This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-09-361T 
entitled 'Transportation Research: The Department of Transportation Has 
Made Progress in Coordinating and Reviewing Its Research Activities' 
which was released on February 12, 2009.

This text file was formatted by the U.S. Government Accountability 
Office (GAO) to be accessible to users with visual impairments, as part 
of a longer term project to improve GAO products' accessibility. Every 
attempt has been made to maintain the structural and data integrity of 
the original printed product. Accessibility features, such as text 
descriptions of tables, consecutively numbered footnotes placed at the 
end of the file, and the text of agency comment letters, are provided 
but may not exactly duplicate the presentation or format of the printed 
version. The portable document format (PDF) file is an exact electronic 
replica of the printed version. We welcome your feedback. Please E-mail 
your comments regarding the contents or accessibility features of this 
document to Webmaster@gao.gov. 

This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright 
protection in the United States. It may be reproduced and distributed 
in its entirety without further permission from GAO. Because this work 
may contain copyrighted images or other material, permission from the 
copyright holder may be necessary if you wish to reproduce this 
material separately. 

Testimony: 

Before the Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation, Committee on 
Science and Technology, House of Representatives: 

United States Government Accountability Office: 
GAO: 

For Release on Delivery: 
Expected at time 10 a.m. EST: 
Thursday, February 12, 2009: 

Transportation Research: 

The Department of Transportation Has Made Progress in Coordinating and 
Reviewing Its Research Activities: 

Statement of David J. Wise, Acting Director: Physical Infrastructure 
Issues: 

GAO-09-361T: 

GAO Highlights: 

Highlights of GAO-09-361T, a testimony before the Subcommittee on 
Technology and Innovation, Committee on Science and Technology, House 
of Representatives. 

Why GAO Did This Study: 

Research, development, and technology (RD&T) activities are vital to 
meeting the Department of Transportationís (DOT) priorities, such as 
increasing safety, enhancing mobility, and supporting the nationís 
economic growth. In fiscal year 2008, the departmentís RD&T budget 
totaled over $1.1 billion, primarily for highway and aviation projects. 

Over the years, concerns have been raised about DOTís capabilities to 
improve RD&T coordination and evaluation efforts across the agency. In 
2004, Congress created DOTís Research and Innovative Technology 
Administration (RITA) to coordinate and review the departmentís RD&T 
programs and activities for the purposes of reducing research 
duplication, enhancing opportunities for joint efforts, and ensuring 
RD&T activities are meeting goals. In 2006 GAO reported that RITA had 
made progress toward these ends, but needed to do more. 

GAOís testimony focuses on (1) the importance of coordinating and 
evaluating RD&T activities and (2) RITAís progress in implementing 
GAOís 2006 recommendations. GAOís statement is based on its 2006 
report, a review of best practices for coordination and evaluation, and 
follow-up discussions with RITA officials on actions to implement GAOís 
recommendations. GAO did not assess whether RITAís actions have 
improved the effectiveness of the departmentís RD&T investment. 

What GAO Found: 

Coordinating and evaluating research are important elements in ensuring 
that federal dollars are used efficiently and effectively. Coordinating 
research enhances collaboration, ensures that questions are explored, 
and reduces inefficiencies, such as from duplication of research. 
Evaluating research activities entails comparing research with 
established performance measures in agency strategic plans and using 
expert reviews to assess the quality of the research. With DOTís large 
RD&T budgetóover $1.1 billionócoordination and evaluation are critical 
to making cost-effective investment choices in todayís climate of 
expected trillion-dollar deficits. 

RITA has fully implemented five recommendations that GAO made in 2006 
aimed at enhancing RITAís ability to manage and determine the 
effectiveness of RD&T activities, and partially implemented the 
remaining two. (See table below.) Regarding implemented 
recommendations, most notably, RITA has implemented a strategy to 
coordinate RD&T activities and look for areas where joint efforts would 
be appropriate. Results of its coordination efforts have identified a 
number of areas for cross-modal collaboration, including the areas of 
climate change and freight capacity. RITA has also developed a strategy 
to ensure that the results of DOTís research activities are evaluated 
against best practices, using governmentwide guidance and external 
stakeholder reviews. Regarding partially implemented recommendations, 
RITA has not yet developed an overall strategy, evaluation plan, or 
performance measures that delineate how its activities ensure the 
effectiveness of the departmentís RD&T investment. However, it has 
developed a process for doing so. In this regard, RITA plans to use an 
existing departmentwide strategic planning and budget process and 
collaborative meetings to develop an overall strategy and performance 
measures. RITA officials expect that it will fully implement activities 
related to this recommendation by 2012. GAO will continue to monitor 
RITAís activities. 

Table: Status of RITAís Implementation of GAOís 2006 Recommendations: 

Recommendation: Develop a strategy for identifying and reviewing all of 
DOTís RD&T projects to determine areas of unnecessary duplication, 
overlap, and opportunities for joint efforts; Status: Implemented. 

Recommendation: Develop a strategy to ensure that the results of all of 
DOTís RD&T activities are evaluated according to established best 
practices; Status: Implemented. 

Recommendation: Develop a DOT-wide database of all of DOTís RD&T 
projects; Status: Implemented. 

Recommendation: Develop a summary of all of DOTís RD&T program 
evaluations; Status: Implemented. 

Recommendation: Develop a description of RITAís process for 
systematically evaluating the results of its own multimodal research 
programs and how this process will be applied to future multimodal 
research programs that RITA conducts; Status: Implemented. 

Recommendation: Develop performance goals, an overall implementing 
strategy, and an evaluation plan that delineate how the activities and 
results of its coordination, facilitation, and review practices will 
further DOTís mission and ensure the effectiveness of the departmentís 
RD&T investment; Status: Partially implemented. 

Recommendation: Develop common performance measures related to DOTís 
RD&T activities in consultation with the operating administrations; 
Status: Partially implemented. 

Source: GAO analysis of RITA information. 

[End of table] 

To view the full product, including the scope and methodology, click on 
[hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-09-361T]. For more 
information, contact David Wise at (202) 512-2834 or wised@gao.gov. 

[End of section] 

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Subcommittee: 

We appreciate the opportunity to participate in this hearing on the 
Department of Transportation's (DOT) research, development, and 
technology (RD&T) activities. RD&T activities are vital to meeting 
DOT's transportation priorities, such as increasing safety, enhancing 
mobility, and supporting the nation's economic growth. In fiscal year 
2008, the department's RD&T budget totaled over $1.1 billion, primarily 
for projects undertaken by DOT's Federal Highway Administration and 
Federal Aviation Administration. Coordinating RD&T throughout DOT and 
reviewing it to make sure that it is evaluated is important to ensure 
the efficiency and effectiveness of RD&T investment. 

Over the years, we and others have raised concerns about DOT's 
capabilities for improving RD&T coordination and evaluation across the 
agency.[Footnote 1] In part to ameliorate those concerns, in 2004 
Congress created the Research and Innovative Technology Administration 
(RITA).[Footnote 2] RITA is responsible for coordinating, facilitating, 
and reviewing the department's RD&T programs and activities to identify 
research duplication and opportunities for joint efforts and to ensure 
RD&T activities are meeting intended or other goals. These include 
activities conducted by DOT's operating administrations as well as 
other RD&T and statistical programs managed by RITA (e.g., the Bureau 
of Transportation Statistics and University Transportation Centers). 
RITA carries out its responsibilities through multiple groups and 
actions, including its two coordinating bodies--the RD&T Planning 
Council and Planning Team--and budget reviews. While RITA has DOT-wide 
responsibilities, it does not have the authority to direct changes in 
the operating administrations' RD&T activities. In 2006, we reported on 
RITA's progress in overseeing RD&T activities and made seven 
recommendations to enhance RITA's ability to manage and ensure the 
effectiveness of these activities.[Footnote 3] 

My testimony today addresses the importance of coordinating and 
evaluating RD&T so that federal dollars are used efficiently and 
effectively, as well as RITA's progress in implementing our 2006 
recommendations. It is based primarily on our 2006 report, a review of 
best practices for coordination and evaluation, and follow-up 
discussions with RITA officials on actions taken on our 
recommendations. We have not assessed whether RITA's actions have 
improved the effectiveness of the department's RD&T investment since 
our 2006 report. We conducted this work in January and February 2009 in 
accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. Those 
standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain 
sufficient, appropriate evidence to provide a reasonable basis for our 
findings and conclusions based on our audit objectives. We believe that 
the evidence obtained provides a reasonable basis for our findings and 
conclusions based on our audit objectives. 

Coordination and Evaluation of RD&T Activities Help Promote Efficient 
and Effective Use of Federal Research Funds: 

Coordinating and evaluating research are important elements in ensuring 
federal dollars are used efficiently and effectively. RITA is 
responsible for coordinating and reviewing the DOT operating 
administrations' RD&T activities so that (1) no unnecessary duplication 
takes place and (2) the activities have been evaluated in accordance 
with best practices. The Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public 
Policy--a joint committee of the National Academy of Sciences, the 
National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine--has 
emphasized the importance of careful coordination and focused 
evaluation of federal research and developed principles to help 
agencies evaluate their research programs.[Footnote 4] The committee 
recommended establishing a formal process to coordinate research across 
agencies. While this recommendation is focused on cross-agency 
research, the goals--enhancing collaboration, ensuring that questions 
are explored, and reducing inefficiencies--are important and applicable 
within agencies as well. Coordination of research ensures that 
information is shared so that, if necessary, research can be adjusted 
to ensure a field is appropriately covered and understood. In addition, 
the committee noted that evaluating research against established 
performance measures in agency strategic plans, developing measures 
that are appropriate for the type of research being developed, and 
using expert reviews aid in assessing the quality of the research. 

Relatedly, the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) 
requires federal agencies to set performance goals and measure 
performance against those goals to ensure the effectiveness of federal 
investments. GPRA's emphasis on results implies that federal programs 
contributing to the same or similar outcomes should be closely 
coordinated to ensure that goals are consistent and complementary, and 
that program efforts are mutually reinforcing. 

Making appropriate and cost-effective investment choices is an 
essential aspect of responsible fiscal stewardship. Such choices are 
even more important in today's climate of expected trillion-dollar 
deficits. Careful decisions will need to be made to ensure that RD&T 
activities achieve their intended (or other) purposes and do so 
efficiently and economically. 

RITA Has Made Progress in Improving Its Coordination, Review, and 
Performance Measurement of DOT's RD&T Programs: 

In 2006, we made seven recommendations to enhance RITA's ability to 
manage and ensure the effectiveness of RD&T activities, including 
developing strategies for coordinating and reviewing RD&T activities 
and developing performance goals and measures. (See table 1.) RITA has 
implemented five of our recommendations and is making progress on 
implementing the remaining two. 

Table 1: Status of RITA's Implementation of GAO's 2006 Recommendations: 

Recommendations: Develop and incorporate into RITA's annual budget 
process and the RD&T strategic plan; 
* a strategy for identifying and reviewing all of DOT's RD&T projects 
to determine areas of unnecessary duplication, overlap, and 
opportunities for joint efforts; 
Status: Implemented. 

* a strategy to ensure that the results of all of DOT's RD&T activities 
are evaluated according to established best practices; 
Status: Implemented. 

* a DOT-wide database of all of DOT's RD&T projects that will support 
RITA's coordination, facilitation, and review efforts and will assist 
in the implementation of the strategies discussed above; 
Status: Implemented. 

* a summary of all of DOT's RD&T program evaluations, including ongoing 
and completed evaluations, and a schedule of future evaluations; 
Status: Implemented. 

* a description of RITA's process for systematically evaluating the 
results of its own multimodal research programs and how this process 
will be applied to future multimodal research programs that RITA 
conducts; 
Status: Implemented. 

Recommendations: Develop and incorporate the following into RITA's year 
annual budget process; 

* performance goals, an overall implementing strategy, and an 
evaluation plan that delineate how the activities and results of its 
coordination, facilitation, and review practices will further DOT's 
mission and ensure the effectiveness of the department's RD&T 
investment; 
Status: Partially implemented. 

* common performance measures related to DOT's RD&T activities, which 
should be developed in consultation with the operating administrations; 
Status: Partially implemented. 

Source: GAO analysis of RITA information. 

[End of table] 

RITA Implemented a Coordination and Review Strategy, Developed a DOT- 
wide Database of RD&T Activities, and Communicated Results of 
Evaluations: 

Preventing duplication of effort. In response to our recommendation, 
RITA developed a strategy to ensure that no unnecessary duplication of 
research programs occurs within the department, incorporated the 
results into various high-level DOT planning documents, and reported 
the results in its strategic plan. RITA's strategy consists of ongoing 
internal reviews of all of DOT's research programs. These reviews are 
conducted by (1) convening meetings in which officials from each of the 
operating administrations share information about areas of ongoing and 
planned research, seeking opportunities for joint effort, and (2) 
conducting annual reviews of each operating administration's research 
plans, looking for research duplication, among other things. In 
addition, RITA has formed eight working groups, in concert with DOT's 
operating administrations, to foster collaboration on cross-modal 
issues. According to a RITA official, results of these reviews have 
identified several areas for cross-modal collaboration, including 
climate change, freight capacity, security, alternative energy 
technologies, and advanced materials and sensors. According to RITA 
officials, as a result of these actions, RITA is better able to meet 
legislative and DOT requirements for coordinating its research, 
leverage resources for cross-modal research initiatives, and prevent 
unnecessary research duplication. 

Following best practices. RITA also developed a strategy to ensure that 
the results of all DOT's research activities are evaluated according to 
established best practices. The strategy includes three primary 
mechanisms: (1) ensuring systematic application of the Office of 
Management and Budget's Research and Development Investment Criteria 
(relevance, quality, and performance) and the Program Assessment Rating 
Tool by the operating administrations;[Footnote 5] (2) annual internal 
program reviews with self-reporting by the operating administrations; 
and (3) documenting the operating administrations' external stakeholder 
coordination and review. According to RITA, reviews conducted in fiscal 
years 2007 and 2008 focused on how well the operating administrations 
are implementing best practices, including external stakeholder 
involvement, merit review of competitive proposals, independent expert 
review, research performance measures, and external research 
coordination. RITA reports the results of its reviews to the 
department's RD&T Planning Council, which consists of administrators 
from each of the operating administrations, including RITA, and 
officials from DOT's Office of the Secretary. According to RITA 
officials, as a result of these efforts, RITA is better able to 
determine the quality and effectiveness of its research activities and 
investments and determine whether they are achieving their intended (or 
other) goals. 

Establishing RD&T project databases. RITA created two database systems 
to inventory and track all of DOT's research activities and provide 
tools for querying and searching individual projects to identify 
potential duplication and areas where operating administrations could 
collaborate. The first database, the RITA Research Notification System, 
captures research investments at the transaction level, allowing users 
to search by activity, contracts and grants, and contractor names, 
enabling identification of funded programs for coordination, 
collaboration and review. The second database is part of the annual 
Research Planning and Investment Coordination (RPIC) process, which 
captures research at the budget request level, allowing for 
departmentwide transparency and coordination of proposed programs and 
projects. According to a RITA official, eventual combination of the two 
databases will offer a mechanism for measuring and tracking investments 
from request through funding and execution. 

Communicating evaluation efforts. To communicate its efforts in 
evaluating DOT's research to Congress, senior DOT officials, and the 
transportation community, RITA and its predecessor organization 
published a summary of all research program evaluations for 2004 
through 2006 and included that summary in a high-level DOT planning 
document and in a report to Congress. First, RITA's predecessor 
published what was essentially a summary of all research program 
evaluations conducted in fiscal year 2004--in the form of a summary of 
the results of its review of the operating administrations' application 
of the Office of Management and Budget's Research and Development 
Investment Criteria--in its 2005 annual RD&T plan. Secondly, RITA 
developed a summary of the results of its fiscal year 2005 and 2006 
research program reviews, and a schedule of RITA's planned fiscal year 
2007 reviews, and included it in DOT's "Research, Development and 
Technology Annual Funding Fiscal Years 2006-2008, A Report to 
Congress." This report also includes summaries of research program 
evaluations conducted by modal research advisory committees, the 
Transportation Research Board, and key modal stakeholders in fiscal 
years 2006 and 2007. According to RITA officials, as a result of this 
reporting, RITA has provided better continuity and context to Congress 
and the transportation community about the results of its research 
evaluations. 

Documenting processes. RITA has also acted to document its process for 
systematically evaluating the results of its own multimodal research 
programs, such as the Hydrogen Safety Program and various grant 
programs. RITA evaluates the results of its RD&T activities by ensuring 
they align with DOT goals, meet the research and development investment 
criteria, and are subject to an annual peer review process. RITA has 
documented this process in its strategic plan. 

RITA Has Not Yet Developed an Overall Implementing Strategy, Evaluation 
Plan, or Performance Measures: 

Establishing performance goals. In 2006, we found that RITA lacked 
performance goals and an implementing strategy and evaluation plan to 
delineate how the activities and results of its coordination, 
facilitation, and review practices will further DOT's mission and 
ensure the effectiveness of the department's RD&T investment. RITA has 
partially implemented our recommendation that it develop these 
elements. Setting meaningful goals for performance, and using 
performance information to measure performance against those goals, is 
consistent with requirements in GPRA. Developing an evaluation plan and 
analyzing performance information against set goals for its own 
coordination, facilitation, and review practices could assist RITA in 
identifying any problem areas and taking corrective actions.[Footnote 
6] Linking performance goals with the planning and budget process, such 
as DOT's annual budget process, can also help RITA determine where to 
target its resources to improve performance.[Footnote 7] Guidance 
provided by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy 
notes that evaluating the performance of research in the context of the 
strategic planning process ensures the research is relevant to the 
agency's mission.[Footnote 8] Without such goals and an evaluation 
plan, it is difficult for RITA to determine its success in overseeing 
the effectiveness of DOT's RD&T activities. 

According to RITA officials, while an overall implementing strategy and 
evaluation plan has not yet been established, RITA has created 
performance goals. A RITA official told us that the RPIC process--a 
relatively new process that integrates the budget and strategic 
planning processes--will help in creating an implementing strategy. The 
RPIC process is meant to provide information to the Planning Council 
and Planning Team, which is responsible for defining the department's 
overall RD&T strategic objectives. The RPIC process assesses the 
department's RD&T activities in terms of the following performance 
goals: (1) balanced portfolio (e.g., mix of basic, applied, 
developmental, and high risk RD&T), (2) alignment of RD&T programs with 
DOT goals and each operating administration's mission, and (3) return 
on investment. The RPIC process has been in place only for fiscal year 
2009, and as a result, the Planning Council does not yet have the 
information needed to make decisions about a strategy. In addition, 
RITA does not yet have an evaluation plan to monitor and evaluate 
whether it is achieving its goals. A RITA official told us that the 
RPIC process needs to be in place for 2 or 3 fiscal years before it can 
provide enough information for RITA to establish a strategy or 
evaluation plan. 

Developing performance measures. In 2006, we also found that RITA did 
not work with the operating administrations to develop common 
performance measures for DOT's RD&T activities. According to RITA 
officials, RITA has partially implemented our recommendation that it do 
so. Without common performance measures for the RD&T activities of the 
operating administrations, RITA and the operating administrations lack 
the means to monitor and evaluate the collective results of those 
activities and determine that they are achieving their intended (or 
other) results and furthering DOT-wide priorities. In response to our 
recommendation, RITA officials told us that they are working with the 
operating administrations through the RD&T Planning Team--made up of 
senior officials in RITA and each of the operating administrations. 
During Planning Team meetings, representatives from each of the 
operating administrations share information about how RD&T projects are 
measured and prioritized. For example, according to a RITA official, 
the Federal Railroad Administration measures how frequently its RD&T 
projects are used in real-world applications. Once representatives from 
each operating administration have had the chance to share information, 
RITA officials will then look for commonalities and determine whether 
any of the measures could be adopted for the department's RD&T 
activities. 

In closing, since it became operational in 2005, RITA has taken a 
number of positive steps to meet its vision of becoming a DOT-wide 
resource for managing and ensuring the effectiveness of RD&T 
activities. While we have not assessed the effectiveness of these 
efforts since our 2006 report, we believe that RITA has made progress. 
We will continue to monitor RITA's performance in implementing our 
recommendations. As reauthorization approaches, we look forward to 
assisting Congress as it considers RITA's management of DOT's research 
program, to better ensure that taxpayers receive the maximum value for 
DOT's RD&T investment. 

Mr. Chairman, this concludes my prepared statement. I would be pleased 
to respond to any questions that you or other members of the 
subcommittee might have. 

Contact and Acknowledgments: 

For further information regarding this statement, please contact David 
Wise at (202) 512-2834 or wised@gao.gov. Individuals who made key 
contributions to this statement are Michelle Everett, Colin Fallon, 
Erin Henderson, and James Ratzenberger. 

Footnotes: 

[1] GAO, Transportation Research: Actions Needed to Improve 
Coordination and Evaluation of Research, [hyperlink, 
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-03-500] (Washington, D.C.: May 1, 
2003). 

[2] The Norman Y. Mineta Research and Special Programs Improvement Act 
of 2004, which also dissolved RITA's predecessor administration, the 
Research and Special Programs Administration. 

[3] GAO, Transportation Research: Opportunities for Improving the 
Oversight of DOT's Research Programs and User Satisfaction with 
Transportation Statistics, [hyperlink, 
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-06-917] (Washington, D.C.: Aug. 15, 
2006). 

[4] Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, Evaluating 
Federal Research Programs: Research and the Government Performance and 
Results Act (Washington, D.C.: February 1999). 

[5] According to the Office of Management and Budget, these criteria 
are rooted in best practices and include peer review as a mechanism for 
assessing program quality. The Program Assessment Rating Tool was 
developed to assess and improve program performance to inform funding 
and management decisions. It consists of a series of questions covering 
program purpose and design; performance measurement, evaluations, and 
strategic planning; program management; and program results. 

[6] Use of performance goals can help ensure that programs are meeting 
their intended goals, allows programs to assess the efficiency of their 
processes, and promotes continuous improvement. Where activities may be 
fragmented or overlap, performance information can also help identify 
performance variations and redundancies and lay the foundation for 
improved coordination, program consolidation, or elimination of 
unneeded programs. GAO, Managing for Results: Using the Results Act to 
Address Mission Fragmentation and Program Overlap, [hyperlink, 
http://www.gao.gov/products/AIMD-97-146] (Washington, D.C.: Aug. 29, 
1997). 

[7] GAO, Managing for Results: Enhancing Agency Use of Performance 
Information for Management Decision Making, [hyperlink, 
http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-05-927] (Washington, D.C.: Sept. 9, 
2005). 

[8] Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, Evaluating 
Federal Research Programs: Research and the Government Performance and 
Results Act (Washington, D.C.: February 1999), 37-38. 

[End of section] 

GAO's Mission: 

The Government Accountability Office, the audit, evaluation and 
investigative arm of Congress, exists to support Congress in meeting 
its constitutional responsibilities and to help improve the performance 
and accountability of the federal government for the American people. 
GAO examines the use of public funds; evaluates federal programs and 
policies; and provides analyses, recommendations, and other assistance 
to help Congress make informed oversight, policy, and funding 
decisions. GAO's commitment to good government is reflected in its core 
values of accountability, integrity, and reliability. 

Obtaining Copies of GAO Reports and Testimony: 

The fastest and easiest way to obtain copies of GAO documents at no 
cost is through GAO's Web site [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov]. Each 
weekday, GAO posts newly released reports, testimony, and 
correspondence on its Web site. To have GAO e-mail you a list of newly 
posted products every afternoon, go to [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov] 
and select "E-mail Updates." 

Order by Phone: 

The price of each GAO publication reflects GAOís actual cost of
production and distribution and depends on the number of pages in the
publication and whether the publication is printed in color or black and
white. Pricing and ordering information is posted on GAOís Web site, 
[hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/ordering.htm]. 

Place orders by calling (202) 512-6000, toll free (866) 801-7077, or
TDD (202) 512-2537. 

Orders may be paid for using American Express, Discover Card,
MasterCard, Visa, check, or money order. Call for additional 
information. 

To Report Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs: 

Contact: 

Web site: [hyperlink, http://www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm]: 
E-mail: fraudnet@gao.gov: 
Automated answering system: (800) 424-5454 or (202) 512-7470: 

Congressional Relations: 

Ralph Dawn, Managing Director, dawnr@gao.gov: 
(202) 512-4400: 
U.S. Government Accountability Office: 
441 G Street NW, Room 7125: 
Washington, D.C. 20548: 

Public Affairs: 

Chuck Young, Managing Director, youngc1@gao.gov: 
(202) 512-4800: 
U.S. Government Accountability Office: 
441 G Street NW, Room 7149: 
Washington, D.C. 20548: