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Science and Technology (121 - 130 of 544 items)
Advanced Technology Program: Inherent Factors in Selection Process Are Likely to Limit Identification of Similar Research
GAO-05-759T: Published: May 26, 2005. Publicly Released: May 26, 2005.
The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) supports research that accelerates the development of high-risk technologies with the potential for broad-based economic benefits for the nation. Under the program, administrators at the National Institute of Standards and Technology are to ensure that they do not fund research that would be conducted in the same period without ATP funding. Between 1990 and Se...
Federal Research: NIH and EPA Need to Improve Conflict of Interest Reviews for Research Arrangements with Private Sector Entities
GAO-05-191: Published: Feb 25, 2005. Publicly Released: Mar 31, 2005.
An institute at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and an office in the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into collaborative arrangements with the American Chemistry Council (ACC) to support research on the health effects of chemical exposures. NIH accepted a gift from ACC to help fund the research. EPA and ACC funded their proposals separately. The arrangements raised concerns ab...
Technology Development: New DOD Space Science and Technology Strategy Provides Basis for Optimizing Investments, but Future Versions Need to Be More Robust
GAO-05-155: Published: Jan 28, 2005. Publicly Released: Jan 28, 2005.
The Department of Defense (DOD) is depending heavily on new space-based technologies to support and transform future military operations. Yet there are concerns that efforts to develop technologies for space systems are not tied to strategic goals for space and are not well planned or coordinated. In the National Defense Authorization Act for 2004, the Congress required DOD to develop a space scie...
Defense Acquisitions: Better Information Could Improve Visibility over Adjustments to DOD's Research and Development Funds
GAO-04-944: Published: Sep 17, 2004. Publicly Released: Sep 17, 2004.
Congress recognizes that the DOD needs some flexibility to adjust research and development program levels. A key mechanism--below threshold reprogramming (BTR)--enables DOD to adjust program funding levels without seeking prior congressional approval as long as a certain dollar amount or percentage threshold is not exceeded. In response to a mandate by the appropriations committees, this report ad...
Federal Research: Information on DOE's Laboratory-Directed R&D Program
GAO-04-489: Published: Apr 30, 2004. Publicly Released: Jun 1, 2004.
The Department of Energy's (DOE) contractor-operated laboratories perform mission-related research and development (R&D) for DOE and other federal agencies. In 1992, DOE established the Laboratory- Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, under which laboratory directors may allocate funding to scientists to conduct worthy independent research. DOE allows participating laboratories to sup...
Gulf War Illnesses: Federal Research Efforts Have Waned, and Research Findings Have Not Been Reassessed
GAO-04-815T: Published: Jun 1, 2004. Publicly Released: Jun 1, 2004.
More than a decade after the 1991 Persian Gulf War, there is continued interest in the federal response to the health concerns of Gulf War veterans. Gulf War veterans' reports of illnesses and possible exposures to various health hazards have prompted numerous federal research projects on Gulf War illnesses. This research has been funded primarily by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the De...
Best Practices: Highlights of the Knowledge-Based Approach Used to Improve Weapon Acquisition
GAO-04-392SP: Published: Jan 1, 2004. Publicly Released: Jan 1, 2004.
This is a best practices pamphlet discussing the highlights of the knowledge-based approach to improving weapons acquisition. It reviews the manufacturing processes through three phases, (1) technology development, (2) product development, and (3) production...
University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest
GAO-04-31: Published: Nov 14, 2003. Publicly Released: Nov 14, 2003.
In fiscal year 2001, federal agencies provided $19 billion for university research, a vital part of the nation's research and development effort. GAO was asked to examine federal agencies' actions to ensure that (1) the results of the university research grants they fund are made available to the public and (2) universities receiving such grants implement policies for identifying and managing poss...
Technology Transfer: Agencies' Rights to Federally Sponsored Biomedical Inventions
GAO-03-536: Published: Jul 1, 2003. Publicly Released: Jul 1, 2003.
The Bayh-Dole Act gives federal contractors, grantees, and cooperative agreement funding recipients the option to retain ownership rights to inventions they create as part of a federally sponsored research project and profit from commercializing them. The act also protects the government's interests, in part by requiring that federal agencies and their authorized funding recipients retain a licens...
Pipeline Safety: Systematic Process Needed to Evaluate Outcomes of Research and Development Program
GAO-03-746: Published: Jun 30, 2003. Publicly Released: Jun 30, 2003.
From 1998 through 2002, a total of 1,770 pipeline accidents occurred, resulting in 100 fatalities and $621 million in property damage. The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) within the Department of Transportation operates a research and development (R&D) program aimed at advancing the most promising technologies for ensuring the safe operation of pipelines. In fiscal year 2003, OPS received $8.7 mil...