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Science and Technology (91 - 100 of 544 items)
Homeland Security: Improvements in Managing Research and Development Could Help Reduce Inefficiencies and Costs
GAO-11-464T: Published: Mar 15, 2011. Publicly Released: Mar 15, 2011.
This testimony discusses our past work examining the management of research and development (R&D) at the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS acquisition programs represent hundreds of billions of dollars in life-cycle costs and support a wide range of missions and investments including Coast Guard ships and aircraft, border surveillance and screening equipment, nuclear detection equipment,...
Forest Service Research and Development: Improvements in Delivery of Research Results Can Help Ensure That Benefits of Research Are Realized
GAO-11-12: Published: Oct 29, 2010. Publicly Released: Nov 29, 2010.
In recent decades, managing the nation's public and private forests and rangelands has become increasingly complex, requiring a sound understanding of science and science-based tools to address these complexities. The Department of Agriculture's Forest Service maintains a research and development program (FS R&D) to help provide scientific information and tools. GAO was asked to examine (1) the sc...
Space Acquisitions: Challenges in Commercializing Technologies Developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program
GAO-11-21: Published: Nov 10, 2010. Publicly Released: Nov 10, 2010.
To be competitive in the global economy, the United States relies heavily on innovation through research and development (R&D). The Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982 established the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program to stimulate technological innovation among small businesses. SBIR offers one avenue for introducing technological innovation in the Department of Defen...
Cybersecurity: Key Challenges Need to Be Addressed to Improve Research and Development
GAO-10-466: Published: Jun 3, 2010. Publicly Released: Jul 6, 2010.
Computer networks and infrastructures, on which the United States and much of the world rely to communicate and conduct business, contain vulnerabilities that can leave them susceptible to unauthorized access, disruption, or attack. Investing in research and development (R&D) is essential to protect critical systems and to enhance the cybersecurity of both the government and the private sector. Fe...
Nanotechnology: Nanomaterials Are Widely Used in Commerce, but EPA Faces Challenges in Regulating Risk
GAO-10-549: Published: May 25, 2010. Publicly Released: Jun 24, 2010.
Nanotechnology involves the ability to control matter at the scale of a nanometer--one billionth of a meter. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. In this context, GAO (1) identified examples of current and potential uses of nanomaterials, (2) determined what is known about the potential human health and environmental risks from nanoma...
Federal Research: NASA Should Better Inform Researchers about How to Appeal Dissemination Decisions
GAO-10-200: Published: Dec 3, 2009. Publicly Released: Dec 3, 2009.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) researchers generally disseminate their agency-funded research results through publications, presentations, agency releases, and media interviews. In 2007, GAO reviewed dissemination policies at NASA and two other agencies and found that NASA's policies were generally clear, but GAO's survey of NASA researchers raised concerns that many of them...
Small Business Innovation Research: Observations on Agencies' Data Collection and Eligibility Determination Efforts
GAO-09-956T: Published: Aug 6, 2009. Publicly Released: Aug 6, 2009.
The Small Business Innovation Development Act of 1982 established the Small Business Innovation Research program (SBIR) to stimulate technological innovation, use small businesses to meet federal research and development (R&D) needs, foster and encourage participation by minority and disadvantaged persons in technological innovation, and increase private sector commercialization of innovations der...
Federal Research: Information on the Government's Right to Assert Ownership Control over Federally Funded Inventions
GAO-09-742: Published: Jul 27, 2009. Publicly Released: Jul 27, 2009.
The Bayh-Dole Act, passed in 1980, allows recipients of federal research funds the option to retain patents on any inventions they create using those funds. At the same time, the act provides the government with rights intended to ensure that the public benefits from these federal research investments. One of these rights is known as the "march-in" authority, which allows federal agencies to take...
Technology Transfer: Clearer Priorities and Greater Use of Innovative Approaches Could Increase the Effectiveness of Technology Transfer at Department of Energy Laboratories
GAO-09-548: Published: Jun 16, 2009. Publicly Released: Jun 16, 2009.
The Department of Energy (DOE) spends billions of dollars each year at its national laboratories on advanced science, energy, and other research. To maximize the public's investment and to foster economic growth, federal laws and policies have encouraged the transfer of federally developed technologies to private firms, universities, and others to use or commercialize. The American Recovery and Re...
Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center: Clarifying Rationale for the Research and Development Funding Decisions Would Increase Accountability
GAO-09-339R: Published: Mar 12, 2009. Publicly Released: Mar 12, 2009.
This letter formally transmits the summary of an oral briefing we gave on December 8, 2008, and subsequent agency comments. We gave this briefing in response to Senate Report 110-129, accompanying the 2008 Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Bill. In accordance with direction in that report, and in consultation with House and Senate Appropriation Committee staff, we are report...