Medicare Hospital and Physician Payments:
Geographic Cost Adjustments Important to Preserve Beneficiary Access to Services
GAO-02-968T, Jul 23, 2002
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This testimony discusses Medicare program payment adjustments to hospitals and physicians that account for geographic differences in costs. Because Medicare's hospital and physician payment systems are based on national rates, these geographic cost adjustments are essential to account for costs beyond providers' control and to ensure that beneficiaries have adequate access to services. If these adjustments are not adequate, this could affect providers' financial stability and their ability or willingness to continue serving Medicare patients. Medicare's payments to hospitals vary with the average wages paid in a hospital's labor market. Yet, some hospitals believe that the labor cost adjustment applied does not reflect the average wage in their labor market area. Medicare's labor cost adjustment does not adequately account for geographic differences in hospital wages in some areas because a single adjustment is applied to all hospitals in an area, even though it may encompass multiple labor markets or different types of communities within which hospitals pay significantly different average wages. Geographic reclassification addresses some inequities in Medicare's labor cost adjustments by allowing some hospitals that pay wages enough above the average in their area to receive higher labor cost adjustments. However, some hospitals can reclassify even though they pay wages that are comparable to the average in their area. To help ensure that beneficiaries in all parts of the country have access to services, Medicare adjusts its physician fee schedule on the basis of indexes designed to reflect cost differences among 92 geographic areas. The adjustment is designed to help ensure that the fees paid appropriately reflect the cost of living and operating a practice in that area.