Geospatial Information:

OMB and Agencies Need to Make Coordination a Priority to Reduce Duplication

GAO-13-94: Published: Nov 26, 2012. Publicly Released: Nov 26, 2012.

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What GAO Found

While the President and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) have established policies and procedures for coordinating investments in geospatial data, governmentwide committees and federal departments and agencies have not effectively implemented them. The committee that was established to promote the coordination of geospatial data nationwide--the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC)--has developed and endorsed key standards-- including a metadata standard that includes descriptive information about a particular set of geospatial data--and established a clearinghouse of metadata; however, the clearinghouse is not being used by agencies to identify planned geospatial investments to promote coordination and reduce duplication. The FGDC has not yet planned or implemented an approach to manage geospatial data as related groups of investments to allow agencies to more effectively plan geospatial data collection efforts and minimize duplicative investments; and its strategic plan is missing key elements, such as performance measures for many of its defined objectives. Further, none of the three federal departments in GAO's review have fully implemented important activities for coordinating geospatial data, such as preparing and implementing a strategy for advancing geospatial activities within their respective departments.

Further, the three agencies in GAO's review responsible for governmentwide management of specific geospatial data have implemented some but not all important activities for coordinating the national coverage of specific geospatial data. For example, only one agency has developed a plan for the nationwide population of the datasets under its responsibility, and none of the agencies have developed a plan to develop standards that facilitate the collection and sharing of geospatial data. Finally, while OMB has oversight responsibilities for geospatial data, OMB staff members acknowledged that OMB does not have complete and reliable information to identify potentially duplicative geospatial investments.

FGDC, federal departments and agencies, and OMB have not yet fully implemented policies and procedures for coordinating geospatial investments because these efforts have not been a priority. As a result, efforts to acquire data are uncoordinated and the federal government is acquiring duplicative geospatial data. For example, three agencies are independently acquiring road data, which is reported to have resulted in millions of wasted taxpayers' dollars. Unless OMB, the FGDC, and federal departments and agencies decide that coordinating geospatial investments is a priority, this situation will likely continue.

Why GAO Did This Study

The federal government collects, maintains, and uses geospatial information--information linked to specific geographic locations--to support many functions, including national security and disaster response. In 2012, the Department of the Interior (Interior) estimated that the federal government invests billions of dollars on geospatial data annually, and that duplication is common. GAO was asked to determine the extent to which the federal government has established and effectively implemented policies and procedures for coordinating its geospatial investments and avoiding duplication. To do so, GAO focused on FGDC coordination activities; efforts within the departments of Commerce, the Interior, and Transportation; and OMB oversight. GAO reviewed FGDC and department documentation, such as policies, procedures, and strategic plans; OMB guidance and an executive order; and reports concerning duplicative investments.

What GAO Recommends

GAO is making recommendations aimed at improving coordination and reducing duplication, to include FGDC developing a national strategy for coordinating geospatial investments; federal agencies following federal guidance for managing geospatial investments; and OMB developing a mechanism to identify and report on geospatial investments. Two agencies and OMB generally agreed with GAO's recommendations and one agency neither agreed nor disagreed.

For more information, contact David A. Powner at (202) 512-9286 or pownerd@gao.gov.

Recommendations for Executive Action

  1. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In March 2014, FGDC issued its National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Management Plan, and it has made progress in implementing the plan. The plan identifies 1 goal, 10 objectives, and 27 associated action items, including details on timelines, responsibilities, and performance measures. Each action item includes a discussion of the relationships and dependencies required to be in place for an action to be completed, as well as each action's intended outputs and its overall outcomes. Moreover, Interior has begun implementing its strategy. As of June 2015, eight of the 27 action items had been closed, and 14 action items were in progress - seven of which were expected to be completed by October 2015. FGDC is also reporting on its progress to OMB. Specifically, FGDC officials discuss the status of the data asset management plan at the quarterly FGDC Steering Committee meetings, at which an OMB official is present. In addition, the 2014 FGDC Annual Report, which was sent to OMB in April 2015, included background and status information on plan.

    Recommendation: To better facilitate the coordination of--and accountability for--the estimated billions of dollars in federal geospatial investments, and to reduce duplication, the Secretary of the Interior, as the FGDC chair should establish a time frame for completing a plan to facilitate the implementation of OMB's portfolio management guidance, and develop and implement the plan within the established time frame. The plan, at a minimum, should include goals and performance measures, and the FGDC should report annually to OMB on the progress made on efforts to improve coordination and reduce duplication among themes.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  2. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: On September 25, 2013, FGDC officials issued guidance directing all FGDC departments to identify planned geospatial investments using the Geospatial Platform. Specifically, the guidance states that before expending funds to collect or produce new geospatial data, a component shall search the Geospatial Platform Marketplace and any other appropriate sources to determine if existing or planned data meet agency needs. If an existing data source is found, the component is to obtain and use that data. If the component discovers that another organization has plans to acquire or produce geospatial data that will meet the program requirements, the component is to contact that organization to develop a plan to coordinate or partner with the other organization. If the component does not discover existing or planned acquisitions, the component is to create a metadata record that describes the planned acquisition and publish it on the Marketplace not less than 120 days prior to the planned acquisition. This guidance has been implemented by at least one federal department, the Department of Interior, which issued similar guidance to its bureaus and offices on September 25, 2013.

    Recommendation: To better facilitate the coordination of--and accountability for--the estimated billions of dollars in federal geospatial investments, and to reduce duplication, the Secretary of the Interior, as the FGDC chair should develop and implement guidance for identifying planned geospatial investments using the Geospatial Platform, and establish a time frame for doing so.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  3. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In December 2013, the Federal Geospatial Data Committee (FGDC) issued its National Spatial Data Infrastructure Strategic Plan (2014 - 2016). The plan 1) describes a vision statement for the NSDI; 2) lists goals, outcome oriented objectives, and 29 action items that collectively address the major components of the NSDI; and 3) identifies the key factors external to the FGDC and beyond its control that could significantly affect the achievement of the NSDI goals and objectives. In addition, in 2014 and 2015, FGDC issued implementation plans that provide 1) performance measures that include detailed tasks, milestones, and timelines; and 2) the identification of resources available to achieve the objectives, including the identification of the parties within the FGDC and other agencies who are responsible for the actions. FGDC has begun implementing the plan, and progress is overseen by the FGDC Executive Committee. As of June 2015, nine of the 29 actions had been completed, and 11 more were scheduled for completion by the end of fiscal year 2015. Another nine actions were scheduled for completion in fiscal year 2016 and beyond.

    Recommendation: To better facilitate the coordination of--and accountability for--the estimated billions of dollars in federal geospatial investments, and to reduce duplication, the Secretary of the Interior, as the FGDC chair should establish a time frame for creating and updating a strategic plan to improve coordination and reduce duplication, and create and implement the plan within the established time frame. The plan, at a minimum, should include (1) a vision statement for the NSDI; (2) outcome-oriented goals and objectives that address all aspects of the NSDI; (3) a description of how the goals and objectives are to be achieved, including a description of the resources needed to achieve the goals and objectives and how the FGDC is to work with other agencies to achieve them; (4) performance measures for achieving the stated goals; and (5) external factors that could affect the achievement of the goals and objectives.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  4. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Commerce formally designated the Chief Information Officer and Director for High Performance Computing and Communications as the senior agency official for geospatial information on February 28, 2013.

    Recommendation: To help ensure the success of department's efforts to improve geospatial coordination and reduce duplication, the Secretary of Commerce should designate a senior agency official who has departmentwide responsibility, accountability, and authority for geospatial information issues.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  5. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Commerce issued a policy on September 26, 2013 that establishes polices and describes responsibilities for the creation and publication of geospatial metadata. For example, the department's senior agency official for geospatial information is to ensure compliance with the policy, and perform periodic evaluations of geospatial metadata creation, maintenance, and publication throughout the department. Agencies within the department are to ensure that their metadata meet or exceed the minimum requirements of the associated standards, and that all metadata is submitted for publication on the clearinghouse.

    Recommendation: To help ensure the success of department's efforts to improve geospatial coordination and reduce duplication, the Secretary of Commerce should designate a senior agency official who has departmentwide responsibility, accountability, and authority for geospatial information issues to develop a policy that requires the department to make its geospatial metadata available on the clearinghouse.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  6. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Commerce issued guidance in October 2013, directing all departmental offices and operating units to coordinate with other organizations, both inside and outside of the department, to determine if existing or planned data would meet their needs. The guidance also includes seven steps to take to avoid duplication of geospatial data. In August 2014, Commerce noted that the guidance was forwarded to the Commerce CIO Council to share within their bureaus. For example, NOAA staff was directed to publish metadata for planned acquisitions to the Marketplace, to search the Marketplace before acquiring data, and to coordinate with groups having or desiring similar data. As of August 2014, NOAA had posted information regarding 24 datasets on the Marketplace tab on the NSDI clearinghouse. In September 2014 Commerce also provided evidence that one of its agencies, the Census Bureau, had updated its standard operating procedures to include a search of the clearinghouse database for existing and planned datasets.

    Recommendation: To help ensure the success of department's efforts to improve geospatial coordination and reduce duplication, the Secretary of Commerce should designate a senior agency official who has departmentwide responsibility, accountability, and authority for geospatial information issues to develop and implement internal procedures to ensure that it accesses the NSDI clearinghouse before it expends funds to collect or produce new geospatial data to determine (1) whether the information has already been collected by others and (2) whether cooperative efforts to obtain the data are possible.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  7. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In 2013 the Department of Commerce (Commerce) created and implemented a plan for geodetic control theme standards. During 2013 Commerce inventoried and reviewed existing geodetic control standards, specifications, and guideline documents to determine what updates were needed for existing standards. The department identified the personnel responsible for the updates and prioritized a schedule for their completion. In September 2013, Commerce finalized its plan to update the geodetic control theme standards. Commerce has begun implementing the plan. For example, in December 2013, Commerce issued an updated version of the first standard listed in the plan, addressing global navigation satellite system networks.

    Recommendation: Further, to improve the department's management of its geodetic control theme,the Secretary of Commerce should direct the geodetic control theme point of contact to create and implement a plan to develop and implement geodetic control theme standards.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  8. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In March 2014, the Department of the Interior (Interior) published its Geospatial Services Strategic Plan (2014 - 2016). The plan was developed through the leadership of Interior's Geospatial Advisory Committee, and in collaboration with all departmental bureaus and offices. The plan contains a vision, mission, and guiding principles. It is comprised of four strategic goals, each with a number of associated actions related to geospatial information and the supporting information technology infrastructure. Moreover, the Department has begun implementing its strategy. The Geospatial Advisory Committee oversees progress in implementing the strategy through the use of an action tracking and status database, which is available online to committee members and their designees, and through monthly meetings at which the status of the strategies is discussed.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the designated senior official for geospatial information to prepare, maintain, publish, and implement a strategy for advancing geographic information and related geospatial data activities appropriate to its mission.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  9. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of the Interior issued a policy on September 24, 2013, to establish the requirements and responsibilities for the creation or publication of metadata for geospatial data. The policy applies to the department's senior agency official for geospatial information, as well as all department bureaus, offices, and supporting organizations that collect or produce geospatial data. For example, the senior agency official is required to oversee the development of robust governance and monitoring procedures for the management of geospatial metadata. Bureaus and offices are to document all geospatial data that is collected, produced, acquired, maintained, distributed, used or preserved by the department using a metadata standard that is enforced by the Federal Geographic Data Committee and that meets related federal directives and guidelines.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the designated senior official for geospatial information to develop a policy that requires the department to make its geospatial metadata available on the clearinghouse.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  10. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Interior issued procedures in September 2013 directing staff to utilize the Marketplace tab on the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) clearinghouse (currently hosted on the Geospatial Platform, see www.geoplatform.gov) to determine if existing federal, state, local or private data meet agency needs before expending funds for data collection. The guidance includes seven specific steps to be taken by Interior bureaus or offices to search the Geospatial Platform. For example, the guidance states that before expending funds to collect or produce new geospatial data, each bureau or office shall search the Geospatial Platform Marketplace to determine if existing or planned data meet agency needs. If an existing data source is found, the bureau or office is to obtain and use that data. If the bureau or office discovers that another organization has plans to acquire or produce geospatial data that will meet the program requirements, the bureau or office is to contact that organization to develop a plan to coordinate or partner with the other organization. In April 2014, Interior noted that the procedures for accessing the clearinghouse are being followed and provided evidence showing that plans for a number of the National Geospatial Data Assets (NGDA) annual dataset acquisitions had been posted to the Marketplace tab on the NSDI clearinghouse. Interior officials state that these plans not only provide Interior and other agencies with opportunities to collaborate, they also give the vendor community valuable insight into Interior's long-term plans for data acquisition. As of August 2014, Interior agencies have posted information regarding 43 datasets on the Marketplace tab on the NSDI clearinghouse.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the designated senior official for geospatial information to develop and implement internal procedures to ensure that it accesses the NSDI clearinghouse before it expends funds to collect or produce new geospatial data to determine (1) whether the information has already been collected by others and (2) whether cooperative efforts to obtain the data are possible.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  11. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Interior issued goals for the principal datasets comprising the hydrography data theme in August 2013. Specifically, Interior prepared goals for the National Hydrography Dataset, the Watershed Boundary Data set, and the National Wetlands Inventory based on user needs. The agency collected and analyzed user needs by working in conjunction with governing bodies representing the user community. These user needs were then included in the development of theme-related goals. Goals for these data sets include such things as maintaining and improving efficiencies in the use of cloud computing, developing mobile applications, and ensuring the quality and timeliness of updates to the data.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the hydrography theme point of contact to prepare goals relating to all datasets within the hydrography theme that support the NSDI, and as needed, collect and analyze information from user needs and include those needs in the theme-related goals.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  12. Status: Open

    Comments: In June 2016, the Department of the Interior (Interior) released its Theme Strategic Plan for the hydrography theme, now known as the Water-Inland Theme. The plan includes all of the items identified in GAO's recommendation. Specifically, the plan addresses all of the datasets within the theme and the development of partnership programs that meet the needs of users. The plan also addresses resource, standards, metadata and clearinghouse needs. The plan also includes milestones for the completion of the activities identified for the development of the theme. According to agency officials, Interior has begun implementing the actions in plan, with the majority of the activities having target completion dates in fiscal year 2017 and beyond. GAO's review of the implementation of Interiors' water-inland theme strategic plan is ongoing.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the hydrography theme point of contact to develop and implement a plan for the nationwide population of the hydrography theme that addresses all datasets within the theme; and that includes (1) the development of partnership programs with states, tribes, academia, the private sector, other federal agencies, and localities that meet the needs of users; (2) human and financial resource needs; (3) standards, metadata, and the clearinghouse needs; and (4) a timetable for the development for the theme.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  13. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: In January 2015 Interior officials told GAO that the process to evaluate the standards for the three datasets in the hydrography data theme (National Hydrography Dataset, Watershed Boundary Dataset, and National Wetlands Inventory) is an ongoing effort and one that has an annual review. Each year the users of the three datasets are solicited regarding needed improvements to the standards. The feedback is then used to make any necessary adjustments to the standards. Interior officials stated that a summary of the standards' status are to be published each year. In February 2015, Interior published the summary for the National Hydrography Dataset, which identified areas for future improvements in the standard, such as positional accuracy, stream classification, and multi-scale guidance. In June 2015, Interior published the summary for the Watershed Boundary Dataset, which noted that the standard was recently changed to reflect the latest data model. It also identified areas for future improvement such as instructions on how to use high resolution elevation data to delineate the watershed boundaries. In August 2015, Interior published technical procedures and requirements for the National Wetland Inventory. The new document explains the appropriate application of wetland classification, the wetland mapping process, and how to achieve the data quality requirements now required in the new FGDC standards. As a result, hydrography datasets should be of higher quality and more easily exchanged with others.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of the Interior should direct the hydrography theme point of contact to create and implement a plan to develop and implement hydrography theme standards.

    Agency Affected: Department of the Interior

  14. Status: Open

    Comments: In July 2016, a Transportation official told GAO that the department had begun efforts to produce the geospatial strategic plan in February 2016. According to this official, a draft of the plan was completed in July 2016, and Transportation expects to release the final version by August 31, 2016.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should designate a senior agency official who has departmentwide responsibility, accountability, and authority for geospatial information issues. The Secretary of Transportation direct the designated senior official for geospatial information to prepare, maintain, publish, and implement a strategy for advancing geographic information and related geospatial data activities appropriate to its mission.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  15. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: On April 10, 2014, the Department of Transportation issued "Creation and Publication of Metadata for Geospatial Data" guidance to implement federal requirements for the creation and publication of metadata for geospatial data. The policy applies to all departmental agencies, as well as contractors hired by the department. Among other requirements, agencies are expected to document all geospatial data that is collected, produced, acquired, maintained, distributed, or preserved by the department using the metadata standard endorsed by the FGDC, include additional information whenever appropriate to provide the maximum information available through the standard, and submit all geospatial metadata for publication to the FGDC's National Spatial Data clearinghouse.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should designate a senior agency official who has departmentwide responsibility, accountability, and authority for geospatial information issues. The Secretary of Transportation should direct the designated senior official for geospatial information to develop a policy that requires the department to make its geospatial metadata available on the clearinghouse.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  16. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: The Department of Transportation formally designated the Bureau of Transportation Statistics Director as the senior agency official for geospatial information on January 17, 2013, and conveyed this information to executive leadership throughout the department.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should designate a senior agency official who has departmentwide responsibility, accountability, and authority for geospatial information issues.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  17. Status: Closed - Implemented

    Comments: Transportation issued guidance in April 2014 stating that offices and operating units within the department shall not expend funds to acquire or produce geospatial data if an existing source for that data is available and meets mission requirements. In addition, the guidance states that if it is determined that another organization within or outside of the department is planning on acquiring or producing data that will meet the needs of the office, the office shall coordinate with the organization as soon as possible. Steps in the process include searching the NSDI clearinghouse and any other appropriate sources for existing or planned data and documenting the date, criteria, and results of the search. In addition, Transportation has begun to implement this guidance.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation direct the designated senior official for geospatial information to develop and implement internal procedures to ensure that it accesses the NSDI clearinghouse before it expends funds to collect or produce new geospatial data to determine (1) whether the information has already been collected by others and (2) whether cooperative efforts to obtain the data are possible.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  18. Status: Open

    Comments: According to Transportation, the department's National Spatial Data Infrastructure Theme Lead is working with Transportation's Geospatial Coordination Council and individual data owners to develop implementation plans for the individual datasets, as prescribed by the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). The implementation plans are to include goals for the theme. In July 2016, a Transportation official told GAO that the department expects to complete the implementation plans by December 31, 2016.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct the transportation theme point of contact to prepare goals relating to all datasets within the transportation theme that support the NSDI, and as needed, collect and analyze information from user needs and include those needs in the theme-related goals.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  19. Status: Open

    Comments: In October 2015, Transportation formally released its Transportation Theme of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure Strategic Plan 2016-2019. The plan addresses all datasets within the theme and includes actions regarding the development of partnership programs that meet the needs of users. The plan also addresses standards, metadata, and the clearinghouse needs. However, the plan does not address human and financial resource needs or provide a timetable for the development of the theme. Moving forward, the theme strategic plan states that following its adoption, Transportation officials and dataset managers will develop an implementation plan outlining how the goals and objectives in the theme strategic plan will be achieved. The implementation plan is to include tasks and milestones, timelines, responsible parties, performance indicators/measures, and identification of resources available to achieve the objectives. In July 2016, a Transportation official told GAO that the department expects to complete the implementation plans by December 31, 2016.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct the transportation theme point of contact to develop and implement a plan for the nationwide population of the transportation theme that addresses all datasets within the theme; and that includes (1) the development of partnership programs with states, tribes, academia, the private sector, other federal agencies,and localities that meet the needs of users; (2) human and financial resource needs; (3) standards, metadata, and the clearinghouse needs; and (4) a timetable for the development for the theme.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  20. Status: Open

    Comments: In January 2015 Transportation officials told GAO that the department has made progress on the development and implementation of standards for the transportation theme. Standards for airports and runways are in place. The department was investigating existing standards to see how they are applicable to the additional components of transportation, including roads, rail and water. In July 2016, a Transportation official told GAO that the department expects to complete the standards for each of the transportation data assets by December 31, 2016.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Transportation should direct the transportation theme point of contact to create and implement a plan to develop and implement transportation theme standards.

    Agency Affected: Department of Transportation

  21. Status: Open

    Comments: In April 2014, Commerce published its Geospatial Strategic Plan, 2014 - 2018. The plan was developed in conjunction with representatives from many Commerce bureaus, including the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Economic Development Administration, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration. The plan includes three strategic goals, each with a number of objectives intended to make geospatial data more widely available; better managed; and more useful to Commerce, its partners, and the public. Annual implementation plans published in 2015 and 2016 contain detailed descriptions of how the objectives will be achieved and performance measures to monitor progress. For example, Commerce reported progress in actions to improve coordination and reduce duplication in geospatial data within Commerce and with other federal departments, and state and international partners. Among other things, these actions include work on the National Coastal Mapping Strategy with other federal departments, the Boundary Quality Assessment and Reconciliation Project with state governments, and the United Nations Global Geospatial Information Management with other nations. In August 2016, Commerce provided evidence showing it has implemented activities for 7 of the plan's 12 objectives. GAO's review of the implementation of Commerce's geospatial strategic plan is ongoing.

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Commerce should direct the designated senior official for geospatial information to prepare, maintain, publish, and implement a strategy for advancing geographic information and related geospatial data activities appropriate to its mission.

    Agency Affected: Department of Commerce

  22. Status: Open

    Comments: OMB has made progress in developing a way to identify and report annually on all geospatial-related investments as GAO recommended in November 2012, but has not completed its efforts. In March 2014, the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) issued its National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Management Plan. The plan was developed in conjunction with OMB officials. One of the objectives of the plan is to develop and apply a standard definition of a geospatial investment in order to facilitate reporting on budgeted geospatial data investments, due to the fact that different definitions are being used by OMB, the FGDC community, and individual agencies. There are two supporting actions for this objective. The first action was completed with the finalization and issuance of the FGDC's "Geospatial Investment Definitions for Tracking and Reporting Geospatial Investment Costs" document in April 2016. The document contains a set of geospatial definitions with specific examples for each. The second action is for the geospatial community to apply the definitions in the annual federal government budget process. According to FGDC officials, they expect this to be challenging for a number of reasons, including the need for agencies to determine how they can align their investment tracking systems to accommodate the new definitions and the extent to which agencies will be able to use a common reporting capability. According to an agency official in August 2016, FGDC is developing an implementation plan to facility this process.

    Recommendation: To improve OMB oversight of geospatial information and assets, and minimize duplication of federal geospatial investments, the Director of OMB should develop a mechanism, or modify existing mechanisms, to identify and report annually on all geospatial related investments, including dollars invested and the nature of the investment.

    Agency Affected: Executive Office of the President: Office of Management and Budget

 

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