Reports & Testimonies

  • GAO’s recommendations database contains report recommendations that still need to be addressed.

    GAO’s recommendations help congressional and agency leaders prepare for appropriations and oversight activities, as well as help improve government operations. Recommendations remain open until they are designated as Closed-implemented or Closed-not implemented. You can explore open recommendations by searching or browsing.

    GAO's priority recommendations are those that we believe warrant priority attention. We sent letters to the heads of key departments and agencies, urging them to continue focusing on these issues. These recommendations are labeled as such. You can find priority recommendations by searching or browsing our open recommendations below, or through our mobile app.

  • Browse Open Recommendations

    Explore priority recommendations by subject terms or browse by federal agency

    Search Open Recommendations

    Search for a specific priority recommendation by word or phrase



  • Governing on the go?

    Our Priorities for Policy Makers app makes it easier for leaders to search our recommendations on the go.

    See the November 10th Press Release


  • Have a Question about a Recommendation?

    • For questions about a specific recommendation, contact the person or office listed with the recommendation.
    • For general information about recommendations, contact GAO's Audit Policy and Quality Assurance office at (202) 512-6100 or apqa@gao.gov.
  • « Back to Results List Sort by   

    Results:

    Subject Term: "Workforce planning"

    36 publications with a total of 154 open recommendations including 14 priority recommendations
    Director: Chris Currie
    Phone: (404) 679-1875

    5 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The FEMA Assistant Administrator for Recovery should complete a workforce staffing assessment that identifies the appropriate number of staff needed at joint field offices, Consolidated Resource Centers, and in FIMA's hazard mitigation cadre to implement the new delivery model nationwide. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency: Office of Response and Recovery: Assistant Administrator for Recovery
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The FEMA Assistant Administrator for Recovery should establish controls for tracking FAC-Trax capabilities to the system's functional and operational requirements to more fully satisfy requirements development controls and ensure that the new information system provides capabilities that meets users' needs and expectations. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency: Office of Response and Recovery: Assistant Administrator for Recovery
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The FEMA Assistant Administrator for Recovery should establish system testing criteria, such as a "definition of done," to assess FAC-Trax as it is developed; define the roles and responsibilities of all participants; and develop the sequence and schedule for integration of other systems with FAC-Trax to more fully satisfy systems testing and integration controls. (Recommendation 3)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency: Office of Response and Recovery: Assistant Administrator for Recovery
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The FEMA Assistant Administrator for Recovery, in coordination with the Associate Administrator of the Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, should implement procedures to standardize planning for addressing PA hazard mitigation at the joint field offices, for example, by requiring FEMA and state officials to develop a memorandum of understanding outlining how they will prioritize and address hazard mitigation following a disaster as it did through prior policy. (Recommendation 4)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency: Office of Response and Recovery: Assistant Administrator for Recovery
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The FEMA Assistant Administrator for Recovery, in coordination with the Associate Administrator of the Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, should develop performance measures and associated objectives for the new delivery model to better align with FEMA's strategic goal for hazard mitigation in the recovery process. (Recommendation 5)

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency: Office of Response and Recovery: Assistant Administrator for Recovery
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Timothy M. Persons
    Phone: (202) 512-6412

    11 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve independence, the Administrator of APHIS should formally document the reporting structure for the APHIS component of the Select Agent Program from the APHIS director of the program to the Administrator of APHIS. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve independence, the CDC director of the Select Agent Program should work with APHIS to establish control activities to help ensure that each component of the program carries out its inspection responsibilities as outlined in the program's memorandum of understanding. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services: Public Health Service: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve independence, the APHIS director of the Select Agent Program should work with CDC to establish control activities to help ensure that each component of the program carries out its inspection responsibilities as outlined in the program's memorandum of understanding. (Recommendation 3)

    Agency: Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve independence, the CDC director of the Select Agent Program should regularly assess the potential risks posed by the program's structure and the effectiveness of its mechanisms to address those risks, such as by commissioning external reviews, and take actions as necessary to ensure that any identified risks are addressed so that impairments to independence do not affect its ability to achieve its objectives. (Recommendation 4)

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services: Public Health Service: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve independence, the APHIS director of the Select Agent Program should regularly assess the potential risks posed by the program's structure and the effectiveness of its mechanisms to address those risks, such as by commissioning external reviews, and take actions as necessary to ensure any identified risks are addressed so that impairments to independence do not affect its ability to achieve its objectives. (Recommendation 5)

    Agency: Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve the ability to perform reviews, the CDC director of the Select Agent Program should work with APHIS to develop and implement a plan to identify which laboratory activities carry the highest biological safety and security risks and to respond to those risks by aligning inspections and other oversight efforts to target those activities. (Recommendation 6)

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services: Public Health Service: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve the ability to perform reviews, the APHIS director of the Select Agent Program should work with CDC to develop and implement a plan to identify which laboratory activities carry the highest biological safety and security risks and to respond to those risks by aligning inspections and other oversight efforts to target those activities. (Recommendation 7)

    Agency: Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve transparency, the CDC director of the Select Agent Program should work with APHIS to determine what additional information about laboratories' use of select agents, incidents, and violations of the select agent regulations is appropriate for the program to share with registered laboratories. (Recommendation 8)

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services: Public Health Service: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve transparency, the APHIS director of the Select Agent Program should work with CDC to determine what additional information about laboratories' use of select agents, incidents, and violations of the select agent regulations is appropriate for the program to share with registered laboratories. (Recommendation 9)

    Agency: Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve technical expertise and overcome fragmentation, the CDC director of the Select Agent Program should work with APHIS to develop a joint workforce plan that assesses workforce and training needs for the program as a whole. This assessment should be done in conjunction with the development of the strategic plan. (Recommendation 10)

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services: Public Health Service: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve technical expertise and overcome fragmentation, the APHIS director of the Select Agent Program should work with CDC to develop a joint workforce plan that assesses workforce and training needs for the program as a whole. This assessment should be done in conjunction with the development of the strategic plan. (Recommendation 11)

    Agency: Department of Agriculture: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Thomas Melito
    Phone: (202) 512-9601

    4 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Acting Director of DSCA should take steps to ensure the collection of data measuring the timeliness of the delivery of equipment and services to recipient countries. (Recommendation 1)

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Acting Director of DSCA should analyze data on all performance metrics to better identify deficiencies. (Recommendation 2)

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Acting Director of DSCA should develop a workforce plan. (Recommendation 3)

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: The Acting Director of DSCA should develop workload measures for its FMS workforce. (Recommendation 4)

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Rebecca Gambler
    Phone: (202) 512-8777

    11 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To better address current and future staffing needs, the Director of EOIR should develop and implement a strategic workforce plan that addresses, among other areas, key principles of effective strategic workforce planning, including (1) determining critical skills and competencies needed to achieve current and future programmatic results; (2) developing strategies that are tailored to address gaps in number, deployment, and alignment of human capital approaches for enabling and sustaining the contributions of all critical skills and competencies; and (3) monitoring and evaluation of the agency's progress toward its human capital goals and the contribution that human capital results have made toward achieving programmatic results.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR officials reported that its Immigration Court Staffing Committee, established in April 2017, would, among other things, examine how to best leverage the judicial and court staff workload model to address its short- and long-term staffing needs, assess the critical skills and competencies needed to achieve future programmatic results, and develop strategies to address human capital gaps. This committee expects to complete its work in March 2018. EOIR also reported that it is developing an agency-wide strategic plan that includes human capital planning as a critical component, which will be used to guide workforce planning for the entire agency. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR's Immigration Court Staffing Committee should complete its work and provide documentation demonstrating that it: 1) addressed the agency's short- and long-term staffing needs; 2) identified the critical skills and competencies needed to achieve future programmatic results; and 3) developed strategies to address human capital gaps. EOIR should also provide documentation, including the completed strategic plan, describing how the agency tailored its human capital strategies to address gaps in the number, deployment, and alignment of human capital approaches; and is monitoring and evaluating the agency's progress toward its human capital goals.
    Recommendation: To better address EOIR's immigration judge staffing needs, the Director of EOIR should: (1) assess the immigration judge hiring process to identify opportunities for efficiency; (2) use the assessment results to develop a hiring strategy that targets short- and long-term human capital needs; and (3) implement any corrective actions related to the hiring process resulting from this assessment.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR stated that it is actively implementing a new streamlined hiring plan that aims to reduce the hiring timeline. According to EOIR, this revised hiring plan, among other things, sets clear deadlines for assessing applicants moving through different stages of the process and for making decisions on advancing applicants to the next stage, as well as allows for temporary appointments for all selected judges pending full background investigations. EOIR stated that it will use this revised process in the future to fill judge vacancies. Regarding the development of a hiring strategy, EOIR stated that it recognizes the importance of assessing immigration judge hiring needs holistically to continue to develop an overall immigration judge hiring strategy, and will utilize a planned human capital strategy and additional data to further refine the hiring process. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR should continue its efforts to assess and improve its hiring process and provide documentation describing: 1) its new hiring process, including how EOIR assessed the prior hiring process to identify opportunities for efficiency; 2) its hiring strategy targeting short- and long-term human capital needs; and (3) the corrective actions EOIR implemented in response to the assessment results, such as eliminating procedures that increased the length of the hiring process.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that EOIR meets its cost and schedule expectations for EOIR Courts and Appeals Systems (ECAS), the EOIR Director should identify and establish the appropriate entity for exercising oversight over ECAS through full implementation.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2017, EOIR reported that it had selected the EOIR Investment Review Board to serve as the ECAS oversight body with the Office of Information Technology (OIT) directly responsible for the management of the ECAS program. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR should provide documentation related to this decision.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that EOIR meets its cost and schedule expectations for ECAS, the EOIR Director should document and implement an oversight plan that is consistent with best practices for overseeing IT projects, including (1) establishing how the oversight body is to monitor program performance and progress toward expected cost, schedule, and benefits; (2) ensuring that corrective actions are identified and assigned to the appropriate parties at the first sign of cost, schedule, or performance slippages; and (3) ensuring that corrective actions are tracked until the desired outcomes are achieved.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2017, EOIR reported that it had selected the EOIR Investment Review Board to serve as the ECAS oversight body with the Office of Information Technology (OIT) directly responsible for the management of the ECAS program. According to EOIR, OIT will record on a weekly basis all financial metrics, risks, issues, and corrective actions in EOIR's project management tool, as well as regularly evaluating the program's performance and progress and immediately implementing any needed corrective actions. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR should document and implement an oversight plan that describes how the EOIR Investment Review Board and OIT will oversee the full implementation of ECAS, including how these bodies will, consistent with best practices for overseeing IT projects: 1) monitor program performance and progress toward expected cost, schedule, and benefits; (2) ensure that corrective actions are identified and assigned to the appropriate parties at the first sign of cost, schedule, or performance slippages; and (3) ensure that corrective actions are tracked until the desired outcomes are achieved.
    Recommendation: To provide further assurance that EOIR's use of video teleconference (VTC) in immigration hearings is outcome-neutral, the Director of EOIR should collect more complete and reliable data on the number and type of hearings it conducts through VTC.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR stated that it is studying how to collect more complete and reliable data on the number and type of hearings it conducts through video teleconference (VTC). To fully address this recommendation, once EOIR determines how to collect more complete and reliable VTC hearing data, EOIR should provide documentation describing its approach and evidence of its implementation.
    Recommendation: To provide further assurance that EOIR's use of VTC in immigration hearings is outcome-neutral, the Director of EOIR should collect data on appeals in which the use of VTC formed some basis for the appeal, and the number of in-person hearing motions filed.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR stated that it is planning a pilot project to collect data on the number and type of appeals to the Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA) in which the use of video teleconference (VTC) formed an element of the basis for the appeal. EOIR expects to begin this 6-month pilot project in the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. Additionally, EOIR stated that it will assess the feasibility of collecting data on the number of filed motions requesting an in-person hearing instead of a VTC hearing. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR should continue these efforts and begin systematically collecting data on appeals in which the use of VTC formed some basis for the appeal and the number of in-person hearing motions filed.
    Recommendation: To provide further assurance that EOIR's use of VTC in immigration hearings is outcome-neutral, the Director of EOIR should use these and other data to assess any effects of VTC on immigration hearings and, as appropriate, address any issues identified through such an assessment.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR stated that it intends to analyze data on appeals in which the use of VTC formed some basis for the appeal from the Board of Immigration Appeals' pilot program as well as other data to further assess any effects of video teleconference (VTC) usage on immigration hearings. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR should, pending the results of the pilot program, use these and other data to assess any effects of VTC on immigration hearings and, as appropriate, address any issues identified through such an assessment.
    Recommendation: To further ensure that EOIR's VTC hearings meet all user needs and help EOIR identify and address technical issues with VTC hearings, the Director of EOIR should develop and implement a mechanism to solicit and monitor feedback from respondents regarding their satisfaction and experiences with VTC hearings, including the audio and visual quality of the hearing.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR stated that it partially agreed with this recommendation and would create a mechanism to solicit open-ended feedback from respondents regarding their satisfaction and experience with video teleconference (VTC) hearings, including the audio and visual quality of the hearing. EOIR reported that it is exploring and expects to implement some options by the first quarter of fiscal year 2018, such as a feedback portal on the EOIR website, a dedicated e-mail box, or a comment card for distribution to respondents at immigration courts and detention centers where VTC hearings are held. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR should continue to explore and implement a mechanism to solicit and monitor feedback from respondents regarding their satisfaction and experiences with VTC hearings, including the audio and visual quality of the hearing.
    Recommendation: To better assess court performance and use data to identify potential management challenges, the Director of EOIR should establish and monitor comprehensive case completion goals, including a goal for completing non-detained cases not currently captured by performance measures, and goals for cases it considers a priority.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR stated that it agrees that the agency should measure case completions in all categories and is evaluating the best way to measure its courts' performance to improve efficiency and productivity. Additionally, EOIR reported that it is working with the immigration judges' union to conduct this assessment and expects to complete this evaluation and begin working toward making any changes to its performance assessment system by the second quarter of fiscal year 2018. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR should continue these efforts and establish and monitor comprehensive case completion goals, including a goal for completing non-detained cases not currently captured by performance measures, and goals for cases it considers a priority.
    Recommendation: To better assess court performance and use data to identify potential management challenges, the Director of EOIR should systematically analyze immigration court continuance data to identify and address any operational challenges faced by courts or areas for additional guidance or training.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR stated that it will further analyze continuance data to identify and address operational challenges as well as determine areas where immigration judges might benefit from additional guidance or training on the use of continuances. EOIR plans to prepare new reports assessing continuance data by the first quarter of fiscal year 2018. Additionally, EOIR reported that it anticipates releasing a new Operating Policies and Procedures Memorandum addressing the appropriate use of continuances in August 2017. To fully address this recommendation, EOIR should continue to systematically analyze continuance data to identify any operational challenges faced by courts or areas for additional guidance or training, and address any challenges through taking actions such as issuing the new memorandum on continuances.
    Recommendation: To better assess court performance and use data to identify potential management challenges, the Director of EOIR should update policies and procedures to ensure the timely and accurate recording of Notices to Appear.

    Agency: Department of Justice: Executive Office for Immigration Review
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, EOIR stated that it partially agreed with this recommendation and will continue to monitor the timeliness and accuracy of NTA recording and implement corrective actions as needed. Additionally, EOIR stated that it will explore the need to create new guidance for immigration court staff to address instances where EOIR exceeds average recording times timeframes in the future. To fully implement this recommendation, EOIR should update its policies and procedures to better ensure the timely and accurate recording of NTAs, and thus provide greater assurance that EOIR's case management data are accurate, including case completion times and the size of its case backlog.
    Director: Frank Rusco
    Phone: (202) 512-3841

    3 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To improve NRC's ability to strategically manage the size and composition of its workforce and respond to changes in the nuclear industry, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should set agencywide goals, which could be ranges, for overall workforce size and skills composition that extend beyond the 2-year budget cycle.

    Agency: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: In comments on a draft of the report, NRC generally agreed with the recommendation. In its June 2017 letter on plans for implementing the recommendation, NRC stated that it will implement a new activity to project workload over a 5-year time period. The resulting workload projections will be used to identify core staff positions needed to perform the work. NRC expects that this effort will facilitate setting agency goals for FTE and appropriate agency size beyond the current 2 year budget cycle and will support the agency's effort to enhance its human capital practices. We will review NRC's actions, once completed, to determine whether they meet the intent of this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To improve NRC's ability to strategically manage the size and composition of its workforce and respond to changes in the nuclear industry, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should establish a systematic, comprehensive approach for tracking employee skills information, either through the system developed through the competency modeling pilot program or some other system.

    Agency: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: In comments on a draft of the report, NRC generally agreed with the recommendation. In its June 2017 letter on plans for implementing the recommendation, NRC stated that it will develop and deploy a standard agencywide system to track core staff positions and their related skills. Skills and competencies for each of the core positions will be identified and catalogued, allowing employees and supervisors to search for specific competencies needed to support work throughout the agency. We will review NRC's actions, once completed, to determine whether they meet the intent of this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To improve NRC's ability to strategically manage the size and composition of its workforce and respond to changes in the nuclear industry, the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission should consistently train managers and supervisors in strategic human capital management and assessing employee skillsets.

    Agency: Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: In comments on a draft of the report, NRC generally agreed with the recommendation. In its June 2017 letter on plans for implementing the recommendation, NRC stated that it developed a Supervisor Development Program SharePoint site to centrally house information pertinent to management activities and required training. NRC will provide information on the agency's strategic workforce planning process as it evolves via this site. Additionally, NRC plans to incorporate the strategic workforce planning process and concepts into existing management training that will be delivered in-person and available on-line. We will review NRC's actions, once completed, to determine whether they meet the intent of this recommendation.
    Director: Timothy J. DiNapoli
    Phone: (202) 512-4841

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Director of Human Capital Initiatives should clarify whether and under what conditions DAWDF funds could be used to pay for personnel to help manage the fund.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Secretary of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics: Office of Human Capital Initiatives
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOD partially concurred with this recommendation, and indicated that it plans to take action to address it. Section 822 of H.R. 2810, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2018, authorizes the use of DAWDF to pay salaries of personnel at the Office of the Secretary of Defense, military departments, and Defense Agencies to manage the fund. The Human Capital Initiatives Office plans to update the DAWDF Desk Operating Guide based on the final legislation.
    Recommendation: In collaboration with cognizant officials within DOD components, the Director of Human Capital Initiatives should ensure that components have processes in place to verify the accuracy and completeness of data on the execution of initiatives funded by DAWDF.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Secretary of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics: Office of Human Capital Initiatives
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOD partially concurred with this recommendation, and indicated that actions will be taken or have already been taken to address it. DOD noted that it had made significant management and other changes to improve the accuracy and completeness of data used and provided by components on the execution of initiatives funded by DAWDF. DOD noted that it had, among other actions, issued guidance to improve data validity, consistency, and alignment; instituted a midyear program execution review; and established a requirement for a data-driven year in review. The midyear program execution review now requires additional information from components. In addition, as part of the fiscal year 2018 proposal process, components were required to propose hiring by career field. If these management and policy changes are effectively translated into practice, we believe these actions will address the intent of the recommendation.
    Director: Daniel Bertoni
    Phone: (202) 512-7215

    5 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To further align efforts to address appeals workload and improve timeliness of decisions, and reduce the risk that efforts will not go as planned, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should direct the Under Secretary for Benefits; the Chairman, Board of Veterans' Appeals; and the Chief Information Officer, as appropriate, to ensure development of a timely, detailed workforce plan for recruiting, hiring and training new hires. In particular, this plan should: (1) include detailed steps and timetables for updating training curriculum (such as preparing decisions in a virtual environment) and ensuring office space (such as telework guidance); and (2) incorporate risk mitigation strategies that consider how the timing of recruitment and training dovetails with uncertain time frames for implementing a new appeals process.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: VA took additional steps to recruit, hire, manage space and train additional FTEs to address appeals workloads. However, detailed workforce plans would help ensure timely hiring and proper supports and training. We will close this recommendation when VA provides documentation of its actions and related guidance in several areas: agency telework plan; case adjudication in an virtual environment; status of hiring for FY17; hiring goals for FY18; space management plan indicating how FY17 and FY18 hiring will be accommodated; and plans for ongoing training for remote teleworkers.
    Recommendation: To further align efforts to address appeals workload and improve timeliness of decisions, and reduce the risk that efforts will not go as planned, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should direct the Under Secretary for Benefits; the Chairman, Board of Veterans' Appeals; and the Chief Information Officer, as appropriate, to develop a schedule for IT updates that explicitly addresses when and how any process reform will be integrated into new systems and when Caseflow will be ready to support a potential streamlined appeals process at its onset.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: VA concurred in principle with this recommendation. In July 2017, VA reported its latest actions to address this recommendation, including documentation of the 6-month road map. However, we continue to believe that while the agile process can help mitigate risks and avoid cost overruns and delays, VA should define schedules beyond 6 months. Such planning allows VA to take additional steps to consider the scope of potential changes required by a new appeals process and have a broad plan in place to ensure that all aspects of the new process are adequately supported by Caseflow.
    Recommendation: To further align efforts to address appeals workload and improve timeliness of decisions, and reduce the risk that efforts will not go as planned, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should direct the Under Secretary for Benefits; the Chairman, Board of Veterans' Appeals; and the Chief Information Officer, as appropriate, to conduct additional sensitivity analyses based on the assumptions used in projection models to more accurately estimate future appeals inventories and timeliness. In doing so, consider running additional analyses on how these factors, in conjunction with one another, may affect the timeliness and cost of deciding pending appeals.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: VA concurred in principle with this recommendation, noting that it plans to refine the model on a regular basis. However, we continue to believe that additional analyses of potential hiring options and of the compounded effect of assumptions that VA identified is consistent with sound practices and will help the agency anticipate and plan for different contingencies. In addition, as VA goes forward with appeals process reform and begins to collect real-time data, these data could improve modeling accuracy and serve as a valuable management tool. VA also noted plans to analyze, update and refine the model. We will consider closing this recommendation when VA completes these efforts and provides documentation of plans for modeling inventories and resource needs.
    Recommendation: To further align efforts to address appeals workload and improve timeliness of decisions, and reduce the risk that efforts will not go as planned, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should direct the Under Secretary for Benefits; the Chairman, Board of Veterans' Appeals; and the Chief Information Officer, as appropriate, to develop a more robust plan for closely monitoring implementation of process reform that includes metrics and interim goals to help track progress, evaluate efficiency and effectiveness, and identify trouble spots.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: VA agreed in principle with this recommendation. However, to fully implement it, VA needs to develop a monitoring plan with metrics and interim goals for implementing appeal process reform. Although VA agreed that developing such a plan is valuable for monitoring the implementation of process reform, VA also stated that it considered this recommendation complete and noted that preparing such a detailed plan depends on appeals reform legislation being enacted. While we recognize that VA cannot assume to know the exact provisions that may be included in future enacted legislation, we consider having a more robust monitoring plan - for example, that includes metrics and interim goals to help track implementation progress, evaluate efficiency and effectiveness of the reformed process, and identify trouble spots - to be essential to the successful implementation of a new appeals process.
    Recommendation: To better understand whether appeals process reform, in conjunction with other efforts, has improved timeliness, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs should direct the Under Secretary for Benefits; the Chairman, Board of Veterans' Appeals; and the Chief Information Officer, as appropriate to develop a strategy for assessing process reform--relative to the current process--that ensures transparency in reporting to Congress and the public on the extent to which VA is improving veterans' experiences with its disability appeals process.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: VA concurred in principle with this recommendation and reported on its plans to measure veteran wait times as well as use customer satisfaction surveys to measure the success of the new appeals process. However, while we agree that metrics based on the different options could be valuable for VA, the Congress, and the public, we disagree that VA's focus on measuring timeliness by option is in the best interest of the veteran. Because veterans may pursue more than one option under VBA, the Board or both, we believe that VA's approach does not take into account the veteran's perspective of how long it took for them to receive a final appeal decision. Metrics from the veterans' overall perspective would complement, not replace, metrics for VBA, the Board, and each option. The absence of such metrics raises questions as to how the agency will ensure appropriate resources are devoted to managing appeals under the new versus old process, or intended results are achieved as the new process is implemented. Further, while the legislation requires VA to report a number of metrics, the agency still needs to implement the legislation. We will consider closing this recommendation when VA develops a plan for collecting metrics consistent with this recommendation.
    Director: Allison Bawden
    Phone: (202) 512-7215

    6 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve CNCS's efforts to move toward a risk-based process for monitoring grants and to improve its capacity for monitoring grantee compliance, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation for National and Community Service should ensure that CNCS completes its efforts to benchmark its assessment criteria and scoring process to further develop a risk-based approach to grant monitoring and that information from this effort is used to (a) score the indicators so that the riskiest grants get the highest scores; (b) revise the assessment indicators to meaningfully cover all identifiable risks, including fraud and improper payments; and (c) document decisions on how indicators are selected and weighted.

    Agency: Corporation for National and Community Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: CNCS stated that it would continue to periodically benchmark its assessment criteria to ensure risk assessment. The agency recognizes the need to move from compliance- to risk-based monitoring and will refine its existing approach as part of reviewing and revising risk criteria and scoring. The agency's risk-based approach will begin with FY18 grant awards. To close this recommendation, CNCS will need to show documentation for how it selected and weighted revised indicators to cover identifiable risks, and how the revised scoring system identifies the riskiest grants.
    Recommendation: To improve CNCS's efforts to move toward a risk-based process for monitoring grants and to improve its capacity for monitoring grantee compliance, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation for National and Community Service should establish and implement a policy to ensure that all grants expected to be active in a fiscal year, including those awarded after the annual assessment, are assessed for potential risk.

    Agency: Corporation for National and Community Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: CNCS agrees with this recommendation and plans to revise its current assessment policy to ensure that all grants are included in the assessment process.
    Recommendation: To improve CNCS's efforts to move toward a risk-based process for monitoring grants and to improve its capacity for monitoring grantee compliance, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation for National and Community Service should review monitoring protocols, including the level of information collected for oversight of subrecipients' activities such as criminal history checks, and enhance protocols, as appropriate.

    Agency: Corporation for National and Community Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: Although CNCS said that by regulation, grantees are primarily responsible for subgrantee monitoring, the agency acknowledged that more needs to be done to address risk at the sub-recipient level, particularly regarding criminal history check compliance, and noted that it is taking several actions to improve criminal history check compliance. However, the agency's comments did not specifically address reviewing monitoring protocols. We continue to believe that it is important to determine whether monitoring protocols are designed to gather sufficient and appropriate information on subrecipient oversight, to help ensure that grantees are monitoring subgrantees as required.
    Recommendation: To improve CNCS's efforts to move toward a risk-based process for monitoring grants and to improve its capacity for monitoring grantee compliance, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation for National and Community Service should establish activities to systematically evaluate grant monitoring results.

    Agency: Corporation for National and Community Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: CNCS said that its Office of the Chief Risk Officer has been building on the agency's current risk assessment framework and capturing the information and data necessary to enhance its approach to risk-based monitoring. However, CNCS's comments did not specifically address any planned activities to systematically evaluate grant monitoring results. We continue to believe that reviewing the outcomes and findings from its monitoring activities would help the agency analyze how well its CNCS's current efforts assess risk, and help guide improvements.
    Recommendation: To improve CNCS's efforts to move toward a risk-based process for monitoring grants and to improve its capacity for monitoring grantee compliance, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation for National and Community Service should develop and document a strategic workforce planning process.

    Agency: Corporation for National and Community Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: CNCS reported that its senior level executive committee reviews all staffing requests and ensures that appropriate staffing justifications are provided, and ensures that all functions in the agency are provided appropriate resources. The agency also noted that, in accordance with direction received from OMB following the release of OMB Memorandum M-17-22 ("Memorandum for Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies"), it is launching an enterprise-wide re-examination of its mission, strategy and structure in order to develop a plan to ensure employee performance is maximized and the agency is operating effectively. To help close this recommendation, CNCS will need to document and develop a strategic workforce planning process that addresses key principles for effective strategic workforce planning, such as to develop strategies tailored to address gaps in number, deployment, and alignment of human capital approaches for enabling and sustaining the contributions of all critical skills and competencies, and to monitor and evaluate process toward human capital goals and programmatic results.
    Recommendation: To improve CNCS's efforts to move toward a risk-based process for monitoring grants and to improve its capacity for monitoring grantee compliance, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation for National and Community Service should, as part of CNCS's efforts to develop an employee development program, update critical competencies for grant monitoring, and establish a training planning process linked with agency goals and these competencies.

    Agency: Corporation for National and Community Service
    Status: Open

    Comments: CNCS cited its training efforts, such as providing training to grants management staff in FY15 and FY16 related to grants monitoring. The agency is in the process of developing a broader agency-wide employee development program that will link competencies to development needs in various mission-critical roles. To close this recommendation, CNCS will need to determine which competencies are critical for grant monitoring, and show how the competencies are linked with the agency's training planning processes and agency goals.
    Director: Brenda S. Farrell
    Phone: (202) 512-3604

    11 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help the Air Force in its effort to address UAS pilot shortfalls, and to help ensure that the Air Force strategies to address UAS pilot shortages are tailored to address remaining issues, such as the significant amount of pilots who are temporarily assigned to the UAS pilot career, the limited amount of cadet interest in the UAS pilot career, and the workload of UAS pilots, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Air Force to revise the Get Well Plan to address these issues.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the Air Force in its effort to address UAS pilot shortfalls, and to help the Air Force ensure that its strategies are having the intended effects, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Air Force to monitor the extent to which that achieving the human capital goals in its strategy helps the Air Force achieve its programmatic goals.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the Air Force in its effort to address UAS pilot shortfalls, and to help the Air Force ensure that it is poised to meet future needs for UAS pilots, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Air Force to explore the potential use of additional flexibilities that would enable it to increase the number of UAS pilots in its workforce.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the Army in its effort to address UAS unit training shortfalls, and to help the Army identify challenges that UAS pilots face in completing their training, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Army to collect feedback from UAS pilots in UAS units, such as by surveying, or conducting focus groups with them.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the Army in its effort to address UAS unit training shortfalls, and to help the Army identify challenges that UAS pilots face in completing their training, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Army to incorporate such feedback into the Army's strategy to address UAS training shortfalls.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the Army in its effort to address UAS unit training shortfalls, and to help ensure that Army Shadow units meet minimum training requirements, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Army to revise its strategy to address UAS training shortfalls to ensure that it is fully tailored to address training issues and address factors such as lack of adequate facilities, lack of access to airspace, and the inability to fly more than one UAS at a time.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the Army in its effort to address UAS unit training shortfalls, and to help the Army ensure that it is basing its decisions to select individuals for UAS pilot training on sound evidence and to help it take advantage of the key benefits associated with effective personnel selection that could include reducing training costs, improving job performance, improving retention of qualified personnel, enabling leadership development, and enhancing organizational effectiveness, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Army to validate that the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery is an effective predictor of UAS pilot candidate performance in UAS pilot training and job performance.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the Army in its effort to address UAS unit training shortfalls, and to help the Army ensure that it is basing its decisions to select individuals for UAS pilot training on sound evidence and to help it take advantage of the key benefits associated with effective personnel selection that could include reducing training costs, improving job performance, improving retention of qualified personnel, enabling leadership development, and enhancing organizational effectiveness, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Army to assess existing research that has been performed that identifies UAS pilot competencies.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the Army in its effort to address UAS unit training shortfalls, and to help the Army ensure that it is basing its decisions to select individuals for UAS pilot training on sound evidence and to help it take advantage of the key benefits associated with effective personnel selection that could include reducing training costs, improving job performance, improving retention of qualified personnel, enabling leadership development, and enhancing organizational effectiveness, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Secretary of the Army to incorporate relevant findings from such research into the Army's approach for selecting UAS pilot candidates, as appropriate.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help address personnel shortages and meet mission needs cost effectively, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, through the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel & Readiness) should direct the Air Force and the Army to evaluate the workforce mix and the use of federal civilians for UAS pilot positions.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help address personnel shortages and meet mission needs cost effectively, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, through the Under Secretary of Defense (Personnel & Readiness) should direct the Air Force and the Army to conduct cost analyses consistent with DOD guidance to inform their workforce decisions and ensure cost effectiveness of the UAS pilot workforce mix.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Michael E. Clements
    Phone: (202) 512-8678

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help SEC address identified personnel management challenges, the Chair should enhance or expand the responsibilities and authority of the COO or other official or office so they can help ensure that improvements to communication and collaboration across SEC are made. For instance, if the duties of the COO were expanded, the COO could establish liaisons in each mission-critical office and division for SEC employees to contact or develop procedures to help facilitate communication and collaboration among the mission-critical office and divisions.

    Agency: United States Securities and Exchange Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help SEC address identified personnel management challenges, the Chair should develop and implement training for hiring specialists that is informed by a skills gap analysis.

    Agency: United States Securities and Exchange Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Heather Krause
    Phone: (202) 512-6806

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure that FLETC builds and maintains capacity to achieve its mission with existing levels of resources over the longer-term, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Director of FLETC to complete a revised strategic plan that encompasses the agency's long-term goals and objectives to address emerging challenges.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that FLETC builds and maintains capacity to achieve its mission with existing levels of resources over the longer-term, as part of its strategic planning process, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Director of FLETC to finalize the plan, including the steps and time frames, needed to further implement its Online Campus initiative.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that ETA continues to have the capacity to achieve its mission and manage changes in demand for services resulting from changes in the broader economy, the Secretary of Labor should direct the Administrator of ETA to systematically gather and evaluate information on the challenges that states faced administering the unemployment insurance program during the recession that began in 2007--such as rapidly ramping up staffing at the start of the recession and ramping down as the economy recovered--and identify and build upon any lessons learned from this experience that could be broadly shared to help the program respond to any changes in workload during a future economic downturn.

    Agency: Department of Labor
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Powner, David A
    Phone: (202) 512-9286

    5 open recommendations
    including 2 priority recommendations
    Recommendation: To facilitate the analysis of gaps between current skills and future needs, the development of strategies for filling the gaps, and succession planning, the Secretary of Commerce should require the Chief Information Officer, Chief Human Capital Officer, and other senior managers as appropriate to address the shortfalls in IT workforce planning noted in this report, including the following actions: (1) establish and maintain a workforce planning process; (2) develop competency and staffing requirements; (3) assess competency and staffing needs regularly; (4) assess gaps in competencies for all components of the workforce; (5) develop strategies and plans to address gaps in competencies and staffing; (6) implement activities that address gaps, including an IT acquisition cadre, cross-functional training of acquisition and program personnel, a career path for program managers, and special hiring authorities, if justified and cost-effective; (7) monitor the department's progress in addressing IT competency and staffing gaps; and (8) report to department leadership on progress in addressing competency and staffing gaps.

    Agency: Department of Commerce
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: The department has not yet provided its written response to this recommendation. We will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing the recommendation.
    Recommendation: To facilitate the analysis of gaps between current skills and future needs, the development of strategies for filling the gaps, and succession planning, the Secretary of Defense should require the Chief Information Officer, the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, and other senior managers as appropriate to address the shortfalls in IT workforce planning noted in this report, including the following actions: (1) develop competencies for all staff; (2) assess competency needs regularly for all positions; (3) assess gaps in competencies for all components of the workforce; (4) develop strategies and plans to address gaps in competencies; (5) implement activities that address gaps, including developing a program management career path, if justified and cost-effective; (6) monitor the department's progress in addressing competency gaps identified for IT staff; and (7) report to department leadership on progress in addressing competency gaps.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: The department has provided a written response to this recommendation and we are currently evaluating it.
    Recommendation: To facilitate the analysis of gaps between current skills and future needs, the development of strategies for filling the gaps, and succession planning, the Secretary of Health and Human Services should require the Chief Information Officer, Chief Human Capital Officer, and other senior managers as appropriate to address the shortfalls in IT workforce planning noted in this report, including the following actions: (1) establish and maintain a workforce planning process inclusive of all staff; (2) develop staffing requirements for all positions; (3) assess staffing needs regularly; (4) assess gaps in competencies and staffing for all components of the workforce; (5) develop strategies and plans to address gaps in competencies and staffing; (6) implement activities that address gaps, including an IT acquisition cadre, if justified and cost-effective; (7) monitor the department's progress in addressing competency and staffing gaps; and (8) report to department leadership on progress in addressing competency and staffing gaps.

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services
    Status: Open

    Comments: The department has provided a written response to this recommendation and we are currently evaluating it.
    Recommendation: To facilitate the analysis of gaps between current skills and future needs, the development of strategies for filling the gaps, and succession planning, the Secretary of Transportation should require the Chief Information Officer, Chief Human Capital Officer, and other senior managers as appropriate to address the shortfalls in IT workforce planning noted in this report, including the following actions: (1) establish a time frame for when the department is to finalize its draft workforce planning process and maintain that process; (2) develop staffing requirements for all positions; (3) assess competency and staffing needs regularly for all positions; (4) assess gaps in staffing for all components of the workforce; (5) develop strategies and plans to address gaps in competencies and staffing; (6) implement activities that address gaps, including an IT acquisition cadre, cross-functional training of acquisition and program personnel, a career path for program managers, and use of special hiring authorities, if justified and cost-effective;e (7) monitor the department's progress in addressing competency and staffing gaps; and (8) report to department leadership on progress in addressing competency and staffing gaps.

    Agency: Department of Transportation
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: The department agreed with the recommendation and stated that it plans to fully implement the recommendation by December 2019. To fully implement this recommendation, DOT should prioritize the completion of its IT workforce planning process and then begin implementing the process in phases based on the availability of resources.
    Recommendation: To facilitate the analysis of gaps between current skills and future needs, the development of strategies for filling the gaps, and succession planning, the Secretary of the Treasury should require the Chief Information Officer, Chief Human Capital Officer, and other senior managers as appropriate to address the shortfalls in IT workforce planning noted in this report, including the following actions: (1) establish and maintain a workforce planning process; (2) develop competency and staffing requirements for all positions; (3) assess competency and staffing needs regularly; (4) assess gaps in competencies and staffing for all components of the workforce; (5) develop strategies and plans to address gaps in competencies and staffing for all components of the workforce; (6) implement activities that address gaps, including a career path for program managers and special hiring authorities, if justified and cost-effective; (7) monitor the department's progress in addressing competency and staffing gaps; and (8) report to department leadership on progress in addressing competency and staffing gaps for all components of the workforce.

    Agency: Department of the Treasury
    Status: Open

    Comments: The department has not yet provided its written response to this recommendation. We will continue to monitor the department's progress in implementing the recommendation.
    Director: Rusco, Franklin W
    Phone: (202) 512-3841

    10 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: The Secretary of Energy should designate a career senior-level federal government employee to serve as co-chair of the White House Council on Native American Affairs' Energy Subgroup.

    Agency: Department of Energy
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOE stated it will work to identify a career senior-level federal government employee to serve as co-chair of the White House Council on Native American Affairs' Energy Subgroup, but has not provided a timeline for completing the action. We will continue to monitor DOE's progress.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior, as Chair of the White House Council on Native American Affairs, should direct the co-chairs of the Council's Energy Subgroup to identify appropriate resources needed for the Subgroup to accomplish its goals, as well as a funding model.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: According to Interior officials, they will take actions to identify staff, resources, and timelines necessary to complete or sustain projects. We will continue to monitor Interior's actions.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior, as Chair of the White House Council on Native American Affairs, should direct the co-chairs of the Council's Energy Subgroup to establish formal agreements with all agencies identified for inclusion in the Subgroup to encourage participation.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: According to Interior officials, they will explore the possibility of amending the existing MOU to include other federal agencies participating in the Energy Subgroup. We will continue to monitor Interior's actions.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to include the other regulatory agencies in the Service Center, such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Army Corps of Engineers, so that the Service Center can act as a single point of contact or a lead agency to coordinate and navigate the regulatory process.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: In September 2017, a BIA official stated that the agency has initiated discussions with Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Army Corps of Engineers in an effort to establish formal agreements. BIA has a target of December 31, 2017, to establish these agreements.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to establish formal agreements with the Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development and the Department of Energy that identify, at a minimum, the advisory or support role of each office.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: In September 2017 a BIA official stated the agency developed and is currently reviewing an addendum to expand an existing MOU between DOE and Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) to include the Service Center. However, the existing MOU between DOE and IEED does not identify the role for these agencies as related to the Service Center. As such, the addendum, as currently described by BIA officials, will not fully implement our recommendation.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to establish a documented process for seeking and obtaining input from key stakeholders, such as BIA employees, on the Service Center activities.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: On May 17, 2017, the Acting Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs testified before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs that the Service Center is developing a process that allows key agencies to provide input and requests for service. We will continue to monitor BIA's efforts to implement this recommendation.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to document the rationale for key decisions related to the establishment of the Service Center, such as alternatives and tribal requests that were considered.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: BIA reported it has taken actions needed to implement our recommendation. On May 17, 2017, the Acting Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs testified before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs that Interior considers this recommendation implemented because (1) the development of the Service Center was the result of a concept paper produced by a multi-agency team and (2) a multi-agency team held a tribal listening session, received written comments, and conducted conference calls in an effort to gather input from relevant stakeholders. We do not agree these actions meet the intent of the recommendation. BIA's actions have not resulted in documentation on the alternatives considered, whether tribal input and requests were considered, and the rationale for not incorporating key suggestions. We will work with the agency to identify if additional actions are planned.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to incorporate effective workforce planning standards by assessing critical skills and competencies needed to fulfill BIA's responsibilities related to energy development and by identifying potential gaps.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: In May 2017, Interior stated the BIA is in the process of identifying and implementing a workforce plan regarding positions associated with the development of Indian energy and minerals. First, the Indian Energy Service Center will collect data directly from BIA, BLM, Office of Natural Resources Revenue, and Office of Special Trustee employees in an effort to identify workload and necessary technical competencies. Then, the Service Center will work with partner bureaus to assess skills and competencies needed for energy and mineral workforce standards. This recommendation is expected to be completed by December 31, 2017.
    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the Director of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to establish a documented process for assessing BIA's workforce composition at agency offices taking into account BIA's mission, goals, and tribal priorities.

    Agency: Department of the Interior
    Status: Open

    Comments: On May 17, 2017, the Acting Assistant Secretary-Indian Affairs testified before the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs that the BIA is in the process of identifying and implementing a workforce plan regarding positions associated with the development of Indian energy and minerals. Specifically, the Acting Assistant Secretary stated that the Service Center will collect data directly from BIA, the Bureau of Land Management, the Office of Natural Resources Revenue, and the Office of Special Trustee employees in an effort to identify workload and necessary technical competencies. Then, the Service Center will work with partner bureaus to assess skills and competencies needed for energy and mineral workforce standards. BIA's target for completion of the activities is December 31, 2017.
    Recommendation: The Administrator of the General Services Administration should develop implementing guidance to clarify how contracting officials should implement and apply the statutory authority to provide a tribal preference to future acquisitions of energy products.

    Agency: General Services Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: GSA stated it will coordinate with the Federal Acquisition Council to determine whether government-wide guidance should be issued. We will continue to monitor GSA's actions.
    Director: Kathleen M. King
    Phone: (202) 512-7114

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve available data about the direct care workforce, the Acting Administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration should take steps to produce projections of direct care workforce supply and demand and develop methods to address data limitations in order to do so.

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services: Public Health Service: Health Resources and Services Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: HHS concurred with this recommendation, agreeing that developing projections of the direct care workforce is timely and important. Since the release of the report, HHS's Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) published a fact sheet presenting national demand projections for nursing assistants and home health aides. HRSA also reported awarding a contract to develop a projection model for the supply, demand, and distribution of long-term service and support providers. The agency expects reports from this model to be available in 2018.
    Director: Carol C. Harris
    Phone: (202) 512-4456

    9 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD Chief Information Officer (CIO), and other entities, as appropriate, to develop a detailed JIE scope statement that is verified by stakeholders and approved by the Executive Committee.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2017, the Department of Defense had made progress in implementing the recommendation. Specifically, the department developed a draft Joint Information Environment (JIE) scope statement that can provide the context and framework for reporting, tracking, and controlling JIE activities. According to written comments on the status of the recommendation provided by the department in July 2017, this scope statement will be presented to the JIE Executive Committee in August 2017 for approval. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to implement the recommendation.
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD CIO and other entities, as appropriate, to establish a plan for managing, documenting, and communicating scope.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2017, the Department of Defense had made progress in implementing the recommendation. Specifically, the department developed a draft JIE scope statement, which documents the scope of JIE and describes how updates to its scope will be periodically reviewed and approved. According to written comments on the status of the recommendation provided by the department in July 2017, the draft will be presented to the JIE Executive Committee in August 2017 for approval. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to implement the recommendation.
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD CIO and other entities, as appropriate, to develop a reliable JIE cost estimate and baseline, consistent with the best practices described in this report.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2017, the Department of Defense had not implemented the recommendation. According to written comments on the status of the recommendation provided by the department, it developed cost baselines for two components of JIE. However, it did not develop cost estimates for the other JIE components. Specifically, the JIE Executive Committee approved the cost estimate for the Joint Regional Security Stacks in April 2017. In addition, the department's comments stated that the cost baseline for the Mission Partner Environment-Information System (MPE-IS) was included in the MPE-IS Business Case Analysis and presented to the department's Office of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation in July 2016. We are in the process of reviewing the cost estimates for these components. The department further stated that as solutions for other JIE efforts are established, their cost baselines will be added as appropriate.
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD CIO and other entities, as appropriate, to develop a JIE schedule management plan and reliable schedule, consistent with practices described in this report.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2017, the department had not implemented the recommendation. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address this recommendation by periodically requesting and evaluating updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD CIO and other entities, as appropriate, to develop a JRSS schedule management plan and reliable JRSS schedule and schedule baseline, consistent with practices described in this report.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2017, the Department of Defense had not fully implemented this recommendation. In March 2017, the JIE Executive Committee approved a schedule baseline for the Non-secure Internet Protocol Router network component of JRSS. In addition, the Executive Committee memo approving this schedule baseline indicated that the Executive Committee planned to review and approve a schedule baseline for the Secure Internet Protocol Router network component of JRSS by the end of fiscal year 2017. However, the department has not demonstrated that it has a schedule management plan or that its schedule was developed consistent with the practices described in our report.
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD CIO and other entities, as appropriate, to complete an assessment to determine the number of staff and the specific skills and abilities needed to effectively achieve JIE, consistent with the workforce planning practices described in this report.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2017, the Department of Defense had not implemented the recommendation. In its June 2016 written comments on a draft of our report, the department stated that the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the Office of Personnel Management were to publish a coding structure in response to the Federal Cybersecurity Workforce Assessment Act of 2015. DOD stated that this structure would inform steps DOD planned to take to identify the type of personnel and specific skills required to support enterprise operations and services and the government capabilities needed to effectively achieve JIE. However, as of July 2017, the department had not demonstrated that it has taken action to implement our recommendation.
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD CIO and other entities, as appropriate, to develop a strategy for conducting JIE security assessments that describes the resources needed to execute the strategy, responsible organizations, and a schedule to complete the assessments.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2017, the Department had not implemented the recommendation. We will continue to monitor the department's efforts to address this recommendation by periodically requesting and evaluating updated information.
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD CIO and other entities, as appropriate, to develop a strategy and schedule to transition JRSS to the Risk Management Framework, and develop the security plan required by the new framework.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of July 2017, the Department of Defense had not implemented this recommendation. In January 2017, the Joint Regional Security Stacks (JRSS) program received a six-month provisional Risk Management Framework Authority to Operate. According to a July 2017 update from the department on the status of this recommendation, the JRSS program management office was in the process of requesting another six-month provisional authority to operate. However, the department has not developed a strategy and schedule to complete transition of JRSS to the Risk Management Framework or developed the security plan required by the framework.
    Recommendation: To help the department achieve the benefits anticipated from JIE, the Secretary should direct the DOD CIO and other entities, as appropriate, to develop a reliable Joint Regional Security Stacks (JRSS) cost estimate and baseline, consistent with practices described in this report.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Defense had taken steps to address the recommendation and we are in the process of reviewing documentation the department provided in July 2017 to determine if it sufficiently addresses the recommendation. Specifically, in April 2017, the JRSS program office documented the methodology, ground rules, and assumptions, among other things, used to develop the cost estimate we reviewed in our report, and the JIE Executive Committee established the estimate as its JRSS cost baseline. We are in the process of reviewing the cost estimate documentation and will update this status after completing the review.
    Director: Jennifer A. Grover
    Phone: (202) 512-7141

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve transparency in allocating its limited resources, and to help ensure that its resource allocation decisions are the most effective ones for fulfilling its missions given existing risks, the Commandant of the Coast Guard should document how the risk assessments conducted were used to inform and support its annual asset allocation decisions.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: United States Coast Guard
    Status: Open

    Comments: On December 14, 2016, the Coast Guard noted that the FY 2017 Strategic Planning Direction (SPD) was issued on October 1, 2016, which addresses GAO's recommendation and requested closure of this recommendation. In reviewing the FY 2017 SPD, however, it was not clear how risk assessments were conducted or the impact, if any, that risk factors had on asset allocations. GAO requested details on these issues on 12-17-2016 and as of 1-25-2017 GAO had not received any additional information, so this recommendation remains open.
    Recommendation: To ensure that high priority mission activities are fully supported with the appropriate number of staff possessing the requisite mix of skills and abilities, the Commandant of the Coast Guard should develop a systematic process that prioritizes manpower requirements analyses for units that are the most critical for achieving mission needs.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: United States Coast Guard
    Status: Open

    Comments: On December 14, 2016, the Coast Guard noted the following: CG-1B submitted two FY 2019 Resource Proposals to staff and equip the Manpower Requirements Determination Division to conduct the analysis as described in the recommendation. Estimated completion: TBD. On March 24, 2017, the Coast Guard noted that it continues to prioritize and analyze manpower requirements and is tracking an initiative to catalogue and validate all DHS manpower modeling/analysis programs, but noted that the estimated completion for the recommendation remains as TBD.
    Recommendation: To improve the strategic allocation of assets, the Commandant of the Coast Guard should incorporate field unit input, such as information on assets' actual performance from Operational Performance Assessment Reports and Planning Assessments, to inform more realistic asset allocation decisions--in addition to asset performance capacities currently used--in the annual Strategic Planning Directions to more effectively communicate strategic intent to field units.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: United States Coast Guard
    Status: Open

    Comments: On December 14, 2016, the Coast Guard noted that the Atlantic Area and Pacific Area Commands' Operational Planning Directions (OPDs) were approved and provided to their field units in July 2016 and August 2016, respectively, and that the OPDs took into account the actual performance of the assets in the allocation of asset hours to field units in line with GAO's recommendation. The Coast Guard requested closure of this recommendation. However, in reviewing the provided planning documents, it was not clear how asset allocations were changed to reflect actual asset performance by the field units, so GAO asked for further details on 12-17-2016. As of 1-25-2017, GAO had not received any updated information, so this recommendation remains open.
    Director: Carol R. Cha
    Phone: (202) 512-4456

    5 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure that FEMA's IT systems can adequately support its ability to respond to major disasters, the Secretary of DHS should direct the FEMA Administrator to define the scope, implementation strategy, and schedule of the agency's overall modernization approach, with related goals and measures for effectively overseeing the effort. At a minimum, the agency should update its IT strategic plan and complete its modernization plan.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security concurred with this recommendation, and reported on actions taken to update its IT Modernization Plan such as conducting cross-functional work sessions to establish an actionable implementation roadmap in line with agency priorities. However, as of April 2017, we have not yet obtained evidence that FEMA has fully updated its IT strategic plan and completed its modernization plan to address the weaknesses identified in our report. We will follow-up with the department to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To ensure that FEMA's IT systems can adequately support its ability to respond to major disasters, the Secretary of DHS should direct the FEMA Administrator to establish time frames for current and future IT workforce planning during its modernization efforts and ensure all regions and offices are included in these initiatives.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security concurred with, and has taken steps to implement our recommendation. For example, the department stated that FEMA completed the assessment of skills gap and identified and prioritized the skills required to staff and sustain the core competencies required to successfully implement FEMA's IT modernization efforts. However, we have not yet validated the agency actions to establish time frames for current and future IT workforce planning during its modernization efforts. We will follow-up with the department to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To ensure that FEMA adequately manages the selected emergency management systems, the FEMA Administrator should direct the DAIP, EMMIE, and IPAWS program offices, in conjunction with the FEMA CIO, to implement complete program plans that define overall budget and schedule, key deliverables and milestones, assumptions and constraints, description and assignment of roles and responsibilities, staffing and training plans, and an approach for maintaining these plans.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security concurred with our recommendation and in response updated its program management plans that support the program offices of the Disaster Assistance Improvement Plan, Emergency Management Mission Integrated Environment, and Integrated Public Alert and Warning System. The program plans addressed some of the weaknesses we identified in our report. For example, the program management plans identified and described the overall program management processes and methods to be used during all phases of projects and defined key deliverables and milestones, roles and responsibilities, staffing and training and an approach for maintaining the plans. However, the plans did not clearly define the knowledge and skills needed to carry out the program or provide sufficient details on the budget and scheduling for the programs under review. We will follow-up with the department to obtain supporting documentation and continue to monitor its progress in implementing this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To ensure that FEMA adequately manages the selected emergency management systems, the FEMA Administrator should direct the DAIP, EMMIE, and IPAWS program offices, in conjunction with the FEMA CIO, to implement a system integration plan that include all systems to be integrated with the system, roles and responsibilities for all relevant participants, the sequence and schedule for every integration step, and how integration problems are to be documented and resolved.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security concurred with, and has taken steps to implement our recommendation. For example, the department reported that the system owner for DAIP, EMMIE, and IPAWS programs have updated their respective system integration plans to address the risks identified within the recommendation. In addition, the agency provided documentation such as the IPAWS Integrated Logistics Support Plan, as well as the quality control plan, and test execution plans for both the DAIP and EMMIE programs. However, we have not yet completed our analysis and validated the agency actions on this recommendation. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: As part of the effort of improving IT management at the three programs, the FEMA Administrator should direct the CIO to ensure that FEMA policy for managing IT programs includes guidance for implementing the key management practices.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security concurred with the recommendation. In its November 2016 update, FEMA reported that the System Owner for DAIP, EMMIE, and IPAWS have updated their respective IT management program and plans and coordinated with the FEMA CIO to address the risks identified within the recommendation. However, we have not yet validated the agency actions on this recommendation. When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: Lori Rectanus
    Phone: (202) 512-2834

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help FPS enhance its strategic human capital planning efforts, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Under Secretary of NPPD to work with the Director of FPS to identify time frames for developing human capital performance measures with targets that are explicitly aligned to FPS's stated human capital goals.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: FPS stated that NPPD is working with FPS to develop a recruitment and retention strategy that will include performance measures. This strategy will be complete by December 31, 2016. However, NPPD and FPS have not yet identified timeframes for developing performance measures for other human capital areas identified in FPS's human capital plan, such as leadership and knowledge management and building a results-oriented performance culture. Furthermore, because the recruitment and retention strategy is still under development, it is unclear whether the performance measures will have targets that are explicitly aligned to FPS's stated human capital goals. FPS plans to finalize all actions associated with this recommendation by March 2017.
    Recommendation: To help FPS enhance its strategic human capital planning efforts, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Under Secretary of NPPD to work with the Director of FPS to establish a plan and time frames for updating FPS's staffing model regularly and for unexpected changes in operating conditions.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: FPS stated that it has conducted a review and gap analysis of its existing staffing model to identify additional features it needs to incorporate into the model. FPS also began to develop a data collection plan that will, among other things, identify data needed and how FPS will validate the data. The results of the gap analysis and data collection plan will be used to establish a plan, with timeframes, for updating the staffing model regularly and when unexpected changes in operating conditions occur. FPS plans to finalize all actions associated with this recommendation by March 2017.
    Recommendation: To help FPS enhance its strategic human capital planning efforts, the Secretary of Homeland Security should direct the Under Secretary of NPPD to work with the Director of FPS to develop and document guidance on the process FPS will use to ensure the quality of its staffing model data, such as guidance on how to collect data, validate assumptions, and perform sensitivity analyses to assess the assumptions.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security
    Status: Open

    Comments: FPS is in the process of developing documentation that will govern the process it will use to collect data and ensure data quality. FPS plans to finalize all actions associated with this recommendation by March 2017.
    Director: Debra A. Draper
    Phone: (202) 512-7114

    6 open recommendations
    Recommendation: The Secretaries of Veterans Affairs and Defense should collaborate to perform data-driven strategic workforce planning prior to implementing any future integration efforts.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will update the status of this recommendation when we determine what steps the agency has taken to implement it.
    Recommendation: The Secretaries of Veterans Affairs and Defense should collaborate to perform data-driven strategic workforce planning prior to implementing any future integration efforts.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will update the status of this recommendation when we determine what steps the agency has taken to implement it.
    Recommendation: The Secretaries of Veterans Affairs and Defense should collaborate to determine how best to fill the FHCC's short-term staffing needs, including any additional statutory authorities that might be necessary to implement the desired approach.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will update the status of this recommendation when we determine what steps the agency has taken to implement it.
    Recommendation: The Secretaries of Veterans Affairs and Defense should collaborate to determine how best to fill the FHCC's short-term staffing needs, including any additional statutory authorities that might be necessary to implement the desired approach.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will update the status of this recommendation when we determine what steps the agency has taken to implement it.
    Recommendation: The Secretaries of Veterans Affairs and Defense should collaborate to resolve differences in IT network security standards to the extent possible prior to implementing any future integration efforts.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will update the status of this recommendation when we determine what steps the agency has taken to implement it.
    Recommendation: The Secretaries of Veterans Affairs and Defense should collaborate to resolve differences in IT network security standards to the extent possible prior to implementing any future integration efforts.

    Agency: Department of Veterans Affairs
    Status: Open

    Comments: We will update the status of this recommendation when we determine what steps the agency has taken to implement it.
    Director: Timothy J. DiNapoli
    Phone: (202) 512-4841

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure that DOD has the right people with the right skills to meet future needs, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics should direct the Director, Human Capital Initiatives to issue guidance to focus component hiring efforts using the Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund on priority career fields.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Secretary of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOD concurred with our recommendation, but has not taken the full actions necessary to implement it. Human Capital Initiatives issued updated guidance on the use of the Defense Acquisition Workforce Development Fund in 2016 and 2017 but the guidance did not focus component hiring efforts on specific career fields. The officials stated that the DOD military departments and other DOD components determine their own requirements for the acquisition workforce, including which career fields to identify as critical. In a March 2017 report, we noted that the Army's fiscal year 2017 DAWDF guidance, which was issued in 2016, identified priority career fields where DAWDF funded hiring efforts could be focused, while the Air Force's and Navy's guidance did not. The Army's fiscal year 2018 DAWDF guidance also identified priority career fields, including business (which includes financial management and cost estimating) contracting, systems engineering, and science and technology.
    Recommendation: To ensure that DOD has the right people with the right skills to meet future needs, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics should direct the Director, Human Capital Initiatives to ensure the functional leader for the production, quality, and manufacturing career field completes an initial competency assessment.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Secretary of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOD concurred with the recommendation. Officials within the Human Capital Initiatives (HCI) office stated that DOD initiated a strategic analysis in fiscal year 2017 to better understand the acquisition workforce performing Production, Quality, and Manufacturing (PQM) functions. This analysis will help identify how best to structure the PQM career field in order to manage this workforce in a more effective and efficient manner. Initial analysis findings are expected by the end of 2017 and will be used to inform a PQM competency assessment. HCI will partner with the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness to use their competency assessment team to conduct competency assessments for each acquisition functional career field. The plan is to conduct four assessments annually, starting in October 2017 with an anticipated completion date for all career fields by 2021.
    Recommendation: To ensure that DOD has the right people with the right skills to meet future needs, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics should direct the Director, Human Capital Initiatives to establish time frames, in collaboration with functional leaders, to complete future career field competency assessments.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Secretary of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOD concurred with the recommendation and has taken some steps to implement it. The Human Capital Initiatives (HCI) office issued an updated strategic acquisition workforce plan in 2016. This plan stated that conducting career field competency assessments at a minimum of every five years helps the acquisition workforce to effectively manage their careers. Officials within the HCI office stated that they will partner with the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness to use their competency assessment team to conduct competency assessments for each acquisition functional career field. The plan is to conduct four career field assessments a year, starting in October 2017 with an anticipated completion date for all career fields by 2021.
    Director: Timothy J. DiNapoli
    Phone: (202) 512-4841

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To ensure proposed contract activities, as reflected in the statement of work and other contract documents, are assessed against the criteria provided by the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) policy, the Under Secretary for Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics should ensure that the Director of the Office of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy provide clear instructions, in a timely manner, on how the service requirement review boards are to identify whether contract activities include closely associated with inherently governmental functions.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Secretary of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOD Instruction 5000.74, issued in January 2016, discusses processes for the services requirements review boards, but does not mention closely associated with inherently governmental functions in that context. As new policy or guidance is issued, we will continue to evaluate its responsiveness to this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To ensure proposed contract activities, as reflected in the statement of work and other contract documents, are assessed against the criteria provided by the FAR and OFPP policy, the Under Secretary for Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics should ensure that the Director of the Office of Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy require acquisition officials to document, prior to contract award, whether the proposed contract action includes activities that are closely associated with inherently governmental functions.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Secretary of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics
    Status: Open

    Comments: According to DOD officials, a template is being developed for components to use in assessing a service contract to determine whether activities are closely associated with inherently governmental functions. However, this template has not yet been finalized or disseminated to the components.
    Recommendation: To help facilitate the collection and use of inventory data in decision-making processes, the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness should clearly identify the longer term relationships between the support office, military departments, and other stakeholders.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary for Personnel and Readiness
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of June 2017, these longer term relationships have not been fully identified. Officials stated that a memorandum of understanding issued in January 2017 provided some clarity regarding these relationships, but that additional steps are needed.
    Director: William Shear
    Phone: (202) 512-8678

    6 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To improve management of the Small Business Administration and to ensure that SBA assesses the effectiveness of its programs, the SBA Administrator should prioritize resources to conduct additional program evaluations.

    Agency: Small Business Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve management of the Small Business Administration and to ensure that SBA fully meets GPRAMA requirements, the SBA Administrator should use the results of additional evaluations it conducts in its strategic planning process and ensure the agency's next strategic plan includes required information on program evaluations, including a schedule of future evaluations.

    Agency: Small Business Administration
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: SBA officials stated that, as of October 2016, the agency had taken several steps to prioritize resources and establish an implementation plan for future evaluations, including hiring its first lead program evaluator to develop a long-term evaluation agenda and initiating four program evaluations. They stated that once completed, the evaluations would be incorporated into the agency's fiscal year 2018-2022 strategic plan. As of May 2017, SBA had started reviewing guidance on drafting this plan, which is due in February 2018.
    Recommendation: To improve management of the Small Business Administration and to improve SBA's human capital management, the SBA Administrator should incorporate into its next training plan key principles such as goals and measures for its training programs and input on employee development goals.

    Agency: Small Business Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve management of the Small Business Administration and to ensure that SBA's organizational structure helps the agency meet its mission, the SBA Administrator should document the assessment of the agency's organizational structure, including any necessary changes to, for example, better ensure areas of authority, responsibility, and lines of reporting are clear and defined.

    Agency: Small Business Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve management of the Small Business Administration and to improve SBA's program and management guidance, the SBA Administrator should set time frames for periodically reviewing and updating its SOPs as appropriate.

    Agency: Small Business Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Recommendation: To improve management of the Small Business Administration and to help ensure that SBA's IT operations and maintenance investments are continuing to meet business and customer needs and the agency's strategic goals, the SBA Administrator should direct the appropriate officials to perform an annual operational analysis on all SBA investments in accordance with OMB guidance.

    Agency: Small Business Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: When we confirm what actions the agency has taken in response to this recommendation, we will provide updated information.
    Director: John Neumann
    Phone: (202) 512-3841

    1 open recommendations
    including 1 priority recommendation
    Recommendation: To improve the ability of the federal veterinarian workforce to carry out its activities, and to prepare for an emergency involving a large-scale animal disease outbreak, the Secretary of Agriculture should direct the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to assess the veterinarian workforce needs under possible scenarios for an emergency response to a large-scale animal disease outbreak. Building on the Talent Management Advisory Council's (TMAC) efforts to determine the veterinarian workforce needed to respond to an animal disease outbreak, the assessment should include the number and types of veterinarians needed, the sources required to have a sufficient workforce to respond, and the training needed to carry out their roles.

    Agency: Department of Agriculture
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: USDA provided information in April 2017 on steps taken to partially address this recommendation. According to USDA, the agency uses its experiences with real-world animal disease outbreaks, such as recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza, to assess its veterinarian workforce needs. To fully implement this recommendation, APHIS needs to develop an estimate of the number of veterinarians necessary to respond to large-scale animal disease outbreaks, such as a nationwide foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in livestock.
    Director: Andrew Sherrill
    Phone: (202) 512-7215

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To promote effective operation of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Congress may wish to consider amending the commission's authorizing statute to clearly specify the roles and responsibilities of the commission chairperson, commissioners, and staff director, such as who has the authority to develop and implement commission operating policies and procedures, to manage commission staff, and to represent commission decisions and views, including those views expressed on commission letterhead.

    Agency: Congress
    Status: Open

    Comments: A Senate Committee on Appropriations report released on June 16, 2015, which accompanied a bill that provided for the Commission's FY 2016 appropriations, included a provision that directed the Commission to address one of the two issues highlighted in our recommendation. Specifically, the report calls for the Commission to limit the use of letterhead to items that reflect the views of the entire Commission. As of October 2017, no action has been taken with regard to clarifying the roles of the commission chairperson, commissioners, and staff director.
    Recommendation: To more fully inform congressional consideration of the commission's fiscal year 2016 budget submission, the commission should develop and submit to the appropriate congressional committees a comprehensive workforce plan that assesses skills needed and the appropriate distribution of commission staff to fulfill the agency's mission and statutory responsibilities. This plan should incorporate relevant information from the report that Congress recently directed the commission to provide.

    Agency: Commission on Civil Rights
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Commission on Civil Rights stated that the Commissioners will work closely with the incoming Staff Director, once the President makes an appointment, to develop a comprehensive workforce plan. The agency stressed the importance of involving the new Staff Director in this process. We recognize the importance of involving the Staff Director - the agency's chief administrative official - in an analysis of the Commission's workforce and look forward to the results of this analysis. To date, the Commission has not prepared a comprehensive workforce plan.
    Director: Timothy J.DiNapoli
    Phone: (202) 512-4841

    4 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help facilitate the department's stated intent to develop a common data collection system to fully collect statutorily required data, the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness should approve a plan of action, with timeframes and milestones, for rolling out and supporting a department-wide data collection system as soon as practicable after December 1, 2014. Should a decision be made to use or develop a system other than the Enterprise-wide Contractor Manpower Reporting Application system currently being fielded, the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness should document the rationale for doing so and ensure that the new approach will provide data that satisfies the statutory requirements for the inventory.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Office of the Under Secretary for Personnel and Readiness
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department has taken initial steps toward supporting the Enterprise-wide Contractor Manpower Reporting Application (ECMRA) by signing a Memorandum of Agreement that, in part, outlines responsibilities related to hosting, operating, and maintaining the ECMRA system, as well as by hiring key staff. However, it has not fully developed a plan of action, with timeframes and milestones, for supporting the system. We will continue to monitor the Department's progress.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that the inventory of contracted services is integrated into key management decisions as statutorily required, the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force should identify an accountable official within their departments with responsibility for leading and coordinating efforts across their manpower, budgeting, and acquisition functional communities and, as appropriate, revise guidance, develop plans and enforcement mechanisms, and establish processes.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Department of the Air Force
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of March 2016, DOD guidance on the inventory of contracted services requires the designation of an accountable official. As of the summer of 2017, the Department of the Air Force has not yet designated an accountable official.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that the inventory of contracted services is integrated into key management decisions as statutorily required, the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force should identify an accountable official within their departments with responsibility for leading and coordinating efforts across their manpower, budgeting, and acquisition functional communities and, as appropriate, revise guidance, develop plans and enforcement mechanisms, and establish processes.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Department of the Navy
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of March 2016, DOD guidance on the inventory of contracted services requires the designation of an accountable official. As of the summer of 2017, the Department of the Navy has not yet designated an accountable official.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that the inventory of contracted services is integrated into key management decisions as statutorily required, the Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force should identify an accountable official within their departments with responsibility for leading and coordinating efforts across their manpower, budgeting, and acquisition functional communities and, as appropriate, revise guidance, develop plans and enforcement mechanisms, and establish processes.

    Agency: Department of Defense: Department of the Army
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of March 2016, DOD guidance on the inventory of contracted services requires the designation of an accountable official. As of the summer of 2017, the Department of the Army has not yet designated an accountable official.
    Director: Robert Goldenkoff
    Phone: (202) 512-2757

    4 open recommendations
    including 2 priority recommendations
    Recommendation: To create a more effective human capital system that is more responsive to managing priorities and future workforce needs, the Director of OPM, in conjunction with the CHCO Council, should strengthen OPM's coordination and leadership of government-wide human capital issues to ensure government-wide initiatives are coordinated, decision makers have all relevant information, and there is greater continuity in the human capital community for key reforms. Such actions could include: (1) developing a government-wide human capital strategic plan that, among other things, would establish strategic priorities, time frames, responsibilities, and metrics to better align the efforts of members of the federal human capital community with government-wide human capital goals and issues; and (2) coordinating communication on government-wide human capital issues with other members of the human capital community so that there is greater consistency, transparency, and completeness in exchanging and using information by stakeholders and decision makers.

    Agency: Office of Personnel Management
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: In April 2017, OPM issued a final regulation requiring OPM and agencies take significant steps in identifying, prioritizing, and coordinating efforts to address critical human capital issues. The regulation will require OPM to complete the Federal Workforce Priorities Report (FWPR). According to OPM, the FWSPR will serve as tool for all stakeholders and agencies to: (1) be informed about current and emerging workforce challenges, (2) develop strategies to address the impending risks, and (3) monitor progress. The FWSPR will also serve as a tool for the Administration to develop their Human Capital President's Management Agenda, as well as Cross Agency Priority Goals. the regulation also requires agencies to develop a Human Capital Operating Plan, which will reflect the priorities identified in the FWSPR. We believe this final regulation represents an important step forward in addressing the current fragmentation of the federal human capital community and will continue to monitor its status.
    Recommendation: To create a more effective human capital system that is more responsive to managing priorities and future workforce needs, the Director of OPM, in conjunction with the CHCO Council, should explore the feasibility of expanded use of enterprise solutions to more efficiently and effectively address shared or government-wide human capital challenges. Such actions could include: (1) seeking cost savings and improved functionality through coordinated government-wide Human Resources Information Technology planning and acquisition, (2) seeking agency input to ensure OPM's workforce planning tools provide effective guidance for agencies, and (3) sharing workforce planning lessons learned and successful models across the government.

    Agency: Office of Personnel Management
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: In April 2017, OPM officials said it had developed some enterprise solutions to address shared or government-wide human capital challenges. For example, OPM officials said it created a multi-factor model workforce planning tool to assess the risk of agency-specific mission critical occupations. Officials said this tool is the foundation for any good workforce planning process to better understand which MCOs require the greatest attention. Officials said the model was drafted from input from an intra-agency workgroup, was beta tested with a workforce planning workgroup consisting of the majority of CFO Act agencies and finally approved by the full Chief Human capital Officer's Council. This tool was then used by agencies to identify their agency-specific high risk MCOs. OPM officials said they plan to use this model to develop other tools. We believe this tool represents an important step forward in identifying enterprise tools and will continue to monitor OPM's continued efforts.
    Recommendation: To create a more effective human capital system that is more responsive to managing priorities and future workforce needs, the Director of OPM, in conjunction with the CHCO Council, should review the extent to which new capabilities are needed to promote agile talent management. Such actions could include developing or sharing: (1) tools, resources, and methods to help identify skills gaps and surpluses that can inform agency recruitment, retention, and training needs; and (2) mechanisms for increasing staff mobility within an agency and government-wide to assist agencies in aligning their workforces with evolving needs.

    Agency: Office of Personnel Management
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of October 2016, OPM has been exploring the use of agile talent management approaches. OPM established the pilot project, Gov Connect, that tests how employees can move within and across agencies to work on self-initiated and/or manager-initiated projects. Currently, OPM is working to design Phase II of the effort, which is to develop a model for the government wide implementation of the initiative. Over 10 agencies were involved with Phase I for the single agency pilot process and more contact OPM each day as they learn about Gov Connect. OPM briefed the CHCOC and the President's Management Council (PMC) two years ago about the initiative and since then, Gov Connect has become a part of the President's Management Agenda (PMA). To further the familiarity of Gov Connect, OPM established a Starter Kit, which was designed to communicate a suggested approach for how to implement one or several of the Gov Connect models within a respective agency. The Starter Kit is a reflection of agency lessons learned through their experience with Phase I, and OPM continues to refresh the content as additional information is learned. With regards to skill identification, OPM has begun working to address this through the work with the government wide skills gap initiative. A key aspect of the initiative includes the identification of a root cause. Through this process, it is expected that needed skills will become evident. Subsequently, strategies will be established to address the root cause. In addition, OPM is revising its data collection process. OPM, because of statute and regulation, has the ability to require a set of workforce metrics, such as agency projections. We are currently exploring how to establish the capability to capture information regarding the current workforce. Work will continue through FY 17 until a solution has been identified. In June 2015, OPM reported that its Center for Strategic Workforce Planning (SWP) is developing tools to better visualize results of the CHCO manager satisfaction survey and the CHCO applicant satisfaction survey for distribution to agencies. OPM is also developing a model to assist agencies in selecting mission critical occupations for government-wide skills gap closure based on multiple factors, including separation rates, retention percentages, and applicant to job ratios. SWP is currently co-leading the GovConnect initiative, which explores models for workforce agility that include micro-detailing, cloud-based skill deployment across organizational components, and employee-initiated innovation initiatives. OPM is collaborating with the Chief Learning Officers Council to develop standards for agency use of data to prioritize investment in workforce development. Through these standards, agencies will apply data including skills gap analysis (e.g., retirement projections, competency gaps, etc.) to prioritize needs. We will continue to monitor OPM's efforts.
    Recommendation: To create a more effective human capital system that is more responsive to managing priorities and future workforce needs, the Director of OPM, in conjunction with the CHCO Council, should ensure agencies are getting the guidance and tools that they need by evaluating the communication strategy for and effectiveness of relevant tools, guidance, or leading practices created by OPM or the agencies to address crosscutting human capital management challenges.

    Agency: Office of Personnel Management
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of August 2016, OPM reported that its office of Employee Services is developing for deployment a comprehensive Strategic Human Capital Management (SHCM) needs survey that will be distributed to the CHCO Council. The survey is designed to directly solicit information about relevant tools, guidance and resources from agency human capital professionals that they feel will benefit their SHCM processes. This annual survey and the information OPM gathers from the survey results will assist OPM with developing/providing suggested tools through the HCF. We will continue to monitor OPM's efforts.
    Director: Dinapoli, Timothy J
    Phone: (202) 512-4841

    7 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve civilian IC elements' or their respective departments' ability to mitigate risks associated with the use of contractors, the Director of National Intelligence, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Attorney General of the United States, and Secretaries of Energy and the Treasury should direct responsible agency officials to set time frames to develop guidance that fully addresses the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Policy Letter 11-01's requirements related to closely supporting inherently governmental functions.

    Agency: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
    Status: Open

    Comments: In providing comments on this report, the agency concurred with this recommendation. ODNI has held roundtables to discuss OFPP PL 11-01 implementation with other IC agencies. ODNI also revised ICD 612 but has not developed implementing guidance for ODNI MSD.
    Recommendation: To improve civilian IC elements' or their respective departments' ability to mitigate risks associated with the use of contractors, the Director of National Intelligence, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Attorney General of the United States, and Secretaries of Energy and the Treasury should direct responsible agency officials to set time frames to develop guidance that fully addresses the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Policy Letter 11-01's requirements related to closely supporting inherently governmental functions.

    Agency: Department of Energy
    Status: Open

    Comments: In its letter to OMB and the Congress, the agency concurred with this recommendation. In July 2015, the agency issued interim guidance, but the guidance does not fully address OFPP Policy Letter 11-01. The agency explained that once the Federal Acquisition Regulation is updated, the agency's acquisition regulation will be updated as necessary to reflect the new guidance. Since that time, no further action has occurred.
    Recommendation: To improve civilian IC elements' or their respective departments' ability to mitigate risks associated with the use of contractors, the Director of National Intelligence, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Attorney General of the United States, and Secretaries of Energy and the Treasury should direct responsible agency officials to set time frames to develop guidance that fully addresses the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Policy Letter 11-01's requirements related to closely supporting inherently governmental functions.

    Agency: Department of Justice
    Status: Open

    Comments: In its letter to OMB and the Congress, the agency concurred with this recommendation but has not yet taken the actions necessary to implement it.
    Recommendation: To improve civilian IC elements' or their respective departments' ability to mitigate risks associated with the use of contractors, the Director of National Intelligence, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Attorney General of the United States, and Secretaries of Energy and the Treasury should direct responsible agency officials to set time frames to develop guidance that fully addresses the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Policy Letter 11-01's requirements related to closely supporting inherently governmental functions.

    Agency: Department of the Treasury
    Status: Open

    Comments: In its letter to OMB and the Congress, the agency concurred with this recommendation. Treasury issued additional supplemental guidance and is currently updating its procurement and workforce guidance to fully address OFPP Policy Letter 11-01.
    Recommendation: To improve civilian IC elements' or their respective departments' ability to mitigate risks associated with the use of contractors, the Director of National Intelligence, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Attorney General of the United States, and Secretaries of Energy and the Treasury should direct responsible agency officials to set time frames to develop guidance that fully addresses the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, Policy Letter 11-01's requirements related to closely supporting inherently governmental functions.

    Agency: Central Intelligence Agency
    Status: Open

    Comments: The agency did not comment on our recommendation. Please contact Timothy DiNapoli at (202) 512-4841 or dinapolit@gao.gov for additional information on the status of this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To improve congressional oversight and enhance civilian IC elements' insights into their use of core contract personnel, when reporting to congressional committees, the IC CHCO should clearly specify limitations and significant methodological changes and their associated effects.

    Agency: Office of the Director of National Intelligence: IC Chief Human Capital Officer
    Status: Open

    Comments: The IC CHCO described steps it was taking to implement the recommendation. For example, the IC CHCO stated it highlighted limitations to the data and the reasons for data adjustments from year-to-year in its FY 2014-2016 briefings to Congress. We will continue to follow up with the IC CHCO to determine whether these actions meet the intent of the recommendation.
    Recommendation: To improve the ability of the civilian IC elements to strategically plan for their contractors and mitigate associated risks, the IC CHCO should revise the Intelligence Community Directive 612's provisions governing strategic workforce planning to require the IC elements to identify their assessment of the appropriate workforce mix on a function-by-function basis.

    Agency: Office of the Director of National Intelligence: IC Chief Human Capital Officer
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2015, IC CHCO revised Intelligence Community Directive 612 and removed the provisions governing strategic workforce planning. We will continue to follow up with IC CHCO to determine whether steps will be taken to require IC elements to identify an appropriate workforce mix.
    Director: Goldenkoff, Robert N
    Phone: (202) 512-2757

    4 open recommendations
    including 3 priority recommendations
    Recommendation: To help maintain a more thorough and insightful 2020 Census development schedule in order to better manage risks to a successful 2020 Census, the Secretary of Commerce and Undersecretary of Economic Affairs should direct the U.S. Census Bureau to improve the comprehensiveness of schedules, including ensuring that all relevant activities are included in the schedule.

    Agency: Department of Commerce
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: The Bureau agreed with this recommendation and stated that it is reviewing and refining project schedules to ensure that they include the full scope of work needed to reach operational decision points for the 2020 Census. The 2020 Research and Planning Office currently has 55 decennial project schedules, consisting of more than 3,700 activities. Several project schedules were re-baselined and pushed into production in January 2014. Focused integration sessions occurred in late January and February 2014, resulting in revised schedules. The Bureau released its operational plan and other documentation in November 2015, and announced in June 2016 that it would finalize and release its 2020 Census schedule in July 2016. To fully implement this recommendation, the Bureau needs to include within its integrated master activity schedule at lower levels the activities and milestones it has already identified as needed throughout the 2020 Census lifecycle. We are beginning an audit of the Bureau's scheduling practices this summer and will review actions the Bureau may have taken to address this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To help maintain a more thorough and insightful 2020 Census development schedule in order to better manage risks to a successful 2020 Census, the Secretary of Commerce and Undersecretary of Economic Affairs should direct the U.S. Census Bureau to improve the construction of schedules, including ensuring complete logic is in place to identify the preceding and subsequent activities as well as a critical path that can be used to make decisions.

    Agency: Department of Commerce
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: The Bureau agreed with this recommendation and stated that it has already begun maturing project schedules to ensure that the logical relationships between discrete schedules are put into place. Schedule integration sessions across projects and programs were held in late January 2014 and into February 2014 and periodically since then, where work is deconstructed into detailed schedules. As the Bureau continues to mature its schedule and scheduling process for the 2020 Census and related tests, its officials say they are taking care to ensure that logical linkages are in place within the schedule and that they are adding additional activities on a rolling basis. Bureau officials believe this ongoing work with the 2020 schedule will ensure they have a robust tool to help manage the 2020 program and make key decisions. The Bureau released its operational plan and other documentation in November 2015 and announced in June 2016 that it would finalize and release its 2020 Census schedule in July 2016. To fully implement this recommendation, the Bureau needs to ensure linkage between activities and the estimated resources needed to complete them. We are beginning an audit of the Bureau's scheduling practices this summer and will review actions the Bureau may have taken to address this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To help maintain a more thorough and insightful 2020 Census development schedule in order to better manage risks to a successful 2020 Census, the Secretary of Commerce and Undersecretary of Economic Affairs should direct the U.S. Census Bureau to improve the credibility of schedules, including conducting a quantitative risk assessment.

    Agency: Department of Commerce
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: The Bureau agreed with this recommendation and stated that it has already begun maturing project schedules to ensure that the logical relationships between discrete schedules are put into place. Schedule integration sessions across projects and programs were held in late January 2014 and into February 2014 and periodically since then, where work is deconstructed into detailed schedules. As the Bureau continues to mature its schedule and scheduling process for the 2020 Census and related tests, its officials say they are taking care to ensure that logical linkages are in place within the schedule and that they are adding additional activities on a rolling basis. Bureau officials believe this ongoing work with the 2020 schedule will ensure they have a robust tool to help manage the 2020 program and make key decisions. The Bureau released its operational plan and other documentation in November 2015 and announced in June 2016 that it would finalize and release its 2020 Census schedule in July 2016. As part of the maturation process, the Bureau expects to conduct a quantitative risk assessment of decennial project schedules. In 2015, the Bureau provided us with a preliminary output from its risk analysis software as a demonstration of the type of analysis it is committed to, but more recently its officials said that they may not be able to take all the steps needed to satisfy this recommendation. To fully implement this recommendation, the Bureau needs to conduct quantitative schedule risk analyses with the resulting schedule. We are beginning an audit of the Bureau's scheduling practices this summer and will review actions the Bureau may have taken to address this recommendation.
    Recommendation: The Director of the U.S. Census Bureau should initiate a robust workforce planning process for those working on schedules related to the Master Address File, including actions such as an analysis of skills needed, to identify and address gaps in scheduling skills.

    Agency: Department of Commerce: Bureau of the Census
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Census Bureau agreed with this recommendation and states it is taking steps to improve its scheduling practices and to initiate a comprehensive workforce planning process for those working on decennial project schedules. Bureau officials state they are currently evaluating the skills needed for scheduling support of the 2020 Census and will take the appropriate steps to acquire and develop the appropriate mix of skill sets, including but not limited to developing certified scheduling staff, hiring expert contractors to assist with periodic training, and scheduling standards implementation. They also state that the Bureau is committed to continuing to strengthen the schedule management plan, practices, and methods in place for the 2020 Census. The Bureau has experienced turnover in the leadership of the team responsible for 2020 scheduling, and, as of July 2017, Bureau officials have said they are working to collect artifacts that may demonstrate how this recommendation was addressed.
    Director: Clowers, Angela N
    Phone: (202) 512-8678

    4 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help SEC address identified personnel management challenges, and to enhance SEC's ability to strategically hire and retain the appropriate number of staff with the requisite skill sets for today and in the future, the Chairman of SEC should direct the Office of the Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Office of Human Resources (OHR) to prioritize efforts to expeditiously develop a comprehensive workforce plan, including a succession plan, and establish time frames for implementation and mechanisms to help ensure that the plans are regularly updated.

    Agency: United States Securities and Exchange Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: While SEC plans to conduct a competency assessment for the remaining occupations not included in its July 2016 workforce plan, until the assessment and resulting workforce plan for fiscal year 2019+ is completed and we have reviewed it, this recommendation remains open. However, a comprehensive assessment of occupations should always be part of the workforce planning cycle to identify the resources needed to meet mission requirements. SEC should be doing a yearly review of needs to include attrition modeling, budget costs, and staffing (i.e., staff distribution across all locations, promotion needs, hiring requirements for all areas (mission and mission support)).
    Recommendation: To help SEC address identified personnel management challenges, and to enhance SEC's ability to strategically hire and retain the appropriate number of staff with the requisite skill sets for today and in the future, the Chairman of SEC should direct the Office of the COO and OHR to incorporate OPM guidance as it develops its workforce and succession plans, by developing a formal action plan to identify and close competency gaps, and fill supervisory positions; and institute a fair and transparent process for identifying high-potential leaders from within the agency.

    Agency: United States Securities and Exchange Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: While SEC plans to conduct a succession needs survey that will be used as part of its holistic gap analysis and used to inform the next workforce plan for fiscal year 2019+, until the needs survey and resulting workforce plan is completed and we have reviewed it, this recommendation remains open. However, as part of succession planning, division managers should already know, or should have been provided, retirement eligibility information, attrition estimates, and knowledge of their staff skill sets. They need this information for succession planning purposes to determine if they need to hire, or use promotions as a way to fill potential staff losses.
    Recommendation: To help SEC address identified personnel management challenges, and to help enhance the credibility of its performance management system, the Chairman of SEC should direct the COO and OHR to conduct periodic validations (with staff input) of the performance management system and make changes, as appropriate, based on these validations.

    Agency: United States Securities and Exchange Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: SEC has yet to conduct a validation of its performance management system for its entire staff. In fiscal year (FY) 2016, SEC introduced a new pilot performance management program and engaged OPM to assess the effectiveness of it, but this new program was only initiated with non-bargaining staff. This assessment included OPM facilitated focus groups and an OPM survey soliciting anonymous participant feedback. According to SEC, stakeholders were engaged in the development and implementation phases of the pilot program. Additionally, OPM hosted a training session at the midpoint of the FY 2016 pilot for supervisors to help them communicate performance expectations and feedback. In 2017, SEC expanded the pilot performance management program to bargaining unit staff. SEC has briefed the National Treasury Employees Union (NTEU) prior to each phase in the performance management process and incorporated feedback into the program. The Office of Human Resources (OHR) has provided program-specific training to both employees and supervisors for each phase of the performance cycle and has collaborated with NTEU on all messaging to employees. SEC is now working with OPM to determine the best approach to assess the effectiveness of the FY 2017 pilot. According to SEC, subsequent to OPM's assessment of the FY 2017 pilot, SEC will work with NTEU to determine how to proceed with the program. OHR has also agreed in advance to share the FY 2017 performance rating data with NTEU so they may use it in their own assessment of the 2017 pilot.
    Recommendation: To help SEC address identified personnel management challenges, and to build on SEC's efforts to enhance intra-agency communication and collaboration, the Chairman should direct the COO to explore communication and collaboration best practices and implement those that could benefit SEC.

    Agency: United States Securities and Exchange Commission
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of November 2017, SEC had not demonstrated the use of best practices to improve communication and collaboration within and across SEC divisions and offices. In June 2017, SEC commenced the new Operations Steering Committee, which consists of the Acting Chief Operating Officer (COO) as the Chair, and the Managing Executives of the mission critical divisions and Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations (OCIE). This group meets on a monthly basis. During the September 2017 meeting, the Acting COO presented two proposed approaches, based on best practices, to address GAO's findings to improve communication and collaboration: 1. Emphasize communication and collaboration, and associated initiatives, within the new Strategic Plan. 2. Work with the Labor Management Forum - NTEU. Until we see how SEC operationalizes these proposed approaches, this recommendation remains open.
    Director: Farrell, Brenda S
    Phone: (202)512-3604

    2 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure DOD's workforce mix guidance reflects the current statutory requirements for total force management policy set forth in 10 U.S.C. 129a as well as the regulatory requirements set forth in the Office of Federal Procurement Policy's September 2011 policy letter, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness to revise DOD's existing workforce policies and procedures to address the (1) determination of the appropriate workforce mix, and (2) identification of critical functions.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOD partially concurred with this recommendation and stated in its agency comments that DOD Directive 1100.4. was undergoing revision and entering the formal issuance process for signature by the Deputy Secretary of Defense. Further, DOD stated that the updated directive would authorize and direct the revision of the instruction. However, as of August 2017, a DOD official stated that revisions to DOD Directive 1100.4 and DOD Instruction 1100.22 continue to be worked within the Department. Changes enacted through the most recent National Defense Authorization Act required a reconsideration of numerous aspects of the draft directive. Further, the official stated that the department was required to develop an overarching workforce rationalization strategy and that the furthering of this strategy will likewise impact the draft policies.
    Recommendation: Until such time that DOD is able to accurately project contractor FTE estimates it presents in budget submissions using the inventories and required reviews, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) to include an explanation in annual budget exhibits of the methodology used to project contractor FTE estimates and any limitations of that methodology or the underlying information to which the methodology is applied.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: DOD partially concurred with this recommendation and stated in its agency comments that it will strengthen the annual guidance as improvements are made in the inventory of contracted services. Further, DOD stated that if a component's methodology deviates from the process defined in the annual guidance, a footnote explaining the deviation will be included in the contracted services section of the Operation and Maintenance Overview book within the budget. As of August 2017, the department could not provide any evidence of steps taken in response to this recommendation.
    Director: Farrell, Brenda S
    Phone: (202) 512-3604

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure the department maintains its critical skills and competencies, when planning for and implementing future civilian workforce actions, the Secretary of Defense should direct the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness to involve functional community managers and to the extent possible, use information from gap assessments of its critical skills and competencies as they are completed to make informed decisions for possible future reductions or justify the size of the force that it has.

    Agency: Department of Defense
    Status: Open

    Comments: As of September 2017, the Associate Director, Total Force Requirements & Sourcing Policies; OUSD(P&R), stated that the Department has taken some actions and that there are ongoing efforts in this area. We will continue to monitor DOD's progress in implementing this recommendation.
    Director: Goldenkoff, Robert N
    Phone: (202)512-3000

    2 open recommendations
    including 2 priority recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve the Bureau's process of organizational transformation, long-term planning, and strategic workforce planning for the 2020 Census, and thus better position the Bureau to carry out a cost-effective decennial census, the Secretary of Commerce should require the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs who oversees the Economics and Statistics Administration, as well as the Director of the U.S. Census Bureau to, in order to ensure prioritization and timely completion of all necessary research and testing efforts, as well as timely transition to later 2020 Census phases, develop and implement a long-term planning schedule that includes key milestones and deadlines, including (1) deadlines for decisions that directly affect activity in later 2020 Census phases; (2) a schedule for creating, revising, or updating governance, program management, and system engineering and architecture plans to be used in later 2020 Census phases beyond research and testing; and (3) expected times of delivery for Bureau-wide enterprise tools, processes, and standards that 2020 Census planning would be expected to use.

    Agency: Department of Commerce
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: Commerce agreed with this recommendation. Bureau officials released an operational plan in November 2015, including a high-level timeline for much of the remaining activity, but final schedules of delivery for Bureau-wide enterprise tools, processes, and standards are being revised and are not yet complete. In June 2016, officials announced that the Bureau would finalize its updated schedule in July 2016. To fully implement this recommendation, the Bureau needs to finalize program management and other governance documents applicable to the current and later phases of the decennial lifecycle, as well as finalizing schedules for delivery of Bureau-wide enterprise tools, processes, and standards. As of July 2017, Bureau officials reported they were working to provide artifacts they believe may address this recommendation.
    Recommendation: To improve the Bureau's process of organizational transformation, long-term planning, and strategic workforce planning for the 2020 Census, and thus better position the Bureau to carry out a cost-effective decennial census, the Secretary of Commerce should require the Under Secretary for Economic Affairs who oversees the Economics and Statistics Administration, as well as the Director of the U.S. Census Bureau to, in order to improve the Bureau's process for following up on Bureau and oversight agencies' recommendations to improve the 2020 Census, (1) assess the status of recommendation follow-up at regular intervals, such as every 12 months; and (2) periodically report on the status of recommendation follow-up--such as on the Bureau's intranet or Internet pages.

    Agency: Department of Commerce
    Status: Open
    Priority recommendation

    Comments: Commerce agreed with this recommendation. The Bureau assigns outstanding recommendations from GAO and others within the Bureau's knowledge management database to various leads, such as specific 2020 Census research and testing project teams. The Bureau regularly collates status updates on our open recommendations as well as the Office of Inspector General for reporting to department officials. The Bureau has begun quarterly meetings with us to discuss open GAO recommendations. When the status of its own internal recommendations -- such as from evaluations of its earlier tests -- is more visible inside and outside the Bureau, the Bureau's knowledge management will be better positioned to help the Bureau achieve goals of a cost-effective census. To fully implement this recommendation, the Bureau needs to implement mechanisms to capture lessons learned from its ongoing research and testing experience for recommendations in its database, and periodically report on the status of all open recommendations. As of July 2017, the Bureau is actively collecting artifacts, but has not yet provided evidence of either regular or open reporting on the status of other recommendations, such as from its own prior evaluations, ongoing tests, or the National Academy of Sciences.
    Director: Maurer, Diana C
    Phone: (202) 512-9627

    3 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure that FEMA's agencywide workforce planning and training efforts are conducted in a comprehensive and integrated manner, the FEMA Administrator should identify and document long-term and quantifiable mission critical goals that reflect the agency's priorities for workforce planning and training.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency
    Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2016, agency officials said they had contracted for the development of a Workforce Strategic Plan that is intended to assess current steady state staffing needs based on mission requirements and establish workforce models capable of determining future needs based on workload drivers. Further, they said the plan will monitor and evaluate FEMA's progress towards mission critical goals and the contribution that human capital results have made towards achieving programmatic priorities. In July 2017, they provided an updated estimate that the plan will be completed by June 2020. Pending completion of this effort, the recommendation will remain open.
    Recommendation: To help ensure that FEMA's agencywide workforce planning and training efforts are conducted in a comprehensive and integrated manner, the FEMA Administrator should establish a time frame for completing the development of quantifiable performance measures related to workforce planning and training efforts.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency
    Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2016, agency officials said they had contracted for the development of a Workforce Strategic Plan that is intended to assess current steady state staffing needs based on mission requirements and establish workforce models capable of determining future needs based on workload drivers. Once complete, they said the plan will identify performance metrics to track FEMA's progress towards mission critical goals regarding workforce planning and training efforts. In July 2017, they provided an updated estimate that the plan will be completed by September 2020. Pending completion of this effort, the recommendation will remain open.
    Recommendation: To better inform FEMA's decision-making related to agencywide workforce planning and training efforts, the FEMA Administrator should develop systematic processes to collect and analyze workforce and training data.

    Agency: Department of Homeland Security: Directorate of Emergency Preparedness and Response: Federal Emergency Management Agency
    Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2017, officials reported that FEMA's Chief Component Human Capital Office was preparing a Training Plan that will outline the collection and analysis methodology of training data with an estimated completion date of September 2018. Pending documentation of the results of these efforts this recommendation will remain open.
    Director: Wilshusen, Gregory C
    Phone: (202) 512-6244

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve individual agency cybersecurity workforce planning efforts, the Secretary of Commerce should direct the department's Chief Information Officer, in consultation with its Chief Human Capital Officer, to develop and implement a departmentwide cybersecurity workforce plan or ensure that departmental components are conducting appropriate workforce planning activities.

    Agency: Department of Commerce
    Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Commerce concurred with the recommendation. In fiscal year 2016, we verified that Commerce, in response to our recommendation, expected to develop a cybersecurity workforce plan by the second quarter of fiscal year 2017. This plan would address department-level skills. In addition, each component of Commerce would develop a subordinate workforce action plan to address component-level skills, as well as competency and certification gaps. As of August 2017, Commerce has not confirmed that it has developed a department-level workforce plan or that its components have developed workforce plans.
    Director: Trimble, David C
    Phone: (202)512-9338

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To improve cohesion in the management and operation of EPA's laboratories, the Administrator of EPA should establish a top-level science official with the authority and responsibility to coordinate, oversee, and make management decisions regarding major scientific activities throughout the agency, including the work of all program, regional, and ORD laboratories.

    Agency: Environmental Protection Agency
    Status: Open

    Comments: EPA took some steps toward establishing a top-level science official with responsibilities to coordinate and oversee the laboratories, but the agency did not expand this official's authority to make management decisions regarding scientific activities for the laboratories. In 2012, EPA expanded the responsibilities of the agency's Science Adviser to coordinate, oversee, and make recommendations to EPA's Administrator regarding major scientific activities across the agency, including the work of all regional, program, and Office of Research and Development laboratories. However, as of March 2017, the agency has not granted the Science Adviser the authority to make management decisions. For example, the laboratories do not report directly to the Science Adviser; instead, they continue to operate under the direction of 15 senior officials using 15 different organizational and management structures. In addition, the Science Adviser does not have authority over laboratory budgets, workforce, and infrastructure.
    Director: Crosse, Marcia G
    Phone: (202)512-3407

    1 open recommendations
    Recommendation: To help ensure that FDA's overseas offices are able to fully meet their mission of helping to ensure the safety of imported products, the Commissioner of FDA should ensure, as it completes its strategic planning process for the overseas offices, that it develops a set of performance goals and measures that can be used to demonstrate overseas office contributions to long-term outcomes related to the regulation of imported products and that overseas office activities are coordinated with the centers and Office of Regulatory Affairs (ORA).

    Agency: Department of Health and Human Services: Food and Drug Administration
    Status: Open

    Comments: In August 2017, FDA reported that it remains committed to strengthening its efforts and systematically monitoring and evaluating the overseas offices' contributions to the agency's mission and objectives. FDA also stated that it is making significant progress in several areas by enhancing strategic planning and analysis, refining the Office of International Program's (OIP) performance metrics, and designing a monitoring and evaluation plan. For example, FDA stated it has developed a framework with refined performance metrics to distinguish and assess the distinct contribution of OIP and its foreign offices towards program objectives and broader agency goals. FDA said that the performance metrics will track and monitor the quantity, quality, and timeliness of activity outputs and intermediate outcomes resulting from OIP's work. The measures have been standardized and defined, and will be further disaggregated to enable various levels of analyses, including distinguishing the unique efforts by foreign offices and product type. According to FDA, it plans to roll out its performance framework, related metrics, and monitoring and evaluation processes in fiscal year 2018. FDA said it anticipates that its performance measures, enhanced monitoring, and increased sharing of best practices across foreign offices and FDA headquarters will facilitate tracking of performance, allow greater accountability, and provide a foundation for continuous improvement. GAO will continue to monitor FDA's progress.