Packers and Stockyards Programs:
Continuing Problems with GIPSA Investigations of Competitive Practices
GAO-06-532T: Published: Mar 9, 2006. Publicly Released: Mar 9, 2006.
GAO discussed before Congress the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) management and oversight of the Packers and Stockyards Act. Within USDA, the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) is responsible for administering the Packers and Stockyards Act and investigating concerns about unfair and anticompetitive practices in the $90 billion livestock market. Prior reports issued by the USDA Office of Inspector General (OIG) and our office have identified weaknesses in GIPSA's investigation and enforcement activities, and recommended actions to address them. A more recent OIG report shows that, in several key areas, GIPSA still has not taken sufficient steps to address those recommendations. This testimony focuses on our prior work and discusses (1) factors that have affected GIPSA's ability to investigate concerns about anticompetitive practices, (2) GIPSA's actions to address our recommendations and areas where their efforts have fallen short, and (3) challenges and other issues we believe GIPSA should consider as it moves to further strengthen its capacity to address competitiveness issues.
In summary, in 2000, we identified two critical factors that detracted from GIPSA's ability to investigate anticompetitive practices in livestock markets, and another area where improvement was needed. First, the agency's investigations were planned and conducted primarily by economists without the formal involvement of attorneys from USDA's Office of General Counsel (OGC). As a result, a legal perspective that focused on assessing potential violations was generally absent when investigations were initiated and conducted. Second, GIPSA's investigative practices were designed for traditional trade practices and financial issues the agency had emphasized for years and were not suited for the more complex competition-related concerns it was addressing. Finally, while not a critical concern, we noted that GIPSA had an important role in keeping the industry and the Congress informed about its monitoring of livestock markets and could have done more to identify market operations or activities that appeared to raise concerns under the Packers and Stockyards Act. USDA concurred with our findings and noted specific actions it planned to take in response to our recommendations, including (1) formalizing consultations between GIPSA and OGC on complex investigations, and integrating OGC attorneys into its investigative teams; (2) developing a tiered process whereby routine investigations would be reviewed and approved by headquarters staff, while complex investigations received an additional OGC review; (3) adopting relevant procedures used by DOJ and FTC for planning, developing, implementing, and reviewing investigations; and (4) reporting publicly on changing business practices and activities that raise fairness and competition concerns. Despite these plans, the January 2006 OIG report identified substantial ongoing weaknesses in GIPSA's investigative processes and noted that GIPSA's actions to respond to the prior OIG and GAO reports had fallen short in key areas. In particular, GIPSA had not yet developed a teamwork approach for investigations whereby GIPSA's economists and USDA's OGC attorneys could work together to identify violations of law, nor had it taken sufficient steps to ensure legal specialists within GIPSA were used most effectively. In addition, GIPSA had not followed through in adopting appropriate investigative guidance similar to those of DOJ and FTC to strengthen its ability to investigate anticompetitive and unfair practices. Given GIPSA's lack of progress in addressing prior report findings and recommendations dating back for almost a decade, continued vigilance and monitoring of its key activities and management initiatives by the OIG and other oversight bodies is essential. In its response to the OIG's 2006 report, GIPSA noted that it intends to reassess and develop a defined process for managing investigations, enhancing communication among staff and managers, appropriately dividing responsibility for its varied types of investigations, and developing an internal review function to monitor and report on corrective actions resulting from the OIG and GAO reviews. Consistent with our prior recommendations, GIPSA also plans to define the role of OGC attorneys and GIPSA legal specialists in investigations and to move forward in identifying and adopting certain techniques used by the DOJ and the FTC. As GIPSA moves ahead in reexamining its processes it should consider assigning lead roles to OGC attorneys for certain investigations involving complex anticompetitive practices. Finally, going forward, GIPSA's efforts to periodically inform the industry and the Congress about competitive conditions could be of further usefulness. GIPSA plans to complete a study on livestock and red meat marketing practices later this year. While potentially informative to the industry and policymakers, it could also help GIPSA identify current and emerging areas of vulnerability and better target its oversight resources.