Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting:

Existing Federal Efforts to Increase Awareness Should Be Improved

GAO-16-645: Published: Jun 30, 2016. Publicly Released: Aug 1, 2016.

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What GAO Found

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that 513,000 women and girls in the United States were at risk of or had been subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in 2012, a threefold increase from its 1990 estimate. CDC attributes this change primarily to increased immigration from countries where FGM/C is practiced, rather than an increase in the occurrence of FGM/C. Agency estimates were not able to distinguish between those who have already been subjected to FGM/C and those who are at risk.

CDC Estimates of the Number of Women and Girls in the United States at Risk of or Who Have Been Subjected to Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting, 1990 and 2012

HL_5 - 100129

Women and girls at risk of or who have been subjected to FGM/C in their home country may seek federal protection in the United States through different avenues of the immigration process, and GAO found that there have been few U.S. investigations and prosecutions. According to Department of Homeland Security officials, protection is most commonly provided through the asylum process, where individuals must demonstrate that they have been persecuted or fear persecution in their home country on account of protected grounds such as religion or nationality. While FGM/C is a crime under federal and many state laws, law enforcement officials identified few investigations and prosecutions related to FGM/C. Officials said that this may be due, in part, to underreporting.

Federal agencies and others provide education and assistance regarding FGM/C, but gaps exist and agencies lack documented plans for future efforts. The Department of State (State) directly provides information on FGM/C in a fact sheet only to certain types of visa recipients who apply in countries where FGM/C is practiced. State does not provide the fact sheet to nonimmigrant visa recipients as these visas are for temporary stays; however, some of these visas permit stays in the United States for multiple years. In addition, State does not directly provide the fact sheet to visa recipients who are nationals of countries where FGM/C is common, but apply at posts in other countries. Visa recipients who do not directly receive the fact sheet may be unaware of the health and U.S. legal consequences of FGM/C. Federal agencies have made efforts to increase awareness of FGM/C among stakeholder groups, including hosting roundtables and developing educational materials. However, the agencies lack documented plans for future efforts. Internal controls state that agencies should establish plans and document activities. Absent this, the federal government may be unable to ensure that its activities meet the needs of and that it communicates effectively with external parties, such as key stakeholder groups.

Why GAO Did This Study

FGM/C comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other harm to the female genitals for non-medical reasons. The rationale for FGM/C often includes cultural, religious, and social factors in families and communities. In the United States, women and girls believed to be most at risk of FGM/C are those from immigrant families from countries where FGM/C is practiced.

GAO was asked to review the federal response to address FGM/C in the United States. In this report, GAO examines (1) what is known about the number of women and girls at risk of or subjected to FGM/C, (2) the protections available and actions taken to protect women and girls, and (3) the extent to which actions are taken to educate and assist immigrant communities and key stakeholders. GAO analyzed documents and spoke to officials from five relevant federal agencies; spoke with officials from local law enforcement, health care, education, and social services sectors; and assessed agency actions against federal internal control standards.

What GAO Recommends

GAO recommends that State provide information to additional visa recipients and that each federal agency document its domestic FGM/C awareness efforts. The agencies generally agreed with the recommendations; however, State disagreed with documenting its awareness efforts, noting that it is not responsible for domestic outreach and education. GAO maintains that the recommendation is valid as discussed in the report.

For more information, contact Marcia Crosse at (202) 512-7114 or crossem@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State (State) concurred with this recommendation, and noted in a September 2016 update that it will expand the pool of visa applicants who will receive information on FGM/C. Specifically, once its transition to providing paperwork electronically during the visa application process is complete, State will directly distribute the fact sheet on FGM/C to both immigrant and nonimmigrant visa recipients. According to State, both immigrant and nonimmigrant visa recipients will have to certify that they have read and understood the fact sheet on FGM/C before signing and submitting their respective visa applications. As of August 2017, State has not yet completed these actions.

    Recommendation: To increase awareness of the health and legal consequences of FGM/C among visa recipients, the Secretary of State should update the Foreign Affairs Manual to require posts located in countries where FGM/C is commonly practiced to directly provide information about FGM/C to nonimmigrant visa recipients in the same manner as is done for immigrant visa recipients.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  2. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State (State) concurred with this recommendation, and noted in a September 2016 update that it will expand the pool of visa applicants who will receive information on FGM/C. Specifically, once its transition to providing paperwork electronically during the visa application process is complete, State will directly distribute the fact sheet on FGM/C to both immigrant and nonimmigrant visa recipients who are from or were nationals of a country where FGM/C is commonly practiced. State noted that this change will ensure the widest distribution possible by providing all individuals from countries where FGM/C is commonly practiced with access to the fact sheet on FGM/C regardless of place of application or visa recipient type. As of August 2017, State has not yet completed these actions.

    Recommendation: To increase awareness of the health and legal consequences of FGM/C among visa recipients, the Secretary of State should update the Foreign Affairs Manual to require posts located outside of the countries where FGM/C is commonly practiced to directly provide information on FGM/C to immigrant and nonimmigrant visa recipients who are nationals of countries where FGM/C is commonly practiced.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  3. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) took action to address our recommendation in January 2017 by creating an outreach strategy on female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) awareness efforts. DHS's outreach strategy describes both the general approach and specific actions it plans to take to educate and reach key stakeholders in the United States with relevant information about FGM/C. To create the strategy, DHS noted that it convened regular meetings with stakeholders throughout the department through its Council on Combatting Violence Against Women. DHS also noted that its efforts will involve continued strategic planning and coordination across DHS components and offices, as well as consultation and coordination with other relevant federal agencies and stakeholders.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each develop a written plan that describes the agency's approach for conducting education and outreach to key stakeholders in the United States regarding FGM/C.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  4. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Education (Education) concurred with this recommendation, and noted in a September 2016 update that it will develop a written plan for disseminating relevant FGM/C resources to the agency?s key stakeholder groups. As of August 2017, Education reported that action is still pending.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each develop a written plan that describes the agency's approach for conducting education and outreach to key stakeholders in the United States regarding FGM/C.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  5. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) concurred with this recommendation, and noted in a September 2016 update that various HHS offices and agencies are working together to develop a written plan for its approaches to addressing FGM/C. In August 2017, HHS reported that once a key leadership position has been filled, it will provide more information on developing a written plan.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each develop a written plan that describes the agency's approach for conducting education and outreach to key stakeholders in the United States regarding FGM/C.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  6. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Justice (DOJ) concurred with this recommendation, and noted in a September 2016 update that the Human Rights and Special Prosecutions Section of its Criminal Division is taking the lead on developing a written plan on its FGM/C outreach and awareness efforts. As of August 2017, DOJ has not yet developed a written plan.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each develop a written plan that describes the agency's approach for conducting education and outreach to key stakeholders in the United States regarding FGM/C.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  7. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State (State) did not concur with our recommendation, and, as of August 2017, has not indicated that it would implement this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each develop a written plan that describes the agency's approach for conducting education and outreach to key stakeholders in the United States regarding FGM/C.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

  8. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) took action to address our recommendation in January 2017 by creating an outreach strategy on female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) awareness efforts and sharing the strategy online. DHS's outreach strategy describes both the general approach and specific actions it plans to take to educate and reach key stakeholders in the United States with relevant information about FGM/C. DHS subsequently posted the plan on its U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) website pertaining to FGM/C. USCIS also communicated the plan through an email blast to its subscribers.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each communicate the plan with other relevant federal agencies and stakeholder groups, as appropriate.

    Agency Affected: Department of Homeland Security

  9. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Education (Education) concurred with this recommendation, and noted in a September 2016 update that it will develop a written plan for disseminating relevant FGM/C resources to the agency?s key stakeholder groups and will explore how to best communicate and coordinate efforts at the federal level. As of August 2017, Education reported that action is still pending.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each communicate the plan with other relevant federal agencies and stakeholder groups, as appropriate.

    Agency Affected: Department of Education

  10. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) concurred with this recommendation, and noted in a September 2016 update that various HHS offices and agencies are working together to develop a written plan for its approaches to addressing FGM/C. HHS also noted that it would share this plan with other federal partners and key stakeholders. In August 2017, HHS reported that once a key leadership position has been filled, it will provide more information on disseminating a written plan.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each communicate the plan with other relevant federal agencies and stakeholder groups, as appropriate.

    Agency Affected: Department of Health and Human Services

  11. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of Justice (DOJ) concurred with this recommendation, and noted in a September 2016 update that the Human Rights and Special Prosecutions Section of its Criminal Division is taking the lead on developing a written plan on its FGM/C outreach and awareness efforts. DOJ also noted that it would communicate its written plan with other relevant federal agencies and stakeholder groups, as appropriate. As of August 2017, DOJ has not yet disseminated a written plan.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each communicate the plan with other relevant federal agencies and stakeholder groups, as appropriate.

    Agency Affected: Department of Justice

  12. Status: Open

    Comments: The Department of State (State) did not concur with our recommendation, and, as of August 2017, has not indicated that it would implement this recommendation.

    Recommendation: To make the best use of federal resources directed toward combating FGM/C in the United States, the Attorney General and the Secretaries of Education, Health and Human Services, Homeland Security, and State should each communicate the plan with other relevant federal agencies and stakeholder groups, as appropriate.

    Agency Affected: Department of State

 

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