring of 2016, the TSA Office of Security Capabilities finalized its third party tester application and approval process; established quality conformance standards for potential third party testers; and gathered and considered industry feedback on potential third party test strategy consequences among other actions. Collectively, TSA established and published program requirements and procedures for the third party test strategy. In late 2016, TSA formally delayed its planned implementation of the third-party testing program by a calendar year to now be completed by December 31, 2017. TSA cited a need to conduct additional assessments, coordination challenges, and larger TSA security equipment related initiatives as the reasons for the delay. As part of its regular recommendation status reporting to GAO, TSA in the Spring 2017, noted that it is on track to meet the intent of the recommendation by the later revised date. TSA noted it had recently updated its qualification process by which qualified product lists will be populated and has already incorporated various aspects of third party testing for legacy security equipment qualification.
    Director: Gerald Dillingham, Ph.D
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help improve the U.S. aviation sector's preparedness for future communicable disease threats from abroad, the Secretary of Transportation should work with relevant stakeholders, such as the Department of Health and Human Services, to develop a national aviation-preparedness plan for communicable disease outbreaks. Such a plan could establish a mechanism for coordination between the aviation and public health sectors and provides clear and transparent planning assumptions for a variety of types and levels of communicable disease threats.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: David J. Wise
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure that transit agencies have appropriate and current guidance to assist them when procuring transit buses, the Administrator of FTA should update its Best Practices Procurement Manual and assess its other related guidance identified in this report and update that guidance as needed.

    Agency: Department of Transportation: Federal Transit Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To provide a more efficient and cost-effective way for transit agencies to procure transit buses while complying with federal procurement requirements, the Administrator of FTA, in conjunction with the Administrator of the General Services Administration, should submit a legislative proposal to Congress that would authorize transit agencies that are recipients of FTA grants to access GSA sources of supply for the purchase of transit buses.

    Agency: Department of Transportation: Federal Transit Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Gerald Dillingham
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To implement a more effective international strategy for achieving NextGen interoperability with other nations, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to conduct a risk assessment to identify potential threats and vulnerabilities to NextGen interoperability and establish timeframes for periodically re-evaluating these risks.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To implement a more effective international strategy for achieving NextGen interoperability with other nations, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to identify and document actions FAA will undertake to mitigate these risks, using information from the risk assessment as a basis for making management decisions about how to allocate resources for these activities.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: Congress may wish to consider directing DOT to study and provide a report to Congress identifying approaches for extracting, storing, and analyzing electronically collected motor carrier drivers' schedule data, including the potential benefits, privacy, and cost concerns, and options for how such concerns could be mitigated.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions Congress has taken in response to this matter for consideration, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve FMCSA's oversight of state's CDL testing programs and ensure the FMCSA's oversight activities provide reasonable assurance that states' programs comply with federal regulations, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to improve or obtain a mechanism for tracking oversight activities in order that FMCSA management has a clear and accurate understanding of oversight activities and that they are being conducted in accordance with agency oversight policy.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Transportation concurred with GAO's recommendation and is in the process of developing a new system for tracking oversight activities and results.
    Director: Kay Brown
    Phone: (202) 512-7215

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services should facilitate development of a cross-agency federal strategy to help ensure that federal resources from Administration for Community Living, CMS, USDA, HUD, and DOT are effectively and efficiently used to support a comprehensive system of HCBS and related supports for older adults. Through such a strategy the agencies could, for example, define common outcomes for affordable housing with supportive services, non-medical transportation, and nutrition assistance at the federal level; develop lessons learned for the local networks that area agencies on aging and community-based organizations are forming; and develop strategies for leveraging limited resources.

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services
    Status: Open

    Comments: HHS agreed with this recommendation, noting that it continually strives to improve its strategic coordination and described ways that it facilitates cross agency strategic efforts, including a community-living initiative with HUD and an interagency workgroup on Olmstead requirements. HHS also described collaboration by HHS and HUD on policy research projects concerning housing and supportive services for older adults, including a comparison of health service utilization by older adults who live in assisted housing with those who do not and an evaluation of a demonstration in Vermont that provides services and supports to residents of HUD-assisted housing. We continue to encourage HHS to engage all five agencies to develop a cross agency federal strategy for administering home and community-based services for older adults. Using the eight practices to enhance and sustain interagency collaboration that we identified in prior work could help the five agencies address some of the challenges. In May 2016, HHS reported that it believes it addressed the recommendation and plans no additional action.
    Director: Gerald L. Dillingham, Ph.D.
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To better ensure that cybersecurity threats to NextGen systems are addressed, given the challenges FAA faces in meeting the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) guidance to implement the latest security controls in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST) revised guidelines within one year of issuance, the Secretary of Transportation should instruct the FAA Administrator to develop a plan to fund and implement the NIST revisions within OMB's time frames.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: DOT concurred with this recommendation. FAA officials told us the agency is unable to implement all requirements within OMB's one-year time frame based on resource availability to address the number of FAA's FISMA reportable systems and NIST's newly revised requirements. As such, FAA's approach to achieve compliance with the most current NIST security controls (NIST SP 800-53 Revision 4) is to adopt a three-year assessment cycle where at least one-third (1/3) of these controls for all systems are assessed each year over a three year period. Each system will be fully assessed against all new and modified security controls in the current revision by the end of fiscal year 2017. Systems with weaknesses that could be exploited by adversaries may be at increased risk if relevant controls are not implemented. A three-year assessment cycle may not be adequate to maintain currency with NIST standards as future revisions are released. Therefore, FAA should report to OMB on how its alternative plan for implementing revised NIST standards will be adequate to protect the security of NextGen systems. As of October 2016, FAA is in the final stages of developing a plan to fund and implement the NIST revisions within OMB's time frames. FAA said it plans to implement the recommendation in 2017. The agency will request closure for the recommendation once the plan has been completed.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve stewardship over the nation's highways and bridges, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to conduct a study on state oversize- and overweight-permitting practices, including automated vehicle routing and escort driver certification, to identify areas of best practice and share the results with states.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) concurred with this recommendation. According to an FHWA letter, they will conduct a review of permitting practices, which will include findings from several recent and ongoing research projects related to oversize and overweight permitting. FHWA plans to complete this review by September 30, 2017, and share the results with states through peer exchanges and forums.
    Director: Susan Fleming,
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of NHTSA to identify actions--in addition to the agency's currently planned efforts--to support state efforts to increase public awareness of the dangers of drug-impaired driving. This effort should be undertaken in consultation with ONDCP, HHS, state highway-safety offices, and other interested parties as needed.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: NHTSA met with ONDCP, HHS, and GHSA in March 2016 and discussed what consumer research has been done and education materials have been used in raising awareness for the drug-impaired driving issue. NHTSA completed marijuana creative concept focus group market research in the Fall of 2016; however, the findings from this research were inconclusive. NHTSA plans to determine next steps and develop a new strategy in communicating on this challenging topic by Spring 2017. NHTSA anticipates conducting additional market research that will provide the direction for the development of creative materials by Fall 2017.
    Director: Gregory C. Wilshusen
    Phone: (202) 512-6244

    12 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to establish a mechanism to ensure that all contractor staff complete annual security awareness training as required by federal law and FAA policy.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation. However, as of July 2017, FAA has provided partial documentation, but has not yet provided GAO with sufficient evidence to validate FAA's actions to establish a mechanism to ensure that all contractor staff complete annual security awareness training as required by federal law and FAA policy. Subsequent to FAA providing additional evidence, we plan to validate FAA's actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to establish a mechanism to ensure that all staff with significant security responsibilities receive appropriate role-based training.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation. As of July 2017, FAA has provided partial documentation, but has not yet provided GAO sufficient evidence necessary to validate FAA's actions to establish a mechanism to ensure that all staff with significant security responsibilities receive appropriate role-based training. Subsequent to FAA providing additional evidence, we plan to validate FAA's actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to establish a mechanism to ensure that personnel with incident response roles and responsibilities take appropriate training, and that training records are retained.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation. As of July 2017, FAA has provided partial documentation, but has not yet provided GAO sufficient evidence necessary to validate FAA's actions to establish a mechanism to ensure that personnel with incident response roles and responsibilities take appropriate training, and that training records are retained. Subsequent to FAA providing additional evidence, we plan to validate FAA's actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to take steps to ensure that testing of security controls is comprehensive enough to determine whether security controls are in place and operating effectively, by, for example, examining artifacts such as audit reports, change tickets, and approval documents.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation. As of July 2017, FAA has updated its NAS testing policy and has provided evidence indicating that it has made progress toward ensuring that testing of security controls is comprehensive enough to determine whether security controls are in place and operating effectively. Subsequent to FAA providing additional evidence showing that its corrective actions have been fully implemented, we plan to validate FAA's actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to take steps to ensure that identified corrective actions for security weaknesses are implemented within prescribed timeframes.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation. As of July 2017, FAA has updated its NAS Remediation Management Plan to include new risk management processes for identified security weaknesses. However, it has not yet provided GAO sufficient evidence necessary to show that the agency has taken steps to ensure that identified corrective actions for security weaknesses are implemented within prescribed timeframes. Subsequent to FAA providing additional evidence, we plan to validate FAA's actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to provide NAS Cyber Operations (NCO) with full network packet capture capability for analyzing network traffic and detecting anomalies at major network interface points at FAA operational facilities.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation and stated that it planned to implement it by May 2018. As of July 2017, FAA has not provided GAO with documentation of the agency's actions to provide NCO with full network packet capture capability for analyzing network traffic and detecting anomalies at major network interface points at FAA operational facilities. Subsequent to FAA informing us that it has implemented the recommendation, we plan to validate its actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to integrate network traffic flow data into NCO's ad-hoc query systems.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation and stated that it planned to implement it by May 2018. As of July 2017, FAA has not provided GAO with documentation of the agency's actions to integrate network traffic flow data into NCO's ad-hoc query systems. Subsequent to FAA informing us that it has implemented the recommendation, we plan to validate its actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to provide NCO with access to network sensors on key network gateways for reviewing intrusion detection, network traffic, and network session data.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation and stated that it planned to implement it by December 2018. As of July 2017, FAA had developed a coordinated procedure with the FTI Security Operations Center to provide packet capture information from network sensors based on identified incidents. However, it has not provided GAO with sufficient documentation to demonstrate that the procedure has been implemented. Subsequent to FAA providing additional evidence, we plan to validate its actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to ensure that NAS incident response capabilities are adequately tested, and that test results are sufficiently documented.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation. As of July 2017, FAA provided evidence that it has taken steps to ensure that NAS incident response capabilities are adequately tested, and that test results are sufficiently documented. However, it has not yet provided sufficient evidence that it has fully implemented its corrective actions. Subsequent to FAA providing sufficient evidence, we plan to validate its actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to ensure that contingency plans for NAS systems are sufficiently documented, and that tests of contingency plans address key elements of the contingency plans, including notification procedures, recovering the system on an alternate platform, and system performance on alternate equipment.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation and stated that it plans to implement the recommendation by September 2017. As of July 2017, FAA has not yet provided sufficient evidence that it has taken sufficient action to ensure that contingency plans for NAS systems are sufficiently documented and that tests of the plans address key plan elements. Subsequent to FAA providing additional evidence, we plan to validate its actions.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to provide NCO with security event log data for all Internet Protocol (IP)-connected NAS systems.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation and stated that it planned to implement it by December 2018. As of August 2017, FAA has provided GAO with its planned actions to provide NCO with security event log data for all IP-connected NAS systems, which indicate that the agency still plans to complete its actions by December 2018. We plan to validate these actions subsequent to FAA informing us that it has completed them.
    Recommendation: To fully implement its information security program and ensure that unnecessary risks to the security of NAS systems are mitigated, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to finalize the incident response policy for the Air Traffic Organization and ensure that NAS system-level incident response policies specify incident reporting timeframes and the need for all incidents to be reported in accordance with FAA guidance.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred with our recommendation. As of July 2017, FAA has finalized the incident response policy for the Air Traffic Organization and updated one system-level incident response policy to specify incident reporting timeframes and the need for all incidents to be reported. However, it has not yet provided sufficient evidence showing that all system-level incident response policies specify reporting timeframes and the need for all incidents to be reported. Subsequent to FAA providing evidence that it has updated the remaining system-level incident response policies, we plan to validate FAA's actions.
    Director: Gerald L. Dillingham, Ph.D.
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: If, in the next authorization for FAA, Congress chooses to mandate that FAA take actions to streamline and reform the agency, Congress may wish to consider requiring FAA to (1) track measures of and (2) report to Congress on the actual results of such efforts.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA's authorization expired at the end of Fiscal Year 2015. As of May 2017, Congress has passed several FAA authorization extensions that did not include any actions related to this matter. We will continue to monitor legislation, and when we determine what steps the Congress has taken regarding this matter, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To better enable FAA to track, aggregate, and report on the results of its streamlining and reform initiatives, the Secretary of Transportation should direct FAA to develop a mechanism to capture the results of its efficiency initiatives in its planned database for process improvements. Measures of results might include, for example, cost savings, timeliness, or customer service metrics, which may be common to several types of process improvement efforts and therefore facilitate aggregation across improvements.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of May 2017, FAA expanded its existing data repository to include results of the efficiency initiatives, but no realized results or benefits have yet been entered into the data repository. GAO will continue to monitor the status of this recommendation.
    Director: Grover, Jennifer A
    Phone: (202)512-7141

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure that TSA's planned testing yields reliable results, the TSA Administrator should take steps to ensure that TSA's planned effectiveness testing of the Managed Inclusion process adheres to established evaluation design practices.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: TSA continues to make progress on implementing this recommendation. In March 2017, TSA reported that an evaluation of the security effectiveness of the managed inclusion process is to be completed over the next few weeks. Once documentation for the evaluation is available, TSA will provide it for review and analysis.
    Director: Dave Wise
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To promote and enhance federal, state, and local NEMT coordination activities, the Secretary of Transportation, as the chair of the Coordinating Council, should convene a meeting of the member agencies of the Coordinating Council and complete and publish a new or updated strategic plan that, among other things, clearly outlines a strategy for addressing NEMT and how it can be coordinated across federal agencies that fund NEMT service.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) concurred with this recommendation. As of November 2016, FTA stated that Administrator-level members of the Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility (CCAM) met in July 2016 to begin the process of developing a strategic plan. A follow-up meeting of the same group is planned for December 2016. According to FTA, it is anticipated this meeting will result in agreement on a strategic plan framework and that interagency working groups will begin implementation of the framework in early 2017. Based on the minutes of the July 2016 CCAM meeting, emerging themes identified for the strategic plan included improved access to medical care and to better coordinate transportation planning, particularly integrating transportation planning into healthcare planning. This recommendation will be kept open pending finalization of the strategic plan framework and how it relates to NEMT.
    Recommendation: To promote and enhance federal, state, and local NEMT coordination activities, the Secretary of Transportation, as the chair of the Coordinating Council, should convene a meeting of the member agencies of the Coordinating Council and finalize and issue a cost-sharing policy and clearly identify how it can be applied to programs under the purview of member agencies of the Coordinating Council that provide funding for NEMT.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FTA concurred with this recommendation. As of November 2016, FTA stated that Administrator-level members of the Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility met in July 2016 to begin the process of developing a strategic plan. A follow-up meeting of the same group is planned for December 2016. According to FTA, it is anticipated the December meeting will result in agreement on a strategic plan framework and that interagency working groups will begin implementing the plan in early 2017. FTA expects development of a cost-sharing policy and proposed model will be an objective in the strategic plan. We plan to keep this recommendation open pending completion of the strategic plan framework and further information related to implementing this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To promote and enhance federal, state, and local NEMT coordination activities, the Secretary of Transportation, as the chair of the Coordinating Council, should convene a meeting of the member agencies of the Coordinating Council and using the on-going work of the Health, Wellness, and Transportation working group and other appropriate resources, (1) identify the challenges associated with coordinating Medicaid and VA NEMT programs with other federal programs that fund NEMT, (2) develop recommendations for how these challenges can be addressed while still maintaining program integrity and fraud prevention, and (3) report these recommendations to appropriate committees of Congress. To the extent feasible, the Coordinating Council should implement those recommendations that are within its legal authority.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FTA said they concurred in part with this recommendation. FTA announced the selection of 19 Rides to Wellness Demonstration and Innovative Coordinated Access and Mobility pilot projects, totally about $7.3 million, in September 2016. According to FTA, seven of the 19 projects have a NEMT focus. In addition, during 2016 FTA conducted outreach sessions in various cities throughout the United States to discuss partnership opportunities between the health and transportation industries. FTA stated that a new series of NEMT-specific listening sessions is now underway and additional sessions are planned for 2017. The purpose of these sessions is to identify challenges related to NEMT coordination that will be addressed by Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility (CCAM) working groups in the future. CCAM is also in the process of developing a strategic plan framework. FTA anticipates agreement on this framework in December 2016. The Fixing America's Surface Transportation (FAST) Act requires CCAM to develop and publish a strategic plan. FTA anticipates issues related to this recommendation will be developed through 2020. We plan to keep this recommendation open to further monitor CCAM and FTA progress and the extent challenges are identified and addressed related to better coordinating Medicaid and VA NEMT with other NEMT programs in the federal government, through the strategic plan framework or other actions resulting from the listening sessions.
    Director: David J. Wise
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To promote and enhance federal, state, and local coordination activities, the Secretary of Transportation, as the chair of the Coordinating Council, should convene a meeting of the member agencies of the Coordinating Council and define and report on desired outcomes and collect related data to track and measure progress in achieving results, including the extent of coordination efforts that are under way, such as improved services for older adults. This effort could be conducted as a part of the Coordinating Council's process to update its strategic plan, which we have also recommended in a concurrent report.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has taken steps to enhance older adult mobility. For example, the agency and the Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility (CCAM) developed a draft strategic plan, which is being reevaluated in light of requirements in the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act of 2015. As of December 2017, FTA planned to complete its strategic plan by Spring of 2018 and was in the process of briefing the administration on the recommendation. We will continue to monitor FTA's progress on its strategic planning efforts.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve transparency and provide Congress and the public greater visibility into the types of highway activities funded with Highway Trust Fund monies, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to explore the costs, feasibility, and options for collecting and publicly reporting consistent aggregate project-level spending data.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of November 2017, FHWA has not implemented this recommendation. In December 2015, the President signed the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act or "FAST Act". Sec. 1402 of the Act requires DOT to annually report, for all projects administered by FHWA with a total estimated cost of $25 million or more (and for all other projects to the extent practicable), on the total cost of funded projects, the amount of federal funds obligated, and other information, and to make this information "available in a user-friendly manner on the public Internet website of the Department of Transportation." DOT has not yet implemented this provision of the Act. GAO is monitoring DOT's efforts to implement this provision and the extent to which it fulfills GAO's recommendation.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-4431

    2 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: In order to clarify the federal role related to freight-related local traffic congestion, in implementing MAP-21 and any subsequent reauthorization, in its final guidance on state freight plans, Secretary of Transportation should incorporate additional information to help states define and prioritize local community impacts of national freight movements, including traffic-congestion impacts, and to establish what data could be consistently collected and analyzed in order to prioritize impacts of freight on local traffic congestion.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: On October 14, 2016, DOT finalized guidance on state freight plans and state freight advisory committees. Among other things, the guidance incorporates information to help states define and prioritize local community impacts of national freight movements and identifies data sources to assist in collecting and analyzing data to prioritize impacts of freight on local traffic congestion. Including this information in the final guidance to states, will assist in better defining the extent of freight-related congestion, prioritizing projects to mitigate such impacts at both the state and national level and in DOT establishing a clear federal role for addressing these issues.
    Recommendation: In order to clarify the federal role related to freight-related local traffic congestion, in implementing MAP-21 and any subsequent reauthorization, the Secretary of Transportation should include in the National Freight Strategic Plan a written statement articulating the federal role in freight-related local congestion impacts, by clearly identifying potential objectives and goals (under the general area DOT has established for the Freight Transportation Conditions and Performance Report of reducing adverse environmental and community impacts) for mitigating local congestion caused by national freight movements and the type of role federal and state stakeholders could play in achieving each objective and goal, and including a written strategy for improving the availability of national data needed to quantify, assess, and establish measures on freight trends and impacts on local traffic congestion.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: DOT concurred with this recommendation, and has developed a draft National Freight Strategic Plan, for which the public comment period ended in April 2016. In December 2016, DOT noted that it is continuing to review public comments received and beginning work on a final draft plan that will address the federal role in freight-related local congestion, as well as the other elements of GAO's recommendation. DOT stated that it plans to release a final National Freight Strategic Plan by its statutory due date of December 4, 2017. A number of our recommendations to DOT to address national freight issues are tied to the issuance of DOT's National Freight Strategic Plan.Implementing our recommendation in connection with development of the freight strategic plan expeditiously would help maximize the efficient movement of freight and ensure accountability around identified national interests and goals.
    Director: Jennifer A. Grover
    Phone: (202) 512-7141

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To assess the progress of the Secure Flight program toward achieving its goals, the Transportation Security Administration's Administrator should develop additional measures to address key performance aspects related to each program goal, and ensure these measures clearly identify the activities necessary to achieve progress toward the goal.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Transportation Security Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions that DHS TSA has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information. Status last confirmed on 10/26/15.
    Director: Susan Fleming
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To address the increased risk posed by new gathering pipeline construction in shale development areas, the Secretary of Transportation, in conjunction with the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, should move forward with a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to address gathering pipeline safety that addresses the risks of larger-diameter, higher-pressure gathering pipelines, including subjecting such pipelines to emergency response planning requirements that currently do not apply.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: PHMSA has drafted proposed regulations for both gas and hazardous liquid gathering pipelines. Specifically, PHMSA published Notices of Proposed Rulemaking to separately address safety issues associated with hazardous liquid gathering pipelines in October 2015 and gas gathering pipelines in April 2016. These proposed regulations partly address our recommendation by proposing new rules to address risks posed by new gathering pipeline construction, but do not fully address our recommendation to subject these pipelines to emergency response planning requirements, particularly for hazardous liquid pipelines. As of October 2016, PHMSA has determined that it needs one year's worth of data before it can begin assessing what regulations are needed to fully address the risks of hazardous liquid pipelines.
    Director: Gregory C. Wilshusen
    Phone: (202) 512-6244

    5 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To enhance the cybersecurity of critical infrastructure in the maritime sector, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Commandant of the Coast Guard to work with federal and nonfederal partners to ensure that the maritime risk assessment includes cyber-related threats, vulnerabilities, and potential consequences.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2017, USCG stated that the National Maritime Strategic Risk Assessment (NMSRA) was still being finalized. The agency stated that they expected this to be completed by July 2017. Once completed, we will analyze the results of the NMSRA in order to validate the extent to which its contents implement our recommendation.
    Recommendation: To enhance the cybersecurity of critical infrastructure in the maritime sector, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Commandant of the Coast Guard to use the results of the risk assessment to inform how guidance for area maritime security plans, facility security plans, and other securityrelated planning should address cyber-related risk for the maritime sector.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2017, USCG stated that it had developed a draft Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular (NVIC) to provide guidance on assessment methods that assist vessel and facility owners and operators identify and address cybersecurity vulnerabilities. USCG stated that the draft NVIC would be published in the Federal Register for 60 days, to enable maritime stakeholders to review and provide comment. Once USCG provides us a final copy of the NVIC, we will analyze it to determine if it provides guidance for addressing cyber-related risk in the maritime sector.
    Recommendation: To enhance the cybersecurity of critical infrastructure in the maritime sector, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Commandant of the Coast Guard to work with federal and nonfederal stakeholders to determine if the Maritime Modal Sector Coordinating Council should be reestablished to better facilitate stakeholder coordination and information sharing across the maritime environment at the national level.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2017, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) stated that the tasking for the National Maritime Security Advisory Committee to explore the issue of information sharing mechanisms in regards to cyber information had been completed. However, USCG did not mention any decision related to the reestablishment of the sector coordinating council.
    Recommendation: To help ensure the effective use of Port Security Grant Program funds to support the program's stated mission of addressing vulnerabilities in the maritime port environment, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the FEMA Administrator, in coordination with the Coast Guard, to develop procedures for officials at the field review level (i.e., captains of the port) and national review level (i.e., the National Review Panel and FEMA) to consult cybersecurity subject matter experts from the Coast Guard and other relevant DHS components, if applicable, during the review of cybersecurity grant proposals for funding.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: In June 2017, FEMA officials stated they would provide GAO an update on the status of the recommendation by July 2017. Once provided, we will analyze the information we receive and update status of implementation efforts.
    Recommendation: To help ensure the effective use of Port Security Grant Program funds to support the program's stated mission of addressing vulnerabilities in the maritime port environment, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the FEMA Administrator, in coordination with the Coast Guard, to use any information on cyberrelated threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences identified in the maritime risk assessment to inform future versions of funding guidance for grant applicants and reviews at the field and national levels.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: In June 2017, FEMA officials stated they would provide GAO an update on the status of the recommendation by July 2017. Once provided, we will analyze the information received and update status of implementation efforts.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: 202-512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should establish additional accountability measures for management of the TIGER program to (1) establish clear procedures for addressing late-arriving applications and communicate its decisions to either accept or reject these applications to the public, and (2) document and approve major decisions in the application evaluation and project selection process through a decision memorandum or similar mechanism that provides a clear rationale for decisions to: (a) advance for senior review applications other than those rated as highly recommended; (b) not advance applications rated as highly recommended; and (c) change the technical evaluation rating of an application.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: GAO reviewed DOT's TIGER application evaluation process for the 2014 and 2015 funding rounds and found that DOT established guidance that it would no longer accept late-arriving TIGER applications and it improved its internal procedures for documenting major decisions in its application evaluation database, including decisions to advance for senior review applications other than those rated as "highly recommended." However, DOT did not document these procedures through a decision memorandum or similar mechanism to ensure a consistent and transparent process for approving major decisions in these and future TIGER rounds. Moreover, in reviewing the 2015 TIGER application evaluation process, GAO noted that DOT altered its procedures for evaluating applications while the review process was ongoing. According to DOT's Financial Assistance Guidance Manual, grant evaluations must be conducted in accordance with the evaluation plan created prior to the announcement, and may not be changed once applications have been received. As of August 2017, the Department's Inspector General is conducting an audit of the TIGER program to assess DOT's application evaluation procedures. GAO will review the Inspector General's findings when they become available.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve the applicants' understanding of the medical standards and the information required to complete FAA's medical certification process, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FAA to enhance the online medical-application system by clarifying instructions and questions on the medical application form and providing useful information to applicants.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions FAA has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Chris P. Currie
    Phone: (404) 679-1875

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure that federal agencies fully reimburse DOD for special air missions when required to do so, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) and Chief Financial Officer to revise guidance and require that DOD organizations develop and implement a process that identifies and tracks each special air mission, such as tracking by mission number or another unique identifier, from billing through reimbursement for all applicable costs.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2014, DOD does not have any information on actions taken on this recommendation. As of July 2015, the Department plans to address this recommendation during the next policy rewrite cycle. In the short term, the Special Air Missions office in coordination with OSD Executive Secretary has stressed with external agencies requesting reimbursable travel include the mission number as well as a line of accounting on their travel request memorandum. The Financial Management office at Joint Base Andrews as well as DFAS have also revamped their procedures and are tracking each reimbursable mission by a unique five digit mission number. According to a senior officer at the Special Air Missions Office, they continue to process the monthly bills in the same manner as before the audit and provide the 89th Airlift Wing/Financial Management with a monthly accounting by mission number for the various missions flown. The mission number along with the cost of the reimbursable travel is provided by CVAM to the Financial Management office at Joint Base Andrews. According to an officer in the 89th Airlift Wing Comptroller at Joint Base Andrews, they are still waiting for a policy re-write from DoD for special air missions. In the meantime, they track each mission by mission number from billing through the reimbursement process, and process the bills for reimbursement on a monthly basis after receiving the consolidated list from CVAM. There have been a couple of glitches with a few users that did not send funding before traveling and the comptroller is working to resolve that issue.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To improve the CSA program, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to revise the SMS methodology to better account for limitations in drawing comparisons of safety performance information across carriers; in doing so, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to conduct a formal analysis that specifically identifies: (1) limitations in the data used to calculate SMS scores including variability in the carrier population and the quality and quantity of data available for carrier safety performance assessments, and (2) limitations in the resulting SMS scores including their precision, confidence, and reliability for the purposes for which they are used.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: As of October 2016, FMCSA continues to maintain that they do not agree with our methodology or conclusions. While FMCSA's position about our specific recommendation is unchanged, FMCSA noted that Section 5221 of the FAST Act directed the National Academies of Science (NAS) to conduct a safety correlation study of the CSA program, and specifically FMCSA's Safety Measurement System's (SMS) methodology. FMCSA stated that if the outcome of the NAS study results in recommendations for SMS changes, they will address those recommendations accordingly. We continue to believe this recommendation has merit and could help the agency better target FMCSA's resources to the carriers that pose the highest risk of crashing, as we demonstrate in our report. For example, we reported that FMCSA requires a minimum level of information for a carrier to receive an SMS score; however, this requirement is not strong enough to produce sufficiently reliable scores. As a result, GAO found that FMCSA identified many carriers as high risk that were not later involved in a crash, potentially causing FMCSA to miss opportunities to intervene with carriers that were involved in crashes. FMCSA's methodology is limited because of insufficient information, which reduces the precision of SMS scores. GAO found that by scoring only carriers with more information, FMCSA could better identify high risk carriers likely to be involved in crashes. This illustrative approach involves trade-offs; it would assign SMS scores to fewer carriers, but these scores would generally be more reliable and thus more useful in targeting FMCSA's scarce resources.
    Recommendation: To improve the CSA program, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FMCSA Administrator to ensure that any determination of a carrier's fitness to operate properly accounts for limitations we have identified regarding safety performance information.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: While FMCSA does not agree with our methodology or conclusions, we believe this recommendation has merit and could help the agency better target FMCSA's resources to the carriers that pose the highest risk of crashing, as we demonstrate in our report. For example, we reported that FMCSA requires a minimum level of information for a carrier to receive an SMS score; however, this requirement is not strong enough to produce sufficiently reliable scores. As a result, GAO found that FMCSA identified many carriers as high risk that were not later involved in a crash, potentially causing FMCSA to miss opportunities to intervene with carriers that were involved in crashes. FMCSA's methodology is limited because of insufficient information, which reduces the precision of SMS scores. GAO found that by scoring only carriers with more information, FMCSA could better identify high risk carriers likely to be involved in crashes. This illustrative approach involves trade-offs; it would assign SMS scores to fewer carriers, but these scores would generally be more reliable and thus more useful in targeting FMCSA's scarce resources.
    Director: St James, Lorelei
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: As part of the development of a national maritime strategy and a national freight strategic plan, the Secretary of Transportation should direct MARAD--in consultation with maritime industry stakeholders--to study and identify any potential problems in ensuring that U.S. mariners are adequately trained to meet the needs of the entire maritime industry, including the domestic waterways. Public forums, such as MARAD's roundtable discussions, could serve as a means for gaining industry input on potential training issues.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: On April 7, 2017 GAO requested an update on the status of MARAD's position on whether or not the recommendation would be implemented. In June 2016, MARAD indicated that it had not made this determination. In response to GAO's latest inquiry, MARAD indicated that it was in the process of checking on whether any action had been taken within the agency to implement the recommendation.
    Director: Rectanus, Lori
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    4 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to collect data, on an ongoing basis, about which local public agencies are administering federal-aid projects.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2017, FHWA informed us it had no plans to collect data about which local public agencies are administering federal-aid projects.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to collect information, on an ongoing basis, from state DOTs on local public agencies' capabilities.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2017, FHWA informed us that it did not plan collect information on the capabilities of local public agencies on an ongoing basis. In 2017 FHWA released the results of a compliance assessment review which assessed the capabilities of selected local public agencies. We are reviewing FHWA's efforts and the extent to which they address our recommendation.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to identify and disseminate minimum and uniform qualification criteria for state DOTs to determine whether local public agencies are capable and equipped to administer federal-aid projects.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2017, FHWA informed us it had no plans to identify and disseminate minimum and uniform qualification criteria for state DOTs to determine whether local public agencies are capable and equipped to administer federal-aid projects.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to explore opportunities to make administration of federal-aid projects by local public agencies more efficient by examining: (a) the circumstances in which issuing guidance on administrative flexibilities targeted at local agencies would be appropriate, and (b) a potential dollar threshold under which the use of federal funds may no longer be cost-effective.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2017, FHWA informed us that it did not plan to explore a dollar threshold under which the use of federal funds may no longer be cost-effective. However, FHWA told us it has provided guidance in this regard, and has continued disseminating guidance on administrative flexibilities beneficial to locally administered projects. We are reviewing FHWA's actions and the extent to which its these efforts address our recommendation.
    Director: Moran, Revae E
    Phone: (202) 512-7215

    8 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To provide for independent audit and investigative oversight of NMB, Congress should consider authorizing an appropriate federal agency's Office of Inspector General to provide such oversight.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Subcommittee on Financial and Contracting Oversight of the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs held a hearing in April 2014 to (1) review the processes and mechanisms by which small agencies and other federal entities without statutory inspectors general receive oversight, and (2) examine potential legislative actions to improve the oversight of small agencies. In advance of the hearing, the committee circulated draft legislation that would, among other things, assign the Inspector General of the National Labor Relations Board the responsibility of providing oversight of the National Mediation Board. However, this legislation was not formally introduced. No related legislation has been enacted since that time.
    Recommendation: In order to improve NMB's planning and make the most effective use of its limited resources, the Chairman of the National Mediation Board should develop a formal strategic planning process to fully implement key required elements of strategic planning, including a formal process to obtain congressional and stakeholder input.

    Agency: National Mediation Board
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2016, NMB indicated that it had reviewed strategic planning material from GAO and OMB, and would produce a formal planning process to guide future strategic plan development. It anticipated that the formal planning guide would be in place by the end of fiscal year 2016. In February 2017, GAO began another review of NMB. The status of this recommendation will be updated at the conclusion of that review, estimated for 2018.
    Recommendation: In order to improve NMB's planning and make the most effective use of its limited resources, the Chairman of the National Mediation Board should develop, and include in its performance plan, performance goals and measures that contain required elements to demonstrate results.

    Agency: National Mediation Board
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2016, NMB indicated it had been in contact with other federal labor agencies (Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service and Federal Labor Relations Authority) to discuss measurable performance goals that may be adapted to NMB's mission areas. It also indicated that it would review OPM guidance when developing updated performance goals. It anticipated that new performance metrics would be included in the fiscal year 2017 strategic plan update. In February 2017, GAO began another review of NMB. The status of this recommendation will be updated at the conclusion of that review, estimated for 2018.
    Recommendation: In order to improve NMB's planning and make the most effective use of its limited resources, the Chairman of the National Mediation Board should develop and implement a formal mechanism to ensure the prompt resolution of findings and recommendations by independent auditors, including clearly assigning responsibility for this follow-up to agency management.

    Agency: National Mediation Board
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2016, NMB indicated it would develop standard procedures to address all program audits. It anticipated that the new updated and new procedures would be in place before the next round of program audits in fiscal year 2017. In February 2017, GAO began another review of NMB. The status of this recommendation will be updated at the conclusion of that review, estimated for 2018.
    Recommendation: In order to improve NMB's planning and make the most effective use of its limited resources, the Chairman of the National Mediation Board should develop and fully implement key components of an information security program in accordance with the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002.

    Agency: National Mediation Board
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2016, NMB indicated that it was reviewing the security certificates of the agencies with which it contacts for services and working with them to determine how to review their security audits in an efficient manner. In February 2017, GAO began another review of NMB. The status of this recommendation will be updated at the conclusion of that review, estimated for 2018.
    Recommendation: In order to improve NMB's planning and make the most effective use of its limited resources, the Chairman of the National Mediation Board should establish a privacy program that includes conducting privacy impact assessments and issuing system of record notices for systems that contain personally identifiable information.

    Agency: National Mediation Board
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2016, NMB indicated it is conducting a review of its record management program to assess the status of agency records and documents held in its cloud-based records management program. It indicated that this review would be completed before the end of fiscal year 2016 and would be used to assess any impact on privacy and issue any appropriate notices. In February 2017, GAO began another review of NMB. The status of this recommendation will be updated at the conclusion of that review, estimated for 2018.
    Recommendation: In order to improve NMB's planning and make the most effective use of its limited resources, the Chairman of the National Mediation Board should develop a strategic workforce plan that (1) involves input from top management, employees, and other stakeholders; (2) identifies critical skills and competencies needed by NMB; (3) identifies strategies, such as training, to address any gaps; and (4) provides for cost-effective evaluations of these strategic workforce planning efforts. This plan should also address succession for the significant proportion of NMB staff and senior managers who are eligible to retire in the next few years.

    Agency: National Mediation Board
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2016, NMB indicated that it would develop a formal process to elicit stakeholder input as it updates the current strategic workforce plan. In February 2017, GAO began another review of NMB. The status of this recommendation will be updated at the conclusion of that review, estimated for 2018.
    Recommendation: In order to improve NMB's planning and make the most effective use of its limited resources and to better inform its decisions about managing the rail grievance arbitration process, including addressing the backlog of cases, NMB should collect and analyze data on the types of grievances filed, and their disposition. NMB should use these data to improve the efficiency of the arbitration process and consider, as part of this effort, whether to establish fees for arbitration services. If NMB determines that the establishment of fees would improve the efficiency of the arbitration process, it should impose such fees or seek legislative authority to do so, as necessary.

    Agency: National Mediation Board
    Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2016, NMB indicated that data on rail grievance arbitration cases are being collected and that it anticipated presenting analysis of those data in the agency's fiscal year 2016 annual report. In February 2017, GAO began another review of NMB. The status of this recommendation will be updated at the conclusion of that review, estimated for 2018.
    Director: Grover, Jennifer A
    Phone: (202) 512-7141

    1 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To help ensure that security-related funding is directed to programs that have demonstrated their effectiveness, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the TSA Administrator to limit future funding support for the agency's behavior detection activities until TSA can provide scientifically validated evidence that demonstrates that behavioral indicators can be used to identify passengers who may pose a threat to aviation security.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) did not concur with GAO's November 2013 recommendation to the TSA Administrator to limit future funding support for the agency's behavior detection activities until TSA can provide scientifically validated evidence that demonstrates that behavioral indicators can be used to identify passengers who may pose a threat to aviation security. However, as of July 2017, DHS has reduced funding for its behavior detection activities and taken some steps toward identifying additional evidence to support its use of behavioral indicators. TSA officials stated that GAO's recommendation contributed to DHS's decision to reduce the number of behavior detection officers (BDO) from 3,131 full-time equivalents in fiscal year 2013 to 2,393 full-time equivalents employed in fiscal year 2016. Further, in the summer of 2016 and consistent with the Aviation Security Act of 2016, the agency began assigning BDOs to other positions at passenger screening checkpoints where they are able to observe passengers while performing screening duties. According to TSA officials, all BDOs have now been converted into transportation security officers with behavior detection capabilities, which is expected to reduce the cost of the agency's behavior detection activities. As of August 2017, TSA does not yet have an estimate of any associated cost reductions. Since GAO's 2013 report, TSA has revised its list of behavioral indicators and taken some steps to identify evidence that these indicators can be used to identify passengers who may pose a threat to aviation security. Specifically, TSA hired a contractor to search available literature for sources supporting its revised list of 36 behavioral indicators. However, in 2017, GAO reviewed all 178 sources TSA identified and found that 98 percent (175 of 178) did not provide valid evidence for specific behavioral indicators in its revised list and that the remaining 3 sources could be used as valid evidence to support 8 of the 36 indicators. GAO reported that TSA should continue to limit funding for the agency's behavior detection activities until TSA can provide valid evidence demonstrating that behavioral indicators can be used to identify passengers who may pose a threat to aviation security, consistent with the recommendation in its November 2013 report.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure that the Federal Railroad Administration manages its limited resources and provides flexibility to railroads in implementing PTC, Congress should consider amending RSIA as requested in the FRA's August 2012 PTC Implementation Status Report to Congress, including granting FRA the authority to approve the use of alternative safety technologies in lieu of PTC to allow railroads to improve safety and meet many of the functions of PTC through other means.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2017, Congress had not taken any action regarding this Matter for Congressional Consideration.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure that up-to-date data are available on the road damages imposed by all vehicles types compared with the revenues each contributes to the Highway Trust Fund, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to revise and publish the agency's Highway Cost Allocation Study and update it periodically as warranted.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of May 2017, FHWA has not taken steps to revise and publish the agency's Highway Cost Allocation Study. In April 2016, FHWA completed a comprehensive truck size and weight study mandated by the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) and requested that GAO close this recommendation for FHWA to revise and publish the agency's Highway Cost Allocation Study. However, FHWA's comprehensive truck size and weight study does not include critical information that a Highway Cost Allocation Study would provide. Specifically, FHWA's study lacks information on the cost of road damage imposed by all vehicle types compared with the revenues contributed by those vehicles to the Highway Trust Fund to determine whether user fees are sufficient to cover damage costs. GAO will continue to monitor any efforts by DOT and FHWA to respond to GAO's recommendation.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: (202)512-4431

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: In order to provide states with greater flexibility to pursue a range of strategies to address the various factors contributing to motorcycle crashes and fatalities, Congress should consider allowing states to use the Motorcyclist Safety Grants for purposes beyond motorcyclist training and raising motorist awareness of motorcycles.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: No action has been taken on this matter to date. When GAO determines that Congress has taken action on it, GAO will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To provide the states with information that could better enable them to effectively address the factors that contribute to motorcycle crashes and fatalities, NHTSA should (1) as part of its expected comprehensive plan for motorcycle safety, identify research priorities that address these factors as well as gaps in knowledge about the effectiveness of state strategies, particularly those that it has identified as a high priority or promising. (2) in addition to setting these research priorities, conduct research on the following strategies that it has identified as a high priority or promising: (a) encouraging motorcyclists to increase their conspicuity, and (b) implementing a graduated-licensing model for motorcyclists.

    Agency: Department of Transportation: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT concurs with our recommendation. The National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) plans to focus its motorcycle research program on issues that offer the greatest potential for safety improvement and will use research priorities identified in its upcoming Motorcycle Safety Program Plan to guide future research investments. In July 2014, NHTSA provided an update indicating that they planned to complete their Motorcycle Safety Program Plan by April 2015. They also indicated that they had not begun research on rider conspicuity or graduated licensing for motorcyclists. In August 2015, NHTSA provided additional information indicating that it had revised timeframes for developing its Motorcycle Safety Program Plan to Spring 2016. NHTSA also indicated that it plans to conduct research on encouraging motorcycle conspicuity as well as on graduated-licensing and expects to complete this additional research in 2016. In May 2016, NHTSA informed GAO that it had completed a draft of its Motorcycle Safety Program Plan and that it anticipated making the plan available by the end of 2016. NHTSA also indicated that it has extended its timeframe for completing a literature review that includes motorcycle conspicuity and licensing; it now anticipates completing that review in March, 2017. Additionally, NHTSA plans to begin a new research project in 2016 that will focus on identifying potential barriers to increasing motorcycle conspicuity.
    Director: St James, Lorelei
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: As the Chair of the Committee on the Marine Transportation System, the Secretary of Transportation should ensure the review and update, as needed, of the National Strategy for the Marine Transportation System. In ensuring the review and update of the National Strategy for the Marine Transportation System, the Secretary should (1) establish accountability mechanisms--such as developing clear and desired results, specific milestones, and outcome-related performance measures--for the recommended actions of the National Strategy for the Marine Transportation System, and (2) establish and implement a schedule for regular reporting of progress made in addressing the recommended actions of the National Strategy for the Marine Transportation System.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As July 2017, the CMTS coordinating board approved the National Strategy for the Marine Transportation System and submitted to the Secretary of Transportation for approval.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202)512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To enhance FAA's efforts to improve general aviation safety, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to improve measures of general aviation activity by requiring the collection of the number of hours that general aviation aircraft fly over a period of time (flight hours). FAA should explore ways to do this that minimize the impact on the general aviation community, such as by collecting the data at regular events (e.g., during registration renewals or at annual maintenance inspections) that are already required.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, GAO confirmed that FAA's collection of flight hour data during registration renewals or annual maintenance inspections is not feasible because it would require rulemaking and potentially have a significant economic and paperwork impact on the GA community. FAA noted that, although previously the GA Activity Survey was somewhat limited for collecting more extensive flight hour data, improvements to the survey regarding flight hour data collection have resulted in a low standard error of 1.1 percent, which means that the agency and industry can have confidence in the aggregate results regarding how GA is operated in the national airspace system. While there may have been methodological improvements to the survey, FAA's response indicates that it does not require the collection of GA flight hour data. GAO maintains that estimates from the survey still may not be sufficient for drawing conclusions about changes in crash rates over time and that more precise flight hour data could allow FAA to better target its safety efforts within the general aviation community.
    Recommendation: To enhance FAA's efforts to improve general aviation safety, and to ensure that ongoing safety issues are addressed, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to set specific general aviation safety improvement goals--such as targets for fatal accident reductions--for individual industry segments using a datadriven, risk management approach.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: GAO confirmed in August 2017 that FAA's General Aviation Joint Steering Committee has undertaken a data-driven approach to resolving and mitigating the risks associated with all General Aviation (GA) fatal accidents and is exploring different metrics for monitoring individual industry segments utilizing tools such as the GA Activity Survey but that credible metrics for each industry sub-sector are currently not feasible. However, our recommendation was for FAA to develop metrics for industry segments because we found a variety of differences in accident and fatality rates among industry segments and believe that focusing on segments with higher instances of both is a better use of FAA's limited resources.
    Recommendation: To enhance FAA's efforts to improve general aviation safety, and to determine whether the programs and activities underlying the 5-year strategy are successful and if additional actions are needed, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to develop performance measures for each significant program and activity underlying the 5-year strategy.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: GAO confirmed in August 2017 that FAA has established performance metrics for the activities underlying the 5-year strategy and that the GA fatal accident rate remains its primary performance measure. FAA also reported that additional performance measures would be developed in association with the General Aviation Joint Steering Committee working groups. However, FAA has provided no documentation of its metrics for the associated activities underlying the 5-year strategy therefore this recommendation remains open.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    4 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help maximize the use of available capacity at slot-controlled airports, enhance competition through greater airline access to slots, and enhance transparency of slot information, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to apply slot rules to individual slots, as opposed to pools of slots within a slot period.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In January 2015, the FAA issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for the New York City area airports. The proposal included changes to how the FAA would determine compliance with minimum slot usage rules similar to GAO's recommendation and the WSG. Under that concept, a slot would only be considered for a flight or series of flights in a single slot and not potentially applied or averaged to more than one slot. The NPRM was withdrawn by DOT and FAA in April 2016 to allow further evaluation of recent changes in demand, competition, operations, and other factors in the New York City area airports. The FAA and the Office of the Secretary continue to evaluate the circumstances at the New York City area airports and DCA and, if necessary, will consider steps to ensure compliance with minimum slot usage, including future rulemaking.
    Recommendation: To help maximize the use of available capacity at slot-controlled airports, enhance competition through greater airline access to slots, and enhance transparency of slot information, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to periodically disclose information, which may include current slot holders and operators, on currently available slots.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The FAA currently provides the public with slot holder and slot operator information and allocated slot levels by period upon request. Additionally, the FAA regularly discusses slot availability with interested parties. The FAA is also working on a Slot Administration Office webpage that would include references to current rules, orders, other agency actions, and related guidance materials. We anticipate the website will be available in 2017. The website will include commonly requested reports, such as slot holder, slot operator, and uneven slot transfer lists on a quarterly basis.
    Recommendation: To help maximize the use of available capacity at slot-controlled airports, enhance competition through greater airline access to slots, and enhance transparency of slot information, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to collect and disclose data, including the relationship between lessors and lessees, on slot leases.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The FAA has historically maintained a listing of slot transfers between non-commonly owned or non-commonly marketed carriers. These are known as uneven transfers and include transfers other than one-for-one-swaps at the same airport. This list is regularly made available on request. The uneven transfer information will be placed on the FAA Slot Administration Office website discussed in the update to Recommendation 4. The FAA also requires carriers to submit information on the specific slot(s) to be transferred, including the gaining and losing carriers and the effective dates.
    Recommendation: With respect to possible future regulatory action, the DOT Secretary should consider requiring airlines to schedule a certain percentage, or all, of their slot allocations, similar to practices maintained elsewhere in the world.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department concurs that any future rulemaking should consider changes to the minimum slot usage rules to improve slot utilization at the slot controlled airports and provide greater harmonization with industry standards applied at airports outside the U.S. The FAA and the Department of Transportation stated that they will evaluate the circumstances at the New York City area airports and DCA and, if necessary, will consider steps to improve slot utilization, including future rulemaking.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To better ensure that federal investments effectively address the remaining airport noise problem and to more fully demonstrate the results of AIP noise grants, the Secretary of Transportation should direct FAA to establish a strategic noise reduction goal that aligns with the nature and extent of airport noise and targets the agency's noise grant program.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2013, FAA responded to GAO that it had conducted a review of its strategic goals related to noise and concluded that they were sufficiently robust. However, as noted in the report and in subsequent conversations with FAA officials as recently as 2016, FAA's strategic goal of reducing the population within a 65 Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) to less than 300,000 had no relationship with the noise grant program. Noise grants are for mitigating those people living within 65 DNL.
    Recommendation: To better ensure that federal investments effectively address the remaining airport noise problem and to more fully demonstrate the results of AIP noise grants, the Secretary of Transportation should direct FAA to establish performance measures to assess progress toward this goal that better demonstrate the results of the program and provide Congress and FAA's program managers with information to gauge progress and make programmatic decisions.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FAA concurred in part to this recommendation. In August 2013, FAA responded to GAO that it had reviewed its noise grant performance measures and concluded that the performance measures and target levels remain valid, though acknowledged that emerging issues could eventually lead FAA to adjust its targets. However, as noted in the report and in subsequent conversations with FAA officials as recently as 2016, that there is insufficient performance information about the nature and extent of remaining airport noise exposure and the contribution of noise grants in mitigating the impact of that exposure. Specifically, FAA does not know how many residences, schools, or other public buildings are in significantly noise exposed areas or which of those have yet to benefit from noise insulation projects. Without this information, Congress and FAA program managers cannot make fully informed decisions about what the noise grant program can reasonably be expected to address in the future and the extent to which noise exposure remains a constraint on growth.
    Director: Herr, Phillip R
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: As we have previously recommended, Congress should consider reexamining and refocusing surface transportation programs, including establishing well-defined goals with direct links to identified federal interests and roles. Based on this review, there may be areas where national interests are less evident and where Congress may wish to consider narrowing FHWA's responsibilities.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of December 2017, Congress has not yet acted on this recommendation. The Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act; P.L. 114-94), signed into law in December 2015, is due to be reauthorized in fiscal year 2021.
    Director: Calbom, Linda M
    Phone: (206) 287-4809

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To reduce the risk of potential duplication of efforts and further inform assessments of advisory groups, the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of Energy should identify and document specific steps that should be taken in periodically assessing potential duplication and the ongoing need for both FACA and non-FACA advisory groups.

    Agency: Department of Energy
    Status: Open

    Comments: The status of this recommendation will be updated when GAO receive updated information from the Department of Energy.
    Recommendation: To reduce the risk of potential duplication of efforts and further inform assessments of advisory groups, the Secretary of Transportation and the Secretary of Energy should develop and make public (e.g., on the agency's website) information identifying non-FACA advisory groups providing advice to the agency-including the group name, agency point of contact, and a brief description of the group's purpose.

    Agency: Department of Energy
    Status: Open

    Comments: The status of this recommendation will be updated when GAO receive updated information from the Department of Energy.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To enhance the safety of unregulated onshore hazardous liquid and gas gathering pipelines, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the PHMSA Administrator to collect data from operators of federally unregulated onshore hazardous liquid and gas gathering pipelines, subsequent to an analysis of the benefits and industry burdens associated with such data collection. Data collected should be comparable to what PHMSA collects annually from operators of regulated gathering pipelines (e.g., fatalities, injuries, property damage, location, mileage, size, operating pressure, maintenance history, and the causes of incidents and consequences).

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: PHMSA is proposing to collect data from previously unregulated gas gathering lines via a Natural Gas rulemaking; PHMSA anticipates issuing the final rule by December 30, 2017.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve cost estimates and schedules for NextGen and other major air traffic control acquisition programs, the Secretary of Transportation should direct FAA, when appropriate for major acquisition programs based on a program's cost, schedule, complexity, and risk, to conduct independent cost estimates and schedule risk analysis for major acquisition programs.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: On 11/29/17 an FAA acquisitions official told us that he would reach out again to key organizations to attain a current status on actions to address the recommendation. When we confirm the action(s) that FAA has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: St James, Lorelei
    Phone: (214)777-5719

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To know whether its data on committed spending can be relied on to determine state DOTs' progress in meeting goals, to enhance FHWA's ability to know whether state DOTs meet their DBE goals, and to help increase transparency in the reporting of spending on DBEs, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator, in the information it provides to decision makers, including Congress, to include statements about potential limitations of the data it uses to determine state DOTs' progress towards goals.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: An official from the Department of Transportation said that the agency expects the recommendation to be met with a final rule regarding disadvantaged business enterprises, which will be signed by the Secretary of the Department of Transportation by the end of the calendar year.
    Director: Wise, David J
    Phone: (202)512-3000

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To establish accountability for meeting the programs' goal of increasing the participation of traditionally underrepresented groups in the highway construction workforce, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FHWA Administrator to create and implement an oversight mechanism that (1) holds states accountable for meeting federal training criteria and (2) clearly stipulates how FHWA will assess state program effectiveness, including what type of program achievement data states are to submit and how such data will be used. This oversight mechanism should include assessing the effectiveness of its division offices in overseeing state activities.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: FHWA has taken steps to implement an oversight mechanism that may address this recommendation. FHWA officials anticipate completing their work in response to this recommendation in mid- to late 2017.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: (202)512-4431

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: In order to encourage vehicle owners to comply with safety recalls, provide vehicle owners with specific information about whether their vehicle is involved in a recall, and identify factors that affect recall completion rates, among other things, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of NHTSA to develop a plan to use the data it collects on recall campaigns to analyze particular patterns or trends that may characterize successful recalls and determine whether these represent best practices that could be used in other recall campaigns.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions NHTSA has taken in response to this recommendation will provide updated information.
    Director: Wise, David J
    Phone: (202)512-5731

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure that FTA targets its resources effectively as it increases its safety efforts and is able to track the results of these efforts, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FTA Administrator to use leading practices as FTA develops its plans for fiscal year 2011 and in the future. In particular, the Administrator should create a set of clear and specific performance goals and measures that (1) are aligned with the department's strategic safety goals and identify the intended results of FTA's various safety efforts and (2) address important dimensions of program performance.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), enacted in 2012, gave the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) authority to establish and enforce a new comprehensive framework for overseeing the safety of public transportation in the U.S. FTA is developing a new National Public Transportation Safety Program, including new safety regulations and a National Safety Plan, to implement this authority. FTA has proposed a National Safety Plan that identifies a potential set of performance measures for FTA, but does not identify related goals or targets. FTA officials said that they would address our recommendation within the next 6-12 months by establishing, within an internal performance plan, a set of clear and specific performance goals and measures for FTA that align with the leading practices we identify. We will follow up in Spring 2017 to check on FTA's progress in implementing this recommendation.
    Director: Wise, David J
    Phone: (202)512-5731

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve FTA's ability to determine the extent to which transit grants, current formula incentives, and FTA program activities have had a positive effect on local transit agency performance--and to the extent that FTA finds current data sources to be appropriate and reliable for such purposes-- the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FTA Administrator to further analyze and use data submitted to FTA by local transit agencies. As part of this analysis, FTA may want to identify and evaluate, when applicable, (1) the extent to which transit grant programs are accomplishing their established goals; (2) the areas of performance in which FTA should concentrate its program activities to increase the performance of local transit agencies and the federal transit program in general; and (3) the extent to which formula incentives and other performance accountability mechanisms have influenced the activities and performance of local transit agencies.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of November 2017, FTA had published the final National Safety Plan and a final rule on state of good repair for transit assets. However, the final Public Transportation Agency Safety Plan rule is under additional review per the transition in administration. FTA does not expect publication until Spring 2018. We will continue to monitor DOT actions pertaining to this rulemaking.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202) 512-4803

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve the transparency of information on airline-imposed fees and government-imposed taxes and fees for consumers and improve airlines' reporting of fee revenues to the Department of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation should improve the disclosure of baggage fees and policies to passengers, in accordance with DOT guidance, by requiring that U.S. airlines and foreign airlines that fly within or to or from the United States disclose baggage fees and policies along with fare information such that this information can be consistently disclosed across all distribution channels used by the airline.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: A DOT rulemaking (RIN-2105-AE56: Transparency of Airline Ancillary Service Fees) is ongoing and could address this recommendation. As of June 2017, the final rule is expected to be published in late 2017/early 2018.
    Recommendation: To improve the transparency of information on airline-imposed fees and government-imposed taxes and fees for consumers and improve airlines' reporting of fee revenues to the Department of Transportation, the Secretary of Transportation should require U.S. passenger airlines to report to DOT all optional fees paid by passengers related to their trip in a separate account, exclusive of baggage fees and reservation change and cancellation fees.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: A DOT rulemaking (RIN-2105-AE56: Transparency of Airline Ancillary Service Fees) is ongoing and could address this recommendation. As of June 2017, the final rule is expected to be published in late 2017/early 2018.
    Recommendation: If Congress determines that the benefit of added revenue to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund from taxation of optional airline service fees, such as baggage fees, is of importance, then it may wish to consider amending the Internal Revenue Code to make mandatory the taxation of certain or all airline imposed fees and to require that the revenue be deposited in the Airport and Airway Trust Fund.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of June 2017, Congress has not yet taken action regarding this matter. While amendments have been offered to change the tax treatment of airline fees, none of these amendments have been passed into law. We will continue to monitor this matter and will provide updated information.
    Director: Herr, Phillip R
    Phone: (202) 512-8509

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To support the triennial review program's goal of having grantees consistently meet more federal requirements, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FTA Administrator to meet standards set forth in previous GAO work, based on the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, and develop performance measures to assess: (1) the outcomes of the triennial review program, such as a method for evaluating improvements in grantee performance in meeting more federal requirements over time (2) and the quality of the triennial review through improved contractor oversight, testing, or inspection.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: Federal Transit Administration (FTA) responded to our recommendations stating that it plans to improve the quality of oversight reviews. Actions aimed to improve quality are: (1) increasing oversight of contractors by emphasizing regional and headquarters' participation in all on-site triennial reviews and (2) increasing annual oversight conference participation and quarterly review workshops that focus on improving performance measures. These activities were to be specified in new procedures coming out in 2011.
    Recommendation: To support the triennial review program's goal of having grantees consistently meet more federal requirements, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FTA Administrator to improve the objectivity and reliability of the "Close Findings Timely" performance measure by: (1) developing an internal controls process to verify grantees have satisfactorily resolved findings before closing them (2) continuing to emphasize the use of OTRAK across all regions and developing a process to close out triennial reviews in OTRAK upon grantees' completion of corrective actions.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is working to strengthen the internal control process for closing out triennial review findings. Specifically, it is drafting operating procedures indicating that (1) the regional offices have the primary responsibility to provide the necessary technical assistance to grantees to close-out findings as well as ensure the findings are not closed-out prematurely and (2) program managers have a secondary responsibility to verify whether the findings were closed out properly. The procedures were to be issued in October 2010.
    Recommendation: To support the triennial review program's goal of having grantees consistently meet more federal requirements, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FTA to ensure that additional outcome and quality performance measures are balanced with the existing measures for assessing the timeliness of the triennial review program so that one priority is not emphasized at the expense of others.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: Federal Transit Administration (FTA) anticipates adding a performance measurement, called reduction in repeat findings, that relates to assessing the quality of the review. FTA officials told us that this new performance measurement is noncontroversial and was to be discussed at a June 2012 Oversight Meeting.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202)512-4803

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help FAA improve the data on and the safety of air cargo operations, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA Administrator to gather comprehensive and accurate data on all part 135 cargo operations to gain a better understanding of air cargo accident rates and better target safety initiatives. This can be done by separating out cargo activity in FAA's annual survey of aircraft owners or by requiring all part 135 cargo carriers to report operational data as part 121 carriers currently do.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In 2017, FAA reported that the agency has determined that a redesign of the General Aviation and Part 135 Activity Survey (GA Survey) is not required to address the recommendation, as originally considered. Beginning with the GA survey for year 2016--survey results are being processed--FAA will identify aircraft certified for cargo operations and use the certificate type to break out operational data for cargo operations. FAA also discussed this plan with stakeholders, including the Regional Air Cargo Carriers Association, and believe this new approach will meet the recommendation for gathering comprehensive and accurate data on all part 135 cargo operations. In June 2017, FAA informed us that the agency expects to release the 2016 GA survey by October 31, 2017.
    Director: Kingsbury, Nancy R
    Phone: (202)512-6570

    4 open recommendations
    Recommendation: In order to improve the information available to the Congress for reauthorization, the Secretary of Transportation should analyze and report on trends currently anticipated to affect highway safety through 2020 and beyond in a systematic fashion--including information on high-clockspeed trends, discussion of evidence about these and other individual trends, their implications and potential interactions, and DOT responses.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT has not responded to this recommendation, but DOT announced a distracted driving summit September 30-October 1, 2009, with a limited number of invitees, and invited the GAO Assistant Director on this report to participate. U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood stated that the purpose of the summit is to "to address the dangers of text-messaging and other distractions behind the wheel." The summit will include "senior transportation officials, elected officials, safety advocates, law enforcement representatives and academics" who will convene in Washington, DC "to discuss ideas about how to combat distracted driving."
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should evaluate whether or not new approaches to data collection are needed to better track new trends related to highway safety.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT has not responded to this recommendation.
    Recommendation: In order to develop an approach to decision making and the development of evidence on high-clockspeed trends affecting highway safety that are characterized by uncertainty, the Secretary of Transportation should consider and evaluate practices and principles for making decisions under conditions of uncertainty and for using data in such decision making and, on that basis, develop an approach to guide decision making on high-clockspeed trends that, although somewhat uncertain, may affect highway safety.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In GAO-09-56, GAO recommended the Secretary of Transportation consider and evaluate practices and principles for making conditions under uncertainty and for using data in light of issues encountered in developing evidence on high-clockspeed trends affecting highway safety that are characterized by uncertainty. GAO had studied driver distraction involving electronic devices, in particular cell phones with texting capability and identified these evolving electronic devices as a high clockspeed trend. DOT reports several actions on distracted driving, specifically: (1) an Executive Order to federal employees not to engage in text messaging while driving government-owned vehicles; when using electronic equipment supplied by the government while driving; or while driving privately owned vehicles when they are on official business; (2) the Secretary called on state and local governments to (a) make distracted driving part of their state highway plans, (b) pass state and local laws against distracted driving in all types of vehicles, (c) back up public awareness campaigns with high-visibility enforcement actions; (3) the Secretary directed the Department to establish an on-line clearinghouse on the risks of distracted driving and also (4) pledged to continue the Department's research on how to best combat distracted driving. DOT also notes that the Department's www.distraction.gov website provides information on the latest data on distracted driving and that 34 states have passed laws against texting and driving since the 2009 announcement by the Secretary of DOT.
    Recommendation: In order to improve the information available to the Congress for reauthorization, the Secretary of Transportation should determine, in consultation with relevant congressional committees, schedules for periodic reporting that will be sufficiently frequent to update the Congress on fast-changing trends.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOT has not responded to this recommendation.
    Director: Siggerud, Katherine A
    Phone: (202)512-3000

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: Taking action to address the challenges FMCSA faces to ensure that its drug testing program detects drivers who are using illegal drugs, and to keep drivers who have tested positive off the road until they have completed the return-to-duty process, provides an opportunity to improve safety on the roads. In order to assist the Department of Transportation (DOT) and FMCSA in addressing these challenges, and thereby improving road safety, Congress may wish to consider adopting legislation to ban subversion products.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: On February 4, 2009, Representative Engel introduced the Drug Testing Integrity Act of 2009 in the House of Representatives. The Act would ban products designed to defraud drug tests. On February 15, 2011 Representative Engel re-introduced the bill, which was referred to the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and then to the Subcommittee on Commerce, Manufacturing, and Trade. Representative Engel re-introduced the bill in the 113th Congress in May of 2013. However, the bill has not been reintroduced since.
    Director: Herr, Phillip R
    Phone: (202)512-8984

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve the effectiveness of the federal investment in surface transportation, meet the nation's transportation needs, and ensure a sustainable commitment to transportation infrastructure, Congress may wish to consider reexamining and refocusing surface transportation programs to be responsive to these principles so that they institute tools and approaches to that emphasize the return on the federal investment.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of December 2017, Congress has not yet acted on this recommendation. The Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act; P.L. 114-94), signed into law in December 2015, is due to be reauthorized in fiscal year 2021.
    Recommendation: To improve the effectiveness of the federal investment in surface transportation, meet the nation's transportation needs, and ensure a sustainable commitment to transportation infrastructure, Congress may wish to consider reexamining and refocusing surface transportation programs to be responsive to these principles so that they address the current imbalance between federal surface transportation revenues and spending.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of December 2017, Congress has not yet acted on this recommendation. The Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act; P.L. 114-94), signed into law in December 2015, did not address the current imbalance between federal surface transportation revenues and spending. The Act is due to be reauthorized in fiscal year 2021.
    Director: Herr, Phillip R
    Phone: 2025128984

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: In order to improve freight mobility by more clearly defining the federal role in the freight transportation network and to begin to align federal investments with economically significant national benefits, the Secretary of Transportation should develop with Congress and public and private sector stakeholders a comprehensive national strategy for freight transportation. This national strategy should include defining the federal role and national interests in freight transportation, including economically-based and objective criteria to identify areas of national significance for freight transportation and to determine whether federal funds are required in those areas.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: GAO contacted DOT on various occasions about the status of this recommendation, and a DOT official noted that the recommendation was receiving active consideration in the Administration's thinking on the next surface transportation authorization bill. Once Congress passes a surface transportation authorization bill, GAO will review the bill and determine if the recommendation was addressed.
    Recommendation: In order to improve freight mobility by more clearly defining the federal role in the freight transportation network and to begin to align federal investments with economically significant national benefits, the Secretary of Transportation should develop with Congress and public and private sector stakeholders a comprehensive national strategy for freight transportation. This national strategy should include establishing the roles of regional, state, and local governments, as well as the private sector.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: GAO contacted DOT on various occasions about the status of this recommendation, and a DOT official noted that the recommendation was receiving active consideration in the Administration's thinking on the next surface transportation authorization bill. Once Congress passes a surface transportation authorization bill, GAO will review the bill and determine if the recommendation was addressed.
    Recommendation: In order to improve freight mobility by more clearly defining the federal role in the freight transportation network and to begin to align federal investments with economically significant national benefits, the Secretary of Transportation should develop with Congress and public and private sector stakeholders a comprehensive national strategy for freight transportation. This national strategy should include using new or existing federal funding sources and mechanisms to support a targeted, cost-effective, and sustainable federal role in freight transportation.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: GAO contacted DOT on various occasions about the status of this recommendation, and a DOT official noted that the recommendation was receiving active consideration in the Administration's thinking on the next surface transportation authorization bill. Once Congress passes a surface transportation authorization bill, GAO will review the bill and determine if the recommendation was addressed.
    Director: Siggerud, Katherine A
    Phone: (202)512-6570

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: In order to put the Emergency Relief program on a sound financial footing, Congress may wish to consider the expected future demands on the program and reexamine the appropriate level and sources of funding--including whether to increase the $100 million annual authorized funding and whether the Highway Trust Fund, the General Fund, or some combination would allow the program to accomplish its purpose in a fiscally sustainable manner.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of October 2017, Congress has not yet taken action on this recommendation. The Emergency Relief Program is due to be reauthorized in fiscal year 2021.
    Recommendation: Congress may also wish to consider tightening the eligibility criteria for Emergency Relief funding, either through amending the purpose of the Emergency Relief program, or by directing FHWA to revise its program regulations. Revised criteria could include limitations on the use of Emergency Relief funds to fully finance projects with scope and costs that have grown as a result of environmental and community concerns.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of October 2017, Congress has not yet taken action on this recommendation. The Emergency Relief Program is due to be reauthorized in fiscal year 2021.
    Director: Dillingham, Gerald L
    Phone: (202)512-3000

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: Because of the importance of the successful planning and implementation of NGATS and the need for effective collaboration between diverse organizations, the Secretary of Transportation should direct JPDO to better ensure the involvement of all key stakeholders in the NGATS planning process, by determining whether key stakeholders and expertise are not represented on JPDO's integrated product teams, divisions, or elsewhere within its organization. For example, JPDO should consider the addition of active, subject matter expert air traffic controllers to its integrated product teams.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In multiple reports and testimonies on Air Traffic Control Modernization and subsequently the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) GAO has reported that a lack of stakeholder or expert involvement early and throughout a project can lead to cost increases and delays. We also found that the Joint Planning and Development Office within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had not adequately involved air traffic controllers or the National Air Traffic Controllers Association (NATCA) in NextGen planning efforts, and have since reported on challenges facing FAA in involving controllers and other stakeholders as they begin to implement various NextGen improvements. GAO recommended that the Secretary of Transportation consider various actions to better ensure the involvement of all key stakeholders in planning and implementing NextGen and specifically recommended further involvement of active, subject matter expert air traffic controllers. Article 114 of the recently signed contract between the FAA and NATCA addresses this recommendation by directing full participation by NATCA to further the development and implementation of NextGen. The specifics of the agreement between FAA and NATCA regarding how and in what manner controllers will be included has yet to be determined, but the inclusion of Article 114 is a step in the right direction to ensuring active involvement. With greater active participation from air traffic controllers and NATCA, issues that cause cost increase and delays can be identified earlier and their effects mitigated.
    Recommendation: Given the technical complexity of the implementation of NGATS and FAA's past experiences, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the FAA to undertake a formal exploration of FAA's strengths and weaknesses with regard to the technical expertise and contract management expertise that will be required to define, implement, and integrate the numerous complex programs and systems inherent in the transition to NGATS. For example, FAA should work to determine whether it will need to contract with an LSI, federally-funded not-for-profit corporation, or other technical or managerial entity to assist in the implementation of NGATS.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: According to the Vice President for Planning, FAA, on June 13, 2007, FAA awarded a contract to the National Academy of Public Administration (NAPA) to do an independent assessment of FAA's technical and program management (i.e., contract management) skills required for NextGen implementation. The Vice President directly attributed FAA's ability to move the contract award to GAO's recommendation.
    Director: Siggerud, Katherine A
    Phone: (202)512-6570

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To better demonstrate how FMCSA education and outreach programs contribute to achieving agency goals, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FMCSA to ensure that the agency describes and documents how education and outreach program activities link to and support broader program and agency goals in a planning, program, or budget document that is available to the public.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open

    Comments: In response to GAO's recommendation that the agency describe and document how education and outreach program activities link to and support broader program goals, FMCSA included discussion of how their education and outreach activities supported a number of programs in its FY 2009 performance budget in response to GAO. FMCSA also provided more detailed logic models to GAO on the education and outreach activities that support a number of their programs such as New and Non Entrants, Share the Road Safely and Safety Belt Usage Improvement.
    Director: Fleming, Susan A
    Phone: 2025128984

    4 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve Amtrak's efforts in addressing financial management challenges and better support management decision making, the president of Amtrak should perform a comprehensive risk assessment of financial reporting processes that support preparation of monthly performance reports and the RPI, to include determining areas of vulnerability, implementing appropriate compensating and mitigating internal controls, and ongoing monitoring to ensure compliance.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: GAO is continuing to work with Amtrak to obtain information on the status of this recommendation and will update provide updates as available.
    Recommendation: To improve Amtrak's efforts in addressing financial management challenges and better support management decision making, the president of Amtrak should document policies and procedures related to controlling the information in the monthly performance reports, including the RPI. The policies and procedures should cover how expenses are allocated to Amtrak's routes, as well as specific guidance on documenting the justification and authorization of changes made to allocation methods.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will continue to work with Amtrak to obtain information about the status of this recommendation and will provide updates as available.
    Recommendation: To improve Amtrak's efforts in addressing financial management challenges and better support management decision making, the president of Amtrak should develop a comprehensive action plan for immediately implementing preventive controls to enhance the reliability of financial data and address the reportable condition over accounting for capital assets in the most recent reports and letters of comment from the independent public accountant.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will continue to work with Amtrak to obtain information about this recommendation and will provide updates as available.
    Recommendation: To ensure that Amtrak can better meet the challenge of increasing its efficiency and reducing its operating costs, the president of Amtrak should establish efficiency and unit cost measures with clear inputs to benchmark individual asset and corporate productivity, which will demonstrate efficient use of Amtrak's resources.

    Agency: National Railroad Passenger Corporation
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will continue to work with Amtrak to obtain information about the status of this recommendation and will provide updates as available.