Fraud and Abuse Related to Controlled Substances Identified in Selected States
GAO-09-1004T: Published: Sep 30, 2009. Publicly Released: Sep 30, 2009.
This testimony discusses (1) continuing indications of fraud and abuse related to controlled substances paid for by Medicaid; (2) specific case study examples of fraudulent, improper, or abusive controlled substance activity; and (3) the effectiveness of internal controls that the federal government and selected states have in place to prevent and detect fraud and abuse related to controlled substances. To identify whether there are continuing indications of fraud and abuse related to controlled substances paid for by Medicaid, we obtained and analyzed Medicaid claims paid in fiscal years 2006 and 2007 from five states: California, Illinois, New York, North Carolina, and Texas. To identify indications of fraud and abuse related to controlled substances paid for by Medicaid, we obtained and analyzed Medicaid prescription claims data for these five states from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). To identify other potential fraud and improper payments, we compared the beneficiary and prescriber shown on the Medicaid claims to the Death Master Files (DMF) from the Social Security Administration (SSA) to identify deceased beneficiaries and prescribers. To identify claims that were improperly processed and paid by the Medicaid program because the federal government banned these prescribers and pharmacies from prescribing or dispensing to Medicaid beneficiaries, we compared the Medicaid prescription claims to the exclusion and debarment files from the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (HHS OIG) and the General Services Administration (GSA). To develop specific case study examples in selected states, we identified 25 cases that illustrate the types of fraudulent, improper, or abusive controlled substance activity we found in the Medicaid program. To develop these cases, we interviewed pharmacies, prescribers, law enforcement officials, and beneficiaries, as appropriate, and also obtained and reviewed registration and enforcement action reports from the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and HHS. To identify the effectiveness of internal controls that the federal government and selected states have in place to prevent and detect fraud and abuse related to controlled substances, we interviewed Medicaid officials from the selected state offices and CMS. More details on our scope and methodology can be found in our report that we issued today. We conducted this forensic audit from July 2008 to September 2009, in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We conducted our related investigative work in accordance with standards prescribed by the Council of the Inspectors General on Integrity and Efficiency (CIGIE).
We found 65 medical practitioners and pharmacies in the selected states had been barred or excluded from federal health care programs, including Medicaid, when they wrote or filled Medicaid prescriptions for controlled substances during fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Nevertheless, Medicaid approved the claims at a cost of approximately $2.3 million. The offenses that led to their exclusion from federal health programs included Medicaid fraud and illegal diversion of controlled substances. Our analysis of matching Medicaid claims in the selected states with SSA's DMF found that controlled substance prescription claims to over 1,800 beneficiaries were filled after they died. Even though the selected state programs stated that beneficiaries were promptly removed from Medicaid following their deaths based on either SSA DMF matches or third party information, these same state programs paid over $200,000 for controlled substances during fiscal years 2006 and 2007 for postdeath controlled substance prescription claims. In addition, our analysis also found that Medicaid paid about $500,000 in Medicaid claims based on controlled substance prescriptions "written" by over 1,200 doctors after they died. In addition to performing the aggregate-level analysis discussed above, we also performed in-depth investigations for 25 cases of fraudulent or abusive actions related to the prescribing and dispensing of controlled substances through the Medicaid program in the selected states. We have referred certain cases to DEA and the selected states for further investigation. The selected states did not have a comprehensive fraud prevention framework to prevent fraud and abuse of controlled substances paid for by Medicaid. The establishment of effective fraud prevention controls by the selected states is critical because the very nature of a beneficiary's medical need--to quickly obtain controlled substances to alleviate pain or treat a serious medical condition--makes the Medicaid program vulnerable to those attempting to obtain money or drugs they are not entitled to receive. Fraud prevention is the most efficient and effective means to minimize fraud, waste, and abuse. Thus, controls that prevent fraudulent health care providers and individuals from entering the Medicaid program or submitting claims are the most important element in an effective fraud prevention program. Effective fraud prevention controls require that where appropriate, organizations enter into data-sharing arrangements with organizations to perform validation. System edit checks (i.e., built-in electronic controls) are also crucial in identifying and rejecting fraudulent enrollment applications or claims before payments are disbursed.