Fragmentation, Overlap, and Duplication: An Evaluation and Management Guide

GAO developed this guide to help analysts and policymakers identify and evaluate instances of fragmentation, overlap, and duplication, and identify options to reduce or better manage associated negative effects. This guide is a supplement to the annual reports.
 

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Part I of this guide is for analysts, including

  • federal, state, and local auditors;
  • congressional staff;
  • researchers; and
  • consultants.

Each of the four steps includes detailed guidance on what information to consider and what steps to take when conducting a fragmentation, overlap, and duplication review.

The table below provides links to the four steps of the guide, relevant tip sheets and tools, and an appendix illustrating how to use the guide.

Guide Step:

Relevant Tools:

1. Identify fragmentation, overlap, and duplication
2. Identify the potential effects of fragmentation, overlap, and duplication
3: Validate the effects of the fragmented, overlapping, or duplicative programs and assess and compare programs.
4: Identify options to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of programs.
Example using the guide

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Explore our Related Blog Posts:

  • An Analysts’ Toolkit for Assessing Fragmentation, Overlap and Duplication
  • A Policymakers’ Toolkit for Assessing Fragmentation, Overlap and Duplication
 

Part II of this guide is for policymakers, including

  • congressional decision makers, and
  • executive branch leaders.

Each section provides guidance on making decisions to reduce or better manage any negative effects of fragmentation, overlap, and duplication. Specifically, this guidance is intended to help policymakers consider the information that analysts compile on fragmented, overlapping, and duplicative programs, including performance and cost information. In addition, it can help policymakers make decisions when limited program or performance information is available.

The table below provides links to the policymaker sections of the guide and an appendix with additional options to consider.

Guide Step:

Relevant Tools:

1: Guidance for congressional decision makers
2: Guidance for executive branch leaders
Additional options to consider

Watchblog Logo

Explore our Related Blog Posts:

  • An Analysts’ Toolkit for Assessing Fragmentation, Overlap and Duplication
  • A Policymakers’ Toolkit for Assessing Fragmentation, Overlap and Duplication