Motor Carrier Safety:
Commercial Vehicle Registration Program Has Kept Unsafe Carriers from Operating, but Effectiveness Is Difficult to Measure
GAO-09-495: Published: May 12, 2009. Publicly Released: May 12, 2009.
To reduce the number of crashes involving commercial motor carriers, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) within the Department of Transportation orders unsafe carriers out of service. To help keep these carriers off the road, FMCSA's voluntary Performance and Registration Information Systems Management (PRISM) grant program, a small program funded at $5 million per year, helps states establish information systems connections between state vehicle registration and FMCSA's safety databases. These connections provide states with up-to-date information on carriers' safety status when carriers try to register or renew registrations with the state. For states to deny, suspend, or revoke registrations to out-of service carriers, states must pass legislation enabling them to do so. As directed by a congressional committee, GAO examined (1) PRISM's effectiveness and (2) the potential to fully implement the program nationally. GAO reviewed FMCSA data and discussed PRISM with a wide variety of federal, state, industry, and safety stakeholders
Twenty-five states have implemented PRISM to the point where they are able to keep carriers that FMCSA has ordered out of service from obtaining or maintaining vehicle registrations. However, PRISM's safety impact is hard to measure. FMCSA data show that vehicles associated with 972 out-of-service carriers in 2008 had registrations denied, suspended, or revoked--about 15 percent of carriers placed out of service that year. However, this is likely an underestimate because the data can be difficult to track. Officials from the 13 states GAO contacted that are denying, suspending, or revoking vehicle registrations of out-of-service carriers and representatives from safety and industry associations said PRISM is worth the effort, but its impact on safety is hard to measure. An evaluation of the program sponsored by FMCSA in 2007 concluded that PRISM states show some improved safety over time compared with other states, indicating PRISM could have contributed to lower crash rates. However, because all FMCSA programs are aimed at reducing crash rates, isolating PRISM's effect is difficult. Nonetheless, the evaluation recommended that FMCSA adopt program measures to assess PRISM's effectiveness. FMCSA has not adopted all of these measures for various reasons, including a lack of resources. In GAO's view, applying such measures, while ultimately useful, may be premature since PRISM's success is undercut by the 25 states--including states with the greatest numbers of registered commercial motor vehicles--and the District of Columbia that do not yet have the ability to deny, suspend, or revoke vehicle registrations of out-of-service carriers. National implementation may not occur for years if PRISM continues as a voluntary program. FMCSA data show that, on average, it took states about 3 years and 4 months to get to the point where they could deny, suspend, or revoke registrations once they decided to implement PRISM--a process that took as little as 10 months to more than 7 years. Officials in states GAO contacted said that PRISM implementation was facilitated by such things as hiring a contractor to help with the program's technical components, and was hindered by such things as difficulty in passing state legislation needed to implement the program. According to officials in states GAO met with, FMCSA has been helpful in encouraging states to adopt and implement the program, but can do little in other areas, such as when state legislation is needed. Officials in some states and representatives from safety associations told GAO that Congress should require PRISM implementation so that no state becomes a refuge for registering out-of-service carriers. Other officials said that such a requirement is unnecessary, since only three states have not committed to implementing PRISM. While there are benefits to a congressional requirement that could lead to speedier national implementation, there are several significant potential drawbacks to doing so (for example, some states may require substantial money to adapt their information systems to make PRISM work) that lead GAO not to recommend such a requirement.
Recommendation for Executive Action
Comments: On October 7, 2009, FMCSA officials told us that while 23 states are participating, FMCSA cannot evaluate the PRISM program until 75 percent of the 2.1 million commercial vehicle registrations in the contiguous 48 states are having the states check registration status, and subsequently deny, suspend, or revoke the registration of those vehicles that FMCSA has placed out-of-service. Currently, only 40 percent of the commercial vehicle registrations are in this position. As a result, FMCSA is not yet in a position to measure program effectiveness in a meaningful manner. FMCSA, however, has initiated a number of short-term and ongoing output-based performance measures to evaluate the program's effectiveness including: 1) Conducting onsite state PRISM Implementation Reviews each fiscal years. In fiscal year 2010, FMCSA hopes to conduct eight reviews. 2) Tracking the number of out-of-service vehicles each fiscal year in the agency's database and working with states to improve the accuracy of the data. 3) Encouraging states to introduce legislation to grant appropriate state agencies the authority to deny, suspend, and revoke vehicle registrations. FMCSA informed us that they plan to have the 75 percent of the 2.1 million commercial vehicle registrations in the contiguous 48 states are having the states check registration status, and subsequently deny, suspend, or revoke the registration of those vehicles that FMCSA has placed out-of-service by June 15, 2011. Their goal is to meet GAO's recommendation by March 1, 2012. On March 13, 2015, FMCA informed us that FMCA is still reviewing the PRISM Program evaluation is revising its target action date to May 1, 2015 as the agency continues working towards meeting this recommendation.
Recommendation: In order to assess PRISM's effectiveness in keeping unsafe carriers ofroad, the Secretary of Transportation should direct the Administrator of FMCSA to measure PRISM program effectiveness when the number of states that have the ability to deny, suspend, or revoke registrations to out-of-service carriers is sufficient to make such measurements meaningful.
Agency Affected: Department of Transportation