Best Practices and Leading Practices in Acquisition Management
With hundreds of billions of tax dollars spent each year on goods and services, it is essential that federal acquisition be managed in an efficient and effective manner. Our work has shown that four interrelated elements promote an efficient and accountable acquisition environment and process: 1) Organizational Alignment and Leadership, 2) Policies and Processes, 3) Human Capital's Acquisition Workforce and 4) Knowledge and Information Management.
Organizational Alignment and Leadership
Acquisition activities can be facilitated by ensuring the procurement function is appropriately placed within the agency and by clearly defining the roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders. Officials are able to make strategic decisions to achieve desired acquisition outcomes when they have the committed support of senior leadership.
- Establish and fill the position of chief acquisition officer, designating the officer with primary responsibility for managing the agency's acquisitions.
- Define roles and responsibilities for all participants in the acquisition process.
- Establish and communicate to all levels of the agency a strategic vision for the acquisition function, including goals and metrics related to acquisition efficiency, effectiveness, and achieving mission results.
- Evaluate and adjust the current structure of the acquisition function to assure changes in mission, budget, workforce, and technology are incorporated.
Policies and Processes
Clear, transparent, and consistent policies and processes are needed to implement strategic decisions through acquisitions. Such policies and processes govern the planning, award, administration, and oversight of acquisition efforts.
- Establish cross-functional teams in which key stakeholders coordinate and execute the acquisition tasks.
- Identify metrics, assess performance, and provide feedback on performance to agency suppliers.
- Establish mechanisms that promote the participation of small business suppliers.
- Strategically assess agency needs and how acquisition can meet those needs, including:
- identify and analyze agency-wide acquisitions planned in the next 12-24 months.
- ensuring needs in the agency budget request submission are consistent with planned acquisition strategies.
- Implement continuous improvement mechanisms, including revisions to acquisition-related policies and processes when appropriate, to incorporate staff and affected parties' needs and concerns.
Human Capital's Acquisition Workforce
To successfully acquire goods and services and execute and monitor contracts, agencies need to value and invest in the acquisition workforce. Agencies must think strategically about recruiting, developing, and retaining talent, and creating a results-oriented culture within the acquisition workforce.
- Include acquisition officials in the agency's human capital strategic planning process.
- Identify acquisition needs in the human capital plan, including strategies for recruiting, retaining, and developing acquisition staff.
- Conduct an acquisition workforce assessment to ensure employees have clearly defined roles and responsibilities, performance measures, and the appropriate workload, skills and training to perform their jobs effectively.
- Establish performance expectations and metrics for acquisition officials and managers at all levels.
Knowledge and Information Management
Effective knowledge and information management provides credible, reliable, and timely data to make strategic acquisition decisions in support of organizational missions.
Key practices are:
- Identify and maintain an inventory of key agency suppliers.
- Collect and maintain data on major categories of spending to inform agency decision-making.
- Use knowledge on spending patterns to leverage agency-wise acquisitions to obtain favorable pricing and other concessions from key suppliers.
- Conduct and maintain an inventory identifying activities performed by government personnel as commercial or inherently governmental, and provide justification of inherently governmental functions.
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GAO-12-400SP: Published: Mar 29, 2012. Publicly Released: Mar 29, 2012.
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GAO-12-207SP: Published: Mar 1, 2012. Publicly Released: Mar 1, 2012.
GAO assessed 21 NASA projects with a combined life-cycle cost that exceeds $43 billion. Of those 21 projects, 6 were in an early phase of development called formulation, and 15 had entered the implementation phase where cost and schedule baselines were established. Five of the 15 projects in implementation successfully launched in 2011, and two of them met their cost and schedule baselines. NASA...
GAO-05-218G: Published: Sep 1, 2005. Publicly Released: Sep 1, 2005.
Federal agencies are relying increasingly on contractors to perform their missions. With hundreds of billions of tax dollars spent each year on goods and services, it is essential that federal acquisition be handled in an efficient, effective, and accountable manner. The Government Accountability Office (GAO), however--as well as other accountability organizations, inspectors general, and the agen...
GAO-17-647: Published: Sep 6, 2017. Publicly Released: Sep 6, 2017.
The Navy is planning to begin its MQ-25 program, which is a drone with two key requirements: it should be able to operate from an aircraft carrier, and refuel other aircraft while in flight. We found that the Navy's planned approach to acquire the MQ-25 generally looks sound. With the program still quite early in its life cycle, program success will largely depend on the Navy’s ability to (1) m...
GAO-17-641R: Published: Aug 15, 2017. Publicly Released: Aug 15, 2017.
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GAO-17-682: Published: Aug 14, 2017. Publicly Released: Aug 14, 2017.
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GAO-17-646R: Published: Aug 9, 2017. Publicly Released: Aug 9, 2017.
How well do DOD and NASA work together to coordinate buying launch services? The Department of Defense studied how it and NASA use interagency collaboration tools—such as participation in meetings and on boards—to coordinate buying launch services for items like satellites and cargo capsules. We found that the agencies have a number of formal and informal ways to coordinate on launch acquisi...
GAO-17-690R: Published: Aug 8, 2017. Publicly Released: Aug 8, 2017.
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GAO-17-747T: Published: Jul 25, 2017. Publicly Released: Jul 25, 2017.
The Coast Guard has begun acquiring new assets to replace its aging fleet, but it continues to lack a long-term plan to guide these efforts. For example, the Coast Guard is down to one polar icebreaker. And although the Coast Guard has expedited plans to acquire new icebreakers, the first ship may not be delivered on schedule. It's unclear how the Coast Guard plans to afford both the new icebreak...
GAO-17-644: Published: Jul 20, 2017. Publicly Released: Jul 20, 2017.
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GAO-17-645: Published: Jul 17, 2017. Publicly Released: Jul 17, 2017.
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GAO-17-309: Published: Jun 27, 2017. Publicly Released: Jun 27, 2017.
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GAO-17-686T: Published: Jun 13, 2017. Publicly Released: Jun 13, 2017.
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