A-39328, NOVEMBER 12, 1931, 11 COMP. GEN. 177

A-39328: Nov 12, 1931

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CLASSIFICATION OF CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES - FIELD SERVICE - QUARTERMASTER CORPS OF THE ARMY THE SALARY GRADES OR RANGES OF CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES IN THE FIELD UNDER THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS OF THE ARMY ARE REQUIRED TO BE FIXED BY THE WAR DEPARTMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION AS EXTENDED TO THE FIELD SERVICE BY THE MANDATORY PROVISIONS OF SECTION 2 OF THE BROOKHART SALARY ACT OF JULY 3. THE SALARY RATE OF EACH EMPLOYEE MAY BE FIXED AT NO LESS THAN THE MINIMUM RATE OF THE FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE IN WHICH THE POSITION IS PROPERLY PLACED OR ALLOCATED BY THE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE. THERE IS NO AUTHORITY IN THE GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE IN THE SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS TO DETERMINE THE SALARY RATE PROPERLY PAYABLE TO EMPLOYEES COVERING PAST PERIODS OTHER THAN ON THE BASIS OF ADMINISTRATIVE LETTERS OF APPOINTMENT OR PROMOTION SPECIFICALLY FIXING THE SALARY RATE WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION.

A-39328, NOVEMBER 12, 1931, 11 COMP. GEN. 177

CLASSIFICATION OF CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES - FIELD SERVICE - QUARTERMASTER CORPS OF THE ARMY THE SALARY GRADES OR RANGES OF CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES IN THE FIELD UNDER THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS OF THE ARMY ARE REQUIRED TO BE FIXED BY THE WAR DEPARTMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION AS EXTENDED TO THE FIELD SERVICE BY THE MANDATORY PROVISIONS OF SECTION 2 OF THE BROOKHART SALARY ACT OF JULY 3, 1930, 46 STAT. 1005, AND THE SALARY RATE OF EACH EMPLOYEE MAY BE FIXED AT NO LESS THAN THE MINIMUM RATE OF THE FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE IN WHICH THE POSITION IS PROPERLY PLACED OR ALLOCATED BY THE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE. WHERE AN ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE HAS FAILED TO PLACE OR ALLOCATE A FIELD POSITION IN A GRADE OR SALARY RANGE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION AS REQUIRED BY LAW, THERE IS NO AUTHORITY IN THE GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE IN THE SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS TO DETERMINE THE SALARY RATE PROPERLY PAYABLE TO EMPLOYEES COVERING PAST PERIODS OTHER THAN ON THE BASIS OF ADMINISTRATIVE LETTERS OF APPOINTMENT OR PROMOTION SPECIFICALLY FIXING THE SALARY RATE WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION.

COMPTROLLER GENERAL MCCARL TO THE SECRETARY OF WAR, NOVEMBER 12, 1931:

THERE HAVE BEEN FILED IN THIS OFFICE CLAIMS OF ALICE E. WAIDMAN, ELIZABETH L. HARRISON, CHARLES G. NOBLES, AND ROBERT L. SCHAPER FOR ADJUSTMENTS IN SALARY UNDER THE TERMS OF THE WELCH AND BROOKHART SALARY ACTS FOR SERVICES RENDERED AS CIVIL EMPLOYEES IN THE FIELD SERVICE UNDER THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS OF THE ARMY.

ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTS AND ACCOMPANYING PAPERS DISCLOSE THE FOLLOWING FACTS AS TO THE MPLOYEES:

ALICE E. WAIDMAN WAS APPOINTED EFFECTIVE AUGUST 2, 1929, TO A POSITION DESIGNATED IN THE LETTER OF APPOINTMENT AS "CLERK" IN THE OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER, FORT CLARK, TEX., WITH A SALARY RATE SPECIFICALLY FIXED IN THE LETTER OF APPOINTMENT AT $1,200 PER ANNUM WITHOUT ANY ADMINISTRATIVE PLACEMENT OR ALLOCATION IN A FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE. ON OCTOBER 15, 1930, SHE WAS TRANSFERRED TO THE OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER, FITZSIMONS GENERAL HOSPITAL, DENVER, COLO., AT THE SAME SALARY RATE, AND, EFFECTIVE JANUARY 23, 1931, WAS PROMOTED TO $1,260 PER ANNUM, AT WHICH RATE SHE IS NOW EMPLOYED. HER CLAIM IS FOR THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RATES OF $1,200 AND $1,260 PER ANNUM, THE MINIMUM SALARY RATE OF FIELD GRADES DESIGNATED IN CIRCULAR D DATED JUNE 19, 1928, AS NO. 5, CORRESPONDING TO GRADE C.A.F. 1 AS PRESCRIBED BY THE CLASSIFICATION ACT, FOR PERIOD FROM AUGUST 2, 1929, TO JANUARY 22, 1931.

ELIZABETH L. HARRISON WAS APPOINTED, EFFECTIVE NOVEMBER 17, 1930, TO THE POSITION DESIGNATED IN THE LETTER OF APPOINTMENT AS "CLERK (TYPIST)" IN THE OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER, FORT CLARK, EX., WITH A SALARY RATE SPECIFICALLY FIXED IN THE LETTER OF APPOINTMENT AT $1,200 PER ANNUM, WITHOUT ANY ADMINISTRATIVE PLACEMENT OR ALLOCATION IN A FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE. SHE RESIGNED MAY 17, 1931, AND HER CLAIM IS FOR THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RATES OF $1,200 AND $1,260 PER ANNUM FROM NOVEMBER 17, 1930, TO FEBRUARY 28, 1931.

CHARLES G. NOBLES WAS UNDER THE ENGINEER CORPS OF THE ARMY ON JUNE 30, 1928, RECEIVING $1,380 PER ANNUM AND HIS SALARY RATE WAS ADJUSTED TO $1,500 PER ANNUM UNDER THE TERMS OF THE WELCH ACT. HE WAS REMOVED FROM THE SERVICE BECAUSE OF REDUCTION IN FORCE APRIL 30, 1930, AND APPOINTED OR REINSTATED EFFECTIVE DECEMBER 16, 1930, TO THE POSITION DESIGNATED IN LETTER OF APPOINTMENT AS ,CLERK" IN THE OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER, FORT CLARK, TEX., WITH A SALARY RATE SPECIFICALLY FIXED IN THE LETTER OF APPOINTMENT OF $1,200 PER ANNUM, WITHOUT ANY ADMINISTRATIVE PLACEMENT OR ALLOCATION IN A FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE. HE IS STILL IN THE SERVICE AND HIS CLAIM IS FOR THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RATES OF $1,200 AND $1,260 PER ANNUM FOR PERIOD FROM DECEMBER 16, 1930, TO FEBRUARY 28, 1931, BUT THERE IS INVOLVED, ALSO, HIS RIGHT TO THE INCREASED RATE FOR PERIODS THEREAFTER.

ROBERT L. SCHAPER WAS APPOINTED, EFFECTIVE FEBRUARY 2, 1931, TO A POSITION DESIGNATED IN LETTER OF APPOINTMENT AS "CLERK (TYPIST)" IN THE OFFICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER, FORT CLARK, TEX., WITH A SALARY RATE SPECIFICALLY FIXED IN THE LETTER OF APPOINTMENT AT $1,200 PER ANNUM WITHOUT ANY ADMINISTRATIVE PLACEMENT OR ALLOCATION IN A FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE. HE IS STILL IN THE SERVICE AND HIS CLAIM IS FOR THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN $1,200 AND $1,260 PER ANNUM FOR PERIOD FROM FEBRUARY 2, 1931, TO FEBRUARY 28, 1931, BUT THERE IS INVOLVED, ALSO, HIS RIGHT TO THE INCREASED SALARY RATE FOR PERIODS THEREAFTER.

THE DUTIES OF ALL FOUR EMPLOYEES HAVE BEEN ADMINISTRATIVELY COMPARED IN THE REPORTS TO THE DUTIES REQUIRED OF DEPARTMENTAL EMPLOYEES WHOSE POSITIONS ARE ALLOCATED IN GRADE C.A.F.-1 AS PRESCRIBED BY THE CLASSIFICATION ACT FOR POSITIONS IN THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE, WITH SALARY RANGE FROM $1,260 TO $1,620 PER ANNUM. ALL FOUR CLAIMS HAVE BEEN ADMINISTRATIVELY DISAPPROVED PURSUANT TO THE FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT, DATED MARCH 10, 1931, AND APPROVED "BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR" MARCH 19, 1931, MADE IN CONNECTION WITH THE CLAIM OF ALICE E. WAIDMAN, TO WHICH REFERENCE IS MADE IN THE REPORTS IN CONNECTION WITH THE OTHER THREE CLAIMS:

1. THE FIELD SERVICE HAVING NEVER BEEN CLASSIFIED IN THE SENSE THAT THE DEPARTMENTAL IS, IT IS THE OPINION OF THIS OFFICE THAT IT IS NOT MANDATORY THAT APPOINTMENTS BE MADE AT THE ENTRANCE RATE OF SALARY RANGES WHICH CORRESPOND TO THE RANGES FOR THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE.

2. THE WELCH ACT AUTHORIZED THE HEADS OF THE SEVERAL EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS AND INDEPENDENT ESTABLISHMENTS TO ADJUST THE COMPENSATION OF CERTAIN CIVILIAN POSITIONS IN THE FIELD SERVICE TO CORRESPOND, SO FAR AS MAY BE PRACTICABLE, TO THE RATES ESTABLISHED BY THAT ACT FOR THE POSITIONS IN THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE. ADJUSTMENTS, THEREFORE, FOR FIELD SERVICE PERSONNEL WERE NOT MANDATORY.

3. IT WAS NOT, AND IS NOT NOW, PRACTICABLE TO AUTHORIZE THE SAME SALARY GRADES OR RANGES FOR ALL FIELD-SERVICE PERSONNEL THROUGHOUT THE FIELD SERVICE TO CORRESPOND WITH THE DEPARTMENTAL RATES IN WASHINGTON, BECAUSE THE LOCAL PREVAILING RATES OF PAY MUST BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION. IT IS NOT PRACTICABLE OR DESIRABLE, IN THE OPINION OF THIS OFFICE, TO APPOINT CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES IN THE GOVERNMENT SERVICE AT FAR HIGHER RATES OF PAY THAN ARE PAID LOCALLY BY OUTSIDE CONCERNS FOR SIMILAR WORK. FURTHERMORE, FUNDS ARE NOT AVAILABLE TO BRING ALL FIELD-SERVICE EMPLOYEES OF THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS UP TO THE ENTRANCE RATES OF THE RANGES WHICH CORRESPOND TO DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE.

4. THIS OFFICE HAS CONSIDERED THAT THE LAW IS COMPLIED WITH WHEN FIELD SERVICE EMPLOYEES ARE HIRED AT A SALARY RATE AUTHORIZED BY THE WELCH ACT, REGARDLESS OF THE RANGE IN WHICH IT MAY FALL; $1200 IS THE ENTRANCE RATE OF A RANGE, ALTHOUGH IT IS NOT THE ENTRANCE RATE OF THE RANGE APPLICABLE TO CLERICAL EMPLOYEES IN THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE. THE OPINION OF THIS OFFICE IS THAT THE ATTACHED CLAIM SHOULD BE DISALLOWED.

THIS STATEMENT SHOWS A MISCONCEPTION OF THE PURPOSE AND INTENT OF THE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 3 OF THE WELCH ACT OF MAY 28, 1928, 45 STAT. 785, AND SECTION 2 OF THE BROOKHART SALARY ACT OF JULY 3, 1930, 46 STAT. 1005, THE LATTER OF WHICH IS, IN PART, AS FOLLOWS:

SEC. 2. THE HEADS OF THE SEVERAL EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENTS AND INDEPENDENT ESTABLISHMENTS ARE AUTHORIZED AND DIRECTED TO ADJUST THE COMPENSATION OF CERTAIN CIVILIAN POSITIONS IN THE FIELD SERVICES, THE COMPENSATION OF WHICH WAS ADJUSTED BY THE ACT OF DECEMBER 6, 1924 (43 STAT. 604), TO CORRESPOND, SO FAR AS MAY BE PRACTICABLE, TO THE RATES ESTABLISHED BY THE ACT OF MAY 28, 1928 (U.S.C., SUPP. 3, TITLE 5, SEC. 673), AND BY THIS ACT FOR POSITIONS IN THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICES IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA: *

IN DECISION OF NOVEMBER 13, 1930, 10 COMP. GEN. 216, 218, IT WAS STATED AS FOLLOWS:

SEE, ALSO, DECISION OF DECEMBER 2, 1929, 9 COMP. GEN. 229, 231, CONSTRUING SECTION 3 OF THE WELCH ACT, WHEREIN IT WAS STATED AS FOLLOWS:

"* * * BY SAID ACT ALL POSITIONS ARE REQUIRED TO BE PLACED OR ALLOCATED BY THE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE IN CERTAIN GRADES WITH A DEFINITE RANGE OF SALARY RATES CORRESPONDING WITH THE GRADE AND SALARY RANGE FIXED BY THE CLASSIFICATION ACT AS AMENDED FOR THE SAME OR SIMILAR POSITIONS IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, AS NEAR AS MAY BE PRACTICABLE. IF THERE ARE NO POSITIONS IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CORRESPONDINGIDENTICALLY WITH CERTAIN POSITIONS IN THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE, THE POSITION MUST NEVERTHELESS BE PLACED OR ALLOCATED IN A DEFINITE GRADE AND THE SALARY RATES FIXED FOR THE POSITIONS MUST BE AT ONE OF THE SALARY RATES PRESCRIBED IN THE RANGE FOR THE GRADE. INCREASES OR DECREASES IN COMPENSATION MAY BE ONLY AT A SALARY RATE PRESCRIBED FOR THE SAME GRADE, UNLESS FOR GOOD CAUSE SHOWN THE POSITION IS REPLACED OR REALLOCATED BY THE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE IN ANOTHER GRADE. * * *"

SEE, ALSO, 4 COMP. GEN. 1077; 5 ID. 235. THE PRINCIPLES FOR APPLYING SECTION 3 OF THE WELCH ACT AND SECTION 2 OF THE BROOKHART SALARY ACT, WITH THE EXCEPTION THAT THE RATES HAVE BEEN CHANGED AND THE REQUIREMENTS ARE MANDATORY, ARE THE SAME AS STATED IN THE PRIOR DECISIONS UNDER THE EARLIER LAWS.

SEE, ALSO, 10 COMP. GEN. 349, AND DECISIONS THEREIN CITED. IN DECISION OF DECEMBER 11, 1929, 9 COMP. GEN. 265, 266, CONSIDERING THE STATUS OF A FIELD EMPLOYEE OF THE ENGINEER DEPARTMENT AT LARGE UNDER THE TERMS OF THE WELCH AND BROOKHART SALARY ACTS, YOU WERE ADVISED, IN PART, AS FOLLOWS:

A FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE CORRESPONDING TO A GRADE OR SALARY RANGE PRESCRIBED BY THE CLASSIFICATION ACT, AS AMENDED, ESTABLISHED UNDER THE RULES AND REGULATIONS OF AN ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE, AND THE PLACEMENT OR ALLOCATION OF A POSITION THEREIN BY ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION, IS AS CONTROLLING OF THE SALARY RATE OF AN EMPLOYEE AS THE ALLOCATION OF THE POSITION, UPON THE FINAL APPROVAL OF THE PERSONNEL CLASSIFICATION BOARD, IN A CERTAIN GRADE UNDER THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE. A SALARY RATE, AT LEAST THE MINIMUM IN THE RANGE PRESCRIBED FOR THE PARTICULAR GRADE IN WHICH A POSITION HAS BEEN PLACED OR ALLOCATED, MUST BE PAID.

THEREFORE, IF THE FACTS ARE AS STATED THIS EMPLOYEE SHOULD HAVE BEEN PAID INITIALLY FROM JULY 2, 1928, AT THE RATE OF $1,260 PER ANNUM. IF THE EMPLOYEE IS NOW RECEIVING LESS THAN $1,260 PER ANNUM, HIS SALARY SHOULD BE INCREASED TO THAT RATE. FOR PAST PERIODS, PAYMENT SHOULD NOT BE MADE BY A DISBURSING OFFICER, BUT THE EMPLOYEE MAY BE ADVISED OF HIS RIGHT TO FILE IN THIS OFFICE, OVER HIS SIGNATURE, A CLAIM FOR THE AMOUNT INVOLVED, SUPPORTED BY AN ADMINISTRATIVE RECOMMENDATION AND A REPORT OF ALL THE FACTS IN THE CASE, INCLUDING A CERTIFIED COPY OF THE APPOINTMENT EFFECTIVE JULY 2, 1928, OF THE EMPLOYEE TO A POSITION IN FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE NO. 5.

AS THE SALARY RATES OF FIELD EMPLOYEES UNDER THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS OF THE ARMY WERE AUTHORIZED TO BE, AND WERE, ADJUSTED UNDER THE TERMS OF THE ACT OF DECEMBER 6, 1924, 43 STAT. 704, 711, AND THERE IS NO STATUTE WHICH EXCEPTS CIVIL EMPLOYEES IN THE FIELD SERVICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS OF THE ARMY FROM THE PROVISIONS OF THE BROOKHART SALARY ACT, NOR AUTHORIZES THE WAR DEPARTMENT, SINCE JULY 3, 1930, EFFECTIVE DATE OF THE BROOKHART SALARY ACT, TO FIX SALARY RATES FOR SUCH FIELD EMPLOYEES SOLELY BY COMPARISON WITH COMMERCIAL RATES IN THE PARTICULAR LOCALITY WHERE THE DUTIES ARE REQUIRED TO BE PERFORMED, THE SALARIES OF THESE EMPLOYEES SHOULD HAVE BEEN ADJUSTED AS REQUIRED UNDER THE BROOKHART SALARY ACT. THE PHRASE "SO FAR AS MAY BE PRACTICABLE" APPEARING IN THOSE SECTIONS OF THE WELCH AND BROOKHART SALARY ACTS APPLICABLE TO THE FIELD SERVICE, TO WHICH REFERENCE IS MADE IN THE ABOVE QUOTED ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT, HAS BEEN PROPERLY CONSTRUED AS VESTING IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE A DISCRETION ONLY AS TO THE PARTICULAR GRADE OR SALARY RANGE, AS PRESCRIBED BY THE CLASSIFICATION ACT, IN WHICH THE FIELD POSITIONS SHOULD BE ADMINISTRATIVELY PLACED OR ALLOCATED BASED ON THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE POSITIONS AS COMPARED WITH THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SAME OR SIMILAR POSITIONS IN THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE, AND NOT AS VESTING IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE THE AUTHORITY TO FIX SALARY RATES OF CIVIL EMPLOYEES IN THE FIELD SERVICE WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PROVISIONS AND SALARY RANGES OF THE CLASSIFICATION ACT.

REFERRING TO THE LAST PARAGRAPH OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE STATEMENT ABOVE QUOTED, THE LAW IS NOT COMPLIED WITH SIMPLY BY HIRING A FIELD EMPLOYEE AT A SALARY RATE AUTHORIZED BY THE WELCH AND BROOKHART SALARY ACTS REGARDLESS OF THE GRADE OR SALARY RANGE IN WHICH THE POSITION MAY FALL. IT IS TRUE THAT $1,200 PER ANNUM IS THE MINIMUM SALARY RATE OF GRADE 3 OF THE CUSTODIAL SERVICE WITH RANGE FROM $1,200 TO $1,500 PER ANNUM, BUT SUCH MINIMUM SALARY RATE PROPERLY MAY BE FIXED ONLY FOR POSITIONS THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF WHICH ARE COMPARABLE TO THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF DEPARTMENTAL POSITIONS PROPERLY ALLOCATED IN CU-3, AND MAY NOT BE PAID TO CLERKS AND TYPISTS, THE POSITIONS HELD BY THE FOUR EMPLOYEES IN QUESTION.

THEREFORE, IN SO FAR AS SUCH ACTION HAS NOT HERETOFORE BEEN TAKEN, THE WAR DEPARTMENT SHOULD PROCEED PROPERLY TO ADJUST THE SALARY RATES OF ALL CIVIL EMPLOYEES IN THE FIELD SERVICE OF THE QUARTERMASTER CORPS OF THE ARMY PURSUANT TO SECTION 2 OF THE BROOKHART SALARY ACT, THE TERMS OF WHICH ARE MANDATORY, AND TO FIX THE SALARY RATE OF EACH EMPLOYEE AT NOT LESS THAN THE MINIMUM OF THE GRADE OR SALARY RANGE IN WHICH THE POSITION IS PROPERLY PLACED OR ALLOCATED.

IN VIEW OF THE FACTS OF RECORD SHOWING THAT EACH OF THE FOUR EMPLOYEES WHOSE CLAIMS HAVE BEEN FILED IN THIS OFFICE WAS APPOINTED AT A SALARY RATE SPECIFICALLY FIXED AT $1,200 PER ANNUM WITHOUT REGARD TO THE GRADES OR SALARY RANGES PRESCRIBED BY THE CLASSIFICATION ACT, AND THAT THE POSITIONS OF THE EMPLOYEES HAVE NEVER BEEN PROPERLY PLACED OR ALLOCATED IN A FIELD GRADE OR SALARY RANGE UNDER THE TERMS OF THE CLASSIFICATION ACT, EVEN THOUGH THE ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE HAS REPORTED THAT THE DUTIES ARE COMPARABLE TO THOSE REQUIRED OF GRADE C.A.F.-1 OF EMPLOYEES IN THE DEPARTMENTAL SERVICE, THERE IS NO AUTHORITY IN THIS OFFICE IN THE SETTLEMENT OF THE CLAIMS TO DETERMINE THE SALARY RATE PROPERLY PAYABLE TO THE EMPLOYEES OTHER THAN ON THE BASIS OF THE ONLY ADMINISTRATIVE ACTION TAKEN AS SHOWN BY THE LETTERS OF APPOINTMENT WHEREIN THE RATES WERE SPECIFICALLY FIXED AT $1,200 PER ANNUM. ACCORDINGLY, ALL FOUR CLAIMS ARE DISALLOWED AND THE CLAIMANTS HAVE BEEN ADVISED ACCORDINGLY.