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Science and Technology (131 - 140 of 544 items)
Technology Transfer: NIH-Private Sector Partnership in the Development of Taxol
GAO-03-829: Published: Jun 4, 2003. Publicly Released: Jun 6, 2003.
The transfer of technology from government-funded medical research laboratories to the private sector aims to have new pharmaceuticals brought to market more efficiently than would be possible for a federal agency acting alone. Much of the pharmaceutical-related technology transfer originates with research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). GAO was asked to examine the legal and fi...
Intellectual Property: Federal Agency Efforts in Transferring and Reporting New Technology
GAO-03-47: Published: Oct 31, 2002. Publicly Released: Oct 31, 2002.
The federal government is a primary sponsor of research conducted in the United States, expending during fiscal year 2001 $19.4 billion for research performed by federal employees and $62.2 billion for research conducted under contracts and grants. Some of this research leads to the development of technology that can be patented, licensed, and made available to the public through the introduction...
Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Previous Research Could Benefit FreedomCAR Initiative
GAO-02-810T: Published: Jun 6, 2002. Publicly Released: Jun 6, 2002.
The federal government has spent billions of dollars attempting to reduce the consumption of petroleum in the transportation sector for over 25 years. Throughout the period, the government has tried tax incentives, mandates to use vehicles that run on alternative fuels, and laws designed to enhance fuel efficiency. More recently, the federal government conducted a $1.2 billion partnership between...
Technology Transfer: NNSA Did Not Implement the Technology Infrastructure Pilot Program
GAO-02-708R: Published: May 10, 2002. Publicly Released: May 10, 2002.
The Department of Energy is required to establish a technology infrastructure pilot program to improve technology partnership activities. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), in April 2002, reported that it was unable to implement the technology infrastructure pilot program in fiscal year 2001, because of other programming priorities. NNSA also said that it did not have any immedia...
Technology Transfer: Several Factors Have Led to a Decline in Partnerships at DOE's Laboratories
GAO-02-465: Published: Apr 19, 2002. Publicly Released: Apr 29, 2002.
Since 1980 Congress has passed laws to facilitate the transfer of technology from federal laboratories to U.S. businesses. In particular, the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989 authorized federal laboratories operated by contractors, including the Department of Energy's (DOE) national laboratories, to enter into cooperative research and development agreements (CRADA). Under a...
Export Control: Army Guidance on Cooperative Research and Development Agreement Compliance with Export Control Laws and Regulations
GAO-02-529R: Published: Apr 8, 2002. Publicly Released: Apr 8, 2002.
This report reviews cooperative research and development agreements (CRADA) at the Army Research Laboratory and the Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases to determine whether the laboratories complied with export control laws. GAO found that the Army needs to clarify its guidance on technology transfers to ensure compliance with U.S. export control laws during the management revie...
Science And Technology: Air Force's Planning Process Meets Statutory Requirement
GAO-02-273: Published: Feb 14, 2002. Publicly Released: Feb 14, 2002.
Congress and the scientific community are concerned that the Air Force's investment in science and technology may be too low to meet the challenges presented by new and emerging threats. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2001 requires the Air Force to review its science and technology programs to assess the budgetary resources currently used and those needed to adequately addr...
National Laboratories: Better Performance Reporting Could Aid Oversight of Laboratory-Directed R&D Program
GAO-01-927: Published: Sep 28, 2001. Publicly Released: Oct 15, 2001.
The Department of Energy (DOE) created the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program in fiscal year 1992. This program formalized a long-standing policy of giving its multi-program national laboratories discretion to conduct self-initiated, independent research and development (R&D). Since then, DOE's multi-program national laboratories have spent more than $2 billion on LDRD pro...
Bioterrorism: Federal Research and Preparedness Activities
GAO-01-915: Published: Sep 28, 2001. Publicly Released: Sep 28, 2001.
Federal research and preparedness activities related to bioterrorism center on detection; the development of vaccines, antibiotics, and antivirals; and the development of performance standards for emergency response equipment. Preparedness activities include (1) increasing federal, state, and local response capabilities; (2) developing response teams; (3) increasing the availability of medical tre...
Technology Transfer: DOE Has Fewer Partnerships, and They Rely More on Private Funding
GAO-01-568: Published: Jul 6, 2001. Publicly Released: Jul 6, 2001.
Congress enacted the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act to encourage federal laboratories operated by contractors to enter into cooperative research and development agreements (CRADA) with businesses, universities, and other private partners. This act was designed to improve the United States' competitive position in the world economy by facilitating the transfer of technology from f...