Research and development (61 - 70 of 275 items)
Federal Research: NIH and EPA Need to Improve Conflict of Interest Reviews for Research Arrangements with Private Sector Entities
GAO-05-191: Published: Feb 25, 2005. Publicly Released: Mar 31, 2005.
An institute at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and an office in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into collaborative arrangements with the American Chemistry Council (ACC) to support research on the health effects of chemical exposures. NIH accepted a gift from ACC to help fund the research. EPA and ACC funded their proposals separately. The arrangements raised concerns ab...
Defense Acquisitions: Better Information Could Improve Visibility over Adjustments to DOD's Research and Development Funds
GAO-04-944: Published: Sep 17, 2004. Publicly Released: Sep 17, 2004.
Congress recognizes that the DOD needs some flexibility to adjust research and development program levels. A key mechanism--below threshold reprogramming (BTR)--enables DOD to adjust program funding levels without seeking prior congressional approval as long as a certain dollar amount or percentage threshold is not exceeded. In response to a mandate by the appropriations committees, this report ad...
Federal Research: Information on DOE's Laboratory-Directed R&D Program
GAO-04-489: Published: Apr 30, 2004. Publicly Released: Jun 1, 2004.
The Department of Energy's (DOE) contractor-operated laboratories perform mission-related research and development (R&D) for DOE and other federal agencies. In 1992, DOE established the Laboratory- Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, under which laboratory directors may allocate funding to scientists to conduct worthy independent research. DOE allows participating laboratories to sup...
University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest
GAO-04-31: Published: Nov 14, 2003. Publicly Released: Nov 14, 2003.
In fiscal year 2001, federal agencies provided $19 billion for university research, a vital part of the nation's research and development effort. GAO was asked to examine federal agencies' actions to ensure that (1) the results of the university research grants they fund are made available to the public and (2) universities receiving such grants implement policies for identifying and managing poss...
Technology Transfer: Agencies' Rights to Federally Sponsored Biomedical Inventions
GAO-03-536: Published: Jul 1, 2003. Publicly Released: Jul 1, 2003.
The Bayh-Dole Act gives federal contractors, grantees, and cooperative agreement funding recipients the option to retain ownership rights to inventions they create as part of a federally sponsored research project and profit from commercializing them. The act also protects the government's interests, in part by requiring that federal agencies and their authorized funding recipients retain a licens...
Pipeline Safety: Systematic Process Needed to Evaluate Outcomes of Research and Development Program
GAO-03-746: Published: Jun 30, 2003. Publicly Released: Jun 30, 2003.
From 1998 through 2002, a total of 1,770 pipeline accidents occurred, resulting in 100 fatalities and $621 million in property damage. The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) within the Department of Transportation operates a research and development (R&D) program aimed at advancing the most promising technologies for ensuring the safe operation of pipelines. In fiscal year 2003, OPS received $8.7 mil...
Intellectual Property: Federal Agency Efforts in Transferring and Reporting New Technology
GAO-03-47: Published: Oct 31, 2002. Publicly Released: Oct 31, 2002.
The federal government is a primary sponsor of research conducted in the United States, expending during fiscal year 2001 $19.4 billion for research performed by federal employees and $62.2 billion for research conducted under contracts and grants. Some of this research leads to the development of technology that can be patented, licensed, and made available to the public through the introduction...
Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Previous Research Could Benefit FreedomCAR Initiative
GAO-02-810T: Published: Jun 6, 2002. Publicly Released: Jun 6, 2002.
The federal government has spent billions of dollars attempting to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the transportation sector for over 25 years. Throughout the period, the government has tried tax incentives, mandates to use vehicles that run on alternative fuels, and laws designed to enhance fuel efficiency. More recently, the federal government conducted a $1.2 billion partnership between...
Technology Transfer: Several Factors Have Led to a Decline in Partnerships at DOE's Laboratories
GAO-02-465: Published: Apr 19, 2002. Publicly Released: Apr 29, 2002.
Since 1980 Congress has passed laws to facilitate the transfer of technology from federal laboratories to U.S. businesses. In particular, the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989 authorized federal laboratories operated by contractors, including the Department of Energy's (DOE) national laboratories, to enter into cooperative research and development agreements (CRADA). Under a...
Export Control: Army Guidance on Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Compliance with Export Control Laws and Regulations
GAO-02-529R: Published: Apr 8, 2002. Publicly Released: Apr 8, 2002.
This report reviews cooperative research and development agreements (CRADA) at the Army Research Laboratory and the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases to determine whether the laboratories complied with export control laws. GAO found that the Army needs to clarify its guidance on technology transfers to ensure compliance with U.S. export control laws during the management revie...