B-42401, JUNE 14, 1944, 23 COMP. GEN. 955

B-42401: Jun 14, 1944

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VEHICLES - "JEEPS" - STATUS AS PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES OR TRUCKS VEHICLES OFFICIALLY DESCRIBED AS 1/4 TON 4 BY 4 TRUCKS (COMMONLY CALLED "JEEPS") ARE NOT TO BE CONSIDERED AS PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES WITHIN THE PURVIEW OF SECTION 5 OF THE ACT OF JULY 16. NO OBJECTION WILL BE MADE TO PAYMENT FOR SUCH VEHICLES. 1944: I HAVE YOUR LETTER OF MAY 31. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT A CONSIDERABLE NUMBER OF THEM MAY BE DESIRED BY SOME OF THE BUREAUS AND OFFICES OF THE DEPARTMENT FOR USE IN FIGHTING FIRES ON PUBLIC LANDS AND FORESTS. IT IS UNDERSTOOD THAT THE VEHICLE IS BEING USED FOR VARIED PURPOSES. THAT IT WAS DESIGNED AS A TRUCK (WITH TRUCK CHASSIS AND ENGINE) TO CARRY A MACHINE GUN OR OTHER LIGHT ARTILLERY AND OPERATING PERSONNEL.

B-42401, JUNE 14, 1944, 23 COMP. GEN. 955

VEHICLES - "JEEPS" - STATUS AS PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES OR TRUCKS VEHICLES OFFICIALLY DESCRIBED AS 1/4 TON 4 BY 4 TRUCKS (COMMONLY CALLED "JEEPS") ARE NOT TO BE CONSIDERED AS PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES WITHIN THE PURVIEW OF SECTION 5 OF THE ACT OF JULY 16, 1914, PROHIBITING THE PURCHASE OF MOTOR-PROPELLED PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES UNLESS SPECIFICALLY AUTHORIZED BY LAW, OR AS WITHIN THE PURVIEW OF APPROPRIATIONS LIMITING AMOUNTS TO BE EXPENDED FOR PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES, AND, THEREFORE, NO OBJECTION WILL BE MADE TO PAYMENT FOR SUCH VEHICLES--- TO BE OBTAINED FROM THE WAR DEPARTMENT AS SURPLUS--- FROM APPROPRIATIONS AVAILABLE FOR THE PURCHASE OF TRUCKS.

COMPTROLLER GENERAL WARREN TO THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, JUNE 14, 1944:

I HAVE YOUR LETTER OF MAY 31, 1944, AS FOLLOWS:

THIS DEPARTMENT HAS RECENTLY BEEN INFORMED THAT A SUPPLY OF ARMY "JEEPS" BOTH NEW AND USED MAY SOON BECOME SURPLUS TO THE NEEDS OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT AND BECOME AVAILABLE FOR TRANSFER TO OTHER DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT.

UNDER REGULATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF BUDGET AND TRANSFERS CONSUMMATED WOULD INVOLVE PAYMENT FOR THESE JEEPS. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT A CONSIDERABLE NUMBER OF THEM MAY BE DESIRED BY SOME OF THE BUREAUS AND OFFICES OF THE DEPARTMENT FOR USE IN FIGHTING FIRES ON PUBLIC LANDS AND FORESTS, WHERE THEY COULD BE UTILIZED IN HAULING BOTH EQUIPMENT AND PERSONNEL.

BECAUSE OF THEIR STURDINESS, THEIR UNUSUAL POWER, AND THEIR ABILITY TO TRAVEL OVER ROUGH TERRAIN THE JEEP WOULD BE PARTICULARLY DESIRABLE FOR THIS PURPOSE. IT IS UNDERSTOOD THAT THE VEHICLE IS BEING USED FOR VARIED PURPOSES, SUCH AS MOTIVE POWER IN PLOWING ON FARMS, ETC., AND THAT IT WAS DESIGNED AS A TRUCK (WITH TRUCK CHASSIS AND ENGINE) TO CARRY A MACHINE GUN OR OTHER LIGHT ARTILLERY AND OPERATING PERSONNEL.

YOUR DECISION IS REQUESTED ON THE QUESTION WHETHER JEEPS ARE PASSENGER- CARRYING CARS, THE PURCHASE OF WHICH WOULD FALL WITHIN RESTRICTIONS ON THE AMOUNTS OF MONEY WHICH MAY BE EXPENDED BY THE DEPARTMENT AND ITS BUREAUS AND OFFICES FOR PASSENGER-CARRYING CARS, OR WHETHER THEY MAY BE CLASSIFIED AS TRUCKS.

WAR DEPARTMENT CIRCULAR NO. 3, DATED JANUARY 1, 1943, PROVIDES UNDER SECTION 2 THEREOF, AS FOLLOWS:

II. OFFICIAL NOMENCLATURE FOR MATERIEL.--- 1. USE IN OFFICIAL OR TECHNICAL CORRESPONDENCE OF NICKNAMES IN LIEU OF OFFICIAL NAMES FOR MATERIEL HAS OFTEN CAUSED UNNECESSARY DELAY AND CONFUSION. THIS IS PARTICULARLY TRUE OF VEHICLES, ESPECIALLY THOSE NICKNAMED "JEEP" OR "JEEP.' "JEEP" IS LOOSELY USED TO DESIGNATE BOTH THE 1/4 TON 4 BY 4 TRUCK AND THE 3/4 TON 4 BY 4 TRUCK, AND SOMETIMES OTHER VEHICLES ALSO. AS A RESULT, REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION ON CERTAIN VEHICLES IDENTIFIED ONLY AS "JEEPS" MAY BE INCORRECTLY FILLED BECAUSE "JEEP" MAY MEAN ONE THING TO THE MAN IN THE FIELD AND QUITE ANOTHER TO THE AGENCY FILLING THE REQUEST. THE DANGER OF THIS IS EVIDENT. AT BEST, CARELESS USE OF THIS WORD CAN LEAD (AND IN SOME INSTANCES HAS LED) TO DELAY AND, IN THE END, TO FILLING THE REQUEST FOR ALL VEHICLES THAT MIGHT BE DESIGNATED BY THE WORD "JEEP.' THE WASTE OF TIME AND MONEY ENTAILED IS OBVIOUS.

2. THEREFORE THE FULL OFFICIAL NAMES FOR ALL ITEMS OF MATERIEL,INCLUDING MODEL NUMBERS WHERE NECESSARY, WILL BE USED EXCLUSIVELY IN ALL TECHNICAL AND OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENCE. NICKNAMES WILL NOT BE USED IN SUCH CORRESPONDENCE.

IN VIEW OF THE ABOVE CIRCULAR, IT CANNOT BE STATED WHETHER A VEHICLE DESIGNATED AS A "JEEP," WITHOUT ANYTHING MORE, IS A TRUCK OR A PASSENGER- CARRYING VEHICLE. HOWEVER, IT APPEARS THAT THAT TERM IS MOST COMMONLY APPLIED TO THE VEHICLE OFFICIALLY DESIGNATED AS 1/4 TON 4 BY 4 TRUCK. DECISION OF APRIL 20, 1943, B-30391, IT WAS STATE PERTINENT PART, AS FOLLOWS:

THE LETTER OF MAY 6, 1942 (FROM CHIEF OF TRANSPORTATION, WAR DEPARTMENT) REFERRED TO IN THE ABOVE QUOTATION STATES IN PERTINENT PART THAT---

"* * * THESE SO-CALLED "JEEPS" ARE MADE AND CONSTRUCTED FOR THE ARMY UNDER A CERTAIN FEDERAL SPECIFICATION FOR TRUCKS, MOTOR, GASOLINE ( FOUR WHEELS--- FOUR WHEEL DRIVE). THE TRUCKS DESCRIBED IN THIS SPECIFICATION ARE INTENDED FOR USE AS TACTICAL TRUCKS BY THE UNITED STATES ARMY. THEY ARE REQUIRED TO TRANSPORT THE RATED PAY-LOAD, WHICH CONSISTS OF MILITARY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT, OVER ALL TYPES OF ROADS, TRAILS, OPEN AND ROLLING CROSS COUNTRY, UNDER ALL CONDITIONS OF WEATHER AND TERRAIN, WHILE AT TIMES TOWING A TRAILED LOAD, SUCH AS A 37 MM. ANTI-TANK GUN, AND ALL UNITS AND ASSEMBLIES IN THE TRUCK MUST BE SUITABLE FOR SUCH USE. THESE VEHICLES ( JEEPS) ARE PART OF A GROUP OF TACTICAL TRUCKS DESIGNED AND PROCURED ESPECIALLY FOR MILITARY SERVICE AND INCLUDE SUCH TRUCK FEATURES AS DRIVE, BOTH FRONT AND REAR AXLES, STANDARD WIRING AND LIGHTING, FUEL AND RADIATOR TANK FILLER, INSTRUMENT BOARD CONTROLS, AS WELL AS MILITARY TRUCK FEATURES SUCH AS TOWING HOOKS ON FRONT, PINTLE ON REAR, AND BRACKETS FOR MOUNTING SHOVEL AND AXE ON SIDE OF THE BODY.

IN THE INSTANT CASE IT WOULD SEEM TO BE ESTABLISHED THAT THE 1/4 TON 4 BY 4 TRUCK IS ESSENTIALLY A FREIGHT VEHICLE AND THE FACT THERE MAY BE AN AUXILIARY SEAT IN THE CARGO BODY DOES NOT APPEAR TO MAKE A DISTINCTION WITH TRANSPORTATION SIGNIFICANCE SO AS TO JUSTIFY CLASSIFYING THE SUBJECT TRUCKS AS PASSENGER VEHICLES. IN OTHER WORDS, THE APPLICATION OF THE RATING FOR PASSENGER VEHICLES ON THE SUBJECT SHIPMENT WOULD SEEM TO REST UPON NOTHING MORE THAN THE POSSIBLE CONVENIENT USE OF THE VEHICLES TO TRANSPORT PERSONNEL. IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT COMMERCIAL TRUCK ARE FREQUENTLY USED FOR THE SAME PURPOSE AND APPARENTLY WITHOUT EFFECT UPON THEIR TRANSPORTATION STATUS AS FREIGHT VEHICLES.

ASSUMING THAT YOUR SUBMISSION HAS REFERENCE TO THE VEHICLES OFFICIALLY DESCRIBED AS 1/4 TON 4 BY 4 TRUCKS SUCH VEHICLES WILL NOT BE CONSIDERED BY THIS OFFICE AS PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES WITHIN THE PURVIEW OF SECTION 5 OF THE ACT OF JULY 16, 1914, 38 STAT. 508--- PROHIBITING THE USE OF ANY APPROPRIATION FOR THE PURCHASE OF MOTOR PROPELLED PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES FOR ANY BRANCH OF THE GOVERNMENT UNLESS SUCH USE IS SPECIFICALLY AUTHORIZED BY LAW--- OR WITHIN THE PURVIEW OF APPROPRIATIONS LIMITING THE AMOUNTS WHICH MAY BE EXPENDED FOR PASSENGER-CARRYING VEHICLES. HENCE, PAYMENT FOR SUCH VEHICLES FROM APPROPRIATIONS AVAILABLE FOR THE PURCHASE OF TRUCKS WILL NOT BE OBJECTED TO BY THIS OFFICE IF OTHERWISE PROPER. COMP. GEN. 320.