Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder:

DOD Needs to Identify the Factors Its Providers Use to Make Mental Health Evaluation Referrals for Servicemembers

GAO-06-397: Published: May 11, 2006. Publicly Released: May 11, 2006.

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Many servicemembers supporting Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) have engaged in intense and prolonged combat, which research has shown to be strongly associated with the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). GAO, in response to the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005, (1) describes DOD's extended health care benefit and VA's health care services for OEF/OIF veterans; (2) analyzes DOD data to determine the number of OEF/OIF servicemembers who may be at risk for PTSD and the number referred for further mental health evaluations; and (3) examines whether DOD can provide reasonable assurance that OEF/OIF servicemembers who need further mental health evaluations receive referrals.

DOD offers an extended health care benefit to some OEF/OIF veterans for a specified time period, and VA offers health care services that include specialized PTSD services. DOD's benefit provides health care services, including mental health services, to some OEF/OIF veterans for 180 days following discharge or release from active duty. Additionally, some veterans may purchase extended benefits for up to 18 months. VA also offers health care services to OEF/OIF veterans following their discharge or release from active duty. VA offers health benefits for OEF/OIF veterans at no cost for 2 years following discharge or release from active duty. After their 2-year benefit expires, some OEF/OIF veterans may continue to receive care under VA's eligibility rules. Using data provided by DOD, GAO found that 9,145 or 5 percent of the 178,664 OEF/OIF servicemembers in its review may have been at risk for developing PTSD. DOD uses a questionnaire to identify those who may be at risk for developing PTSD after deployment. DOD providers interview servicemembers after they complete the questionnaire. A joint VA/DOD guideline states that servicemembers who respond positively to three or four of the questions may be at risk for PTSD. Further, we reviewed a retrospective study that found that those individuals who provided three or four positive responses to the four PTSD screening questions were highly likely to have been previously given a diagnosis of PTSD prior to the screening. Of the 5 percent who may have been at risk, GAO found that DOD providers referred 22 percent or 2,029 for further mental health evaluations. DOD cannot provide reasonable assurance that OEF/OIF servicemembers who need referrals receive them. According to DOD officials, not all of the servicemembers with three or four positive responses to the PTSD screening questions will need referrals for further mental health evaluations. DOD relies on providers' clinical judgment to decide who needs a referral. GAO found that DOD health care providers varied in the frequency with which they issued referrals to OEF/OIF servicemembers with three or more positive responses; the Army referred 23 percent, the Marines about 15 percent, the Navy 18 percent, and the Air Force about 23 percent. However, DOD did not identify the factors its providers used in determining which OEF/OIF servicemembers needed referrals. Knowing the factors upon which DOD health care providers based their clinical judgments in issuing referrals could help explain variation in the referral rates and allow DOD to provide reasonable assurance that such judgments are being exercised appropriately.

Status Legend:

More Info
  • Review Pending-GAO has not yet assessed implementation status.
  • Open-Actions to satisfy the intent of the recommendation have not been taken or are being planned, or actions that partially satisfy the intent of the recommendation have been taken.
  • Closed-implemented-Actions that satisfy the intent of the recommendation have been taken.
  • Closed-not implemented-While the intent of the recommendation has not been satisfied, time or circumstances have rendered the recommendation invalid.
    • Review Pending
    • Open
    • Closed - implemented
    • Closed - not implemented

    Recommendation for Executive Action

    Recommendation: The Secretary of Defense should direct the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs to identify the factors that DOD health care providers use in issuing referrals for further mental health or combat/operational stress reaction evaluations to explain provider variation in issuing referrals.

    Agency Affected: Department of Defense

    Status: Closed - Not Implemented

    Comments: In the January 2008 "Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of Self-Report Questionnaires Included in Deployment Health,? DOD wrote that it had created an additional form (DD Form 2900) on which providers could record whether they assessed a reported concern to be minor, major, or of no concern. DOD wrote that this form is intended to provide additional data points about the interaction and clinical decision making process that takes place during the PDHRA. DOD has also noted that it collects information on the percentage of service members receiving referrals due to mental health concerns identified through the PDHRA as part of the Force Health Protection Quality Assurance Program. However, these steps do not directly address the recommendation we made to study the factors providers use in making referrals to track or explain provider variation in issuing referrals. DOD has not identified any further actions related to this recommendation.

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