Medicaid Program Integrity:
Expanded Federal Role Presents Challenges to and Opportunities for Assisting States
GAO-12-288T, Dec 7, 2011
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), the federal agency that oversees Medicaid, estimated that improper payments in the federal-state Medicaid program were $21.9 billion in fiscal year 2011. The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 established the Medicaid Integrity Program and gave CMS an expanded role in assisting and improving the effectiveness of state activities to ensure proper payments. Making effective use of this expanded role, however, requires that federal resources are targeted appropriately and do not duplicate state activities. GAO was asked to testify on Medicaid program integrity. GAO's statement focuses on how CMS's expanded role in ensuring Medicaid program integrity (1) poses a challenge because of overlapping state and federal activities regarding provider audits and (2) presents opportunities through oversight to enhance state program integrity efforts. To do this work, GAO reviewed CMS reports and documents on Medicaid program integrity as well as its own and others' reports on this topic. In particular, GAO reviewed CMS reports that documented the results of its state oversight and monitoring activities. GAO also interviewed CMS officials in the agency's Medicaid Integrity Group (MIG), which was established to implement the Medicaid Integrity Program. This work was conducted in November and December 2011. GAO discussed the facts in this statement with CMS officials.
The key challenge faced by the Medicaid Integrity Group (MIG) is the need to avoid duplication of federal and state program integrity efforts, particularly in the area of auditing provider claims. In 2011, the MIG reported that it was redesigning its national provider audit program. Previously, its audit contractors were using incomplete claims data to identify overpayments. According to MIG data, overpayments identified by its audit contractors since fiscal year 2009 were not commensurate with its contractors' costs. The MIG's redesign will result in greater coordination with states on a variety of factors, including the data to be used. It remains to be seen, however, whether these changes will result in an increase in identified overpayments. The table below highlights the MIG's core oversight activities, which were implemented from fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The MIG's core oversight activities present an opportunity to enhance state efforts through the provision of technical assistance and the identification of training opportunities. The MIG's assessment of state program integrity efforts during triennial onsite reviews and annual assessments will need to address data inconsistencies identified during these two activities. Improved consistency will help ensure that the MIG is appropriately targeting its resources. The Medicaid Integrity Institute appears to address a state training need and create networking opportunities for program integrity staff.