Budget Issues:

Current Status and Recent Trends of State Biennial and Annual Budgeting

AFMD-87-53FS: Published: Jul 15, 1987. Publicly Released: Jul 15, 1987.

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Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO surveyed state governments to assess biennial and annual budgeting trends, practices, and experiences.

GAO found that: (1) 31 states are on annual budget cycles, while 19 are on biennial cycles; (2) 7 of the states on biennial cycles cannot have annual cycles because their legislatures meet biennially; (3) 24 of the states using annual budgeting have, at some point, used biennial budgeting; (4) in the last 20 years, 12 states have changed to annual budgeting, while only 3 have changed to biennial budgeting; (5) 10 of the states with biennial budgeting allow their governors to make unilateral spending adjustments, while 4 states allow their governors to make unilateral limited revenue adjustments; (6) states using biennial budgeting reported that off-year budget adjustments consumed less time than regular budgeting; and (7) the most commonly cited results of annual budget cycles included improved revenue and spending forecasts and an increase in time spent on budget activities.

Oct 12, 2017

Sep 20, 2017

May 3, 2017

Jan 18, 2017

Jan 17, 2017

Jan 12, 2017

Dec 20, 2016

Dec 8, 2016

  • budget icon, source: GAO

    State and Local Governments' Fiscal Outlook:

    2016 Update
    GAO-17-213SP: Published: Dec 8, 2016. Publicly Released: Dec 8, 2016.

Dec 1, 2016

Nov 17, 2016

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