Research and development (21 - 30 of 60 items)
Technology Transfer: Clearer Priorities and Greater Use of Innovative Approaches Could Increase the Effectiveness of Technology Transfer at Department of Energy Laboratories
GAO-09-548: Published: Jun 16, 2009. Publicly Released: Jun 16, 2009.
The Department of Energy (DOE) spends billions of dollars each year at its national laboratories on advanced science, energy, and other research. To maximize the public's investment and to foster economic growth, federal laws and policies have encouraged the transfer of federally developed technologies to private firms, universities, and others to use or commercialize. The American Recovery and Re...
Research and Development: DOE Could Enhance the Project Selection Process for Government Oil and Natural Gas Research
GAO-09-186: Published: Dec 29, 2008. Publicly Released: Jan 8, 2009.
Although competitive oil and natural gas markets generally provide incentives for companies to invest in research and development (R&D), some industry experts believe these companies may underinvest in certain areas. A recent GAO report noted important criteria for the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider in evaluating its oil and natural gas R&D efforts--including the likelihood that industry w...
Federal Research: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Management and Oversight of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers
GAO-09-15: Published: Oct 8, 2008. Publicly Released: Nov 7, 2008.
In 2006, the federal government spent $13 billion--14 percent of its research and development (R&D) expenditures--to enable 38 federally funded R&D centers (FFRDCs) to meet special research needs. FFRDCs--including laboratories, studies and analyses centers, and systems engineering centers--conduct research in military space programs, nanotechnology, microelectronics, nuclear warfare, and biodefen...
Nanotechnology: Accuracy of Data on Federally Funded Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Could Be Improved
GAO-08-709T: Published: Apr 24, 2008. Publicly Released: Apr 24, 2008.
In March 2008, GAO issued a report entitled Nanotechnology: Better Guidance Is Needed to Ensure Accurate Reporting of Federal Research Focused on Environmental, Health, and Safety Risks (GAO-08-402). In this report, GAO reviewed the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), a multiagency effort administered by the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The NNI coordinates the nanotechnolo...
Small Business Innovation Research: Information on Awards Made by NIH and DoD in Fiscal Years 2001 through 2004
GAO-06-565: Published: Apr 14, 2006. Publicly Released: Apr 14, 2006.
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program is a three phase program that increases the use of small businesses to meet federal research needs and encourages commercialization of this research. Venture capital is one source of funding to help commercialize SBIR projects. To receive an award firms must meet ownership and other criteria and awards may exceed dollar guidelines. In 2002, the...
Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Innovation Research Program
GAO-05-861T: Published: Jun 28, 2005. Publicly Released: Jun 28, 2005.
Since it was established in 1982, GAO has consistently reported on the success of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in benefiting small, innovative companies, strengthening their role in federal research and development (R&D), and helping federal agencies achieve their R&D goals. However, through these reviews GAO has also identified areas where action by participating agencies...
Advanced Technology Program: Inherent Factors in Selection Process Are Likely to Limit Identification of Similar Research
GAO-05-759T: Published: May 26, 2005. Publicly Released: May 26, 2005.
The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) supports research that accelerates the development of high-risk technologies with the potential for broad-based economic benefits for the nation. Under the program, administrators at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are to ensure that they do not fund research that would be conducted in the same period without ATP funding. Between 1990 and Se...
Federal Research: NIH and EPA Need to Improve Conflict of Interest Reviews for Research Arrangements with Private Sector Entities
GAO-05-191: Published: Feb 25, 2005. Publicly Released: Mar 31, 2005.
An institute at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and an office in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into collaborative arrangements with the American Chemistry Council (ACC) to support research on the health effects of chemical exposures. NIH accepted a gift from ACC to help fund the research. EPA and ACC funded their proposals separately. The arrangements raised concerns ab...
Federal Research: Information on DOE's Laboratory-Directed R&D Program
GAO-04-489: Published: Apr 30, 2004. Publicly Released: Jun 1, 2004.
The Department of Energy's (DOE) contractor-operated laboratories perform mission-related research and development (R&D) for DOE and other federal agencies. In 1992, DOE established the Laboratory- Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, under which laboratory directors may allocate funding to scientists to conduct worthy independent research. DOE allows participating laboratories to sup...
National Laboratories: Better Performance Reporting Could Aid Oversight of Laboratory-Directed R&D Program
GAO-01-927: Published: Sep 28, 2001. Publicly Released: Oct 15, 2001.
The Department of Energy (DOE) created the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program in fiscal year 1992. This program formalized a long-standing policy of giving its multi-program national laboratories discretion to conduct self-initiated, independent research and development (R&D). Since then, DOE's multi-program national laboratories have spent more than $2 billion on LDRD pro...