Wastewater (1 - 10 of 49 items) in Custom Date Range
Superfund Sediment Sites: EPA Considers Risk Management Principles but Could Clarify Certain Procedures
GAO-16-777: Published: Sep 22, 2016. Publicly Released: Oct 24, 2016.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established risk management principles and a consultation process to help provide national consistency in its management of Superfund sediment sites. Specifically, EPA developed a framework of 11 risk management principles, including assessing sources of contamination and ways to control them early in the cleanup process, that EPA regional officials are to...
Water Infrastructure: Information on Selected Midsize and Large Cities with Declining Populations
GAO-16-785: Published: Sep 15, 2016. Publicly Released: Oct 17, 2016.
Midsize cities (with populations from 50,000 to 99,999) and large cities (with populations of 100,000 and greater) that have experienced a population decline are generally more economically distressed than growing cities. Specifically, GAO's review of American Community Survey data for 674 midsize and large cities showed that the 99 cities with declining population had higher poverty and unemploym...
Environmental Protection: Information on Federal Agencies' Expenditures and Coordination Related to Harmful Algae
GAO-17-119: Published: Oct 14, 2016. Publicly Released: Oct 14, 2016.
Twelve federal agencies reported expending an estimated total of roughly $101 million from fiscal years 2013 through 2015 to fund various research, monitoring, and other activities related to harmful algae—overgrowths of algae that can create toxic “blooms” in marine or freshwater environments. The agencies provided a mix of actual and estimated expenditure data and used different methods fo...
Technology Assessment: Municipal freshwater scarcity: Using technology to improve distribution system efficiency and tap nontraditional water sources
GAO-16-474: Published: Apr 29, 2016. Publicly Released: Apr 29, 2016.
Water scarcity occurs when the demand for water in a given area approaches or exceeds available water supplies. A water utility facing scarcity may attempt to address it by reducing its demand on existing water supplies, increasing its water supplies, or both. Many mature technologies are available to address both of these areas. For example, a utility could try to improve the efficiency of its di...
Drinking Water: EPA Needs to Collect Information and Consistently Conduct Activities to Protect Underground Sources of Drinking Water
GAO-16-281: Published: Feb 26, 2016. Publicly Released: Mar 28, 2016.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has not collected specific inspection and complete or consistent enforcement information, or consistently conducted oversight activities, to assess whether state and EPA-managed Underground Injection Control (UIC) class II programs are protecting underground sources of drinking water. EPA guidance calls for states and EPA regions to report certain informat...
Water Infrastructure: EPA and USDA Are Helping Small Water Utilities with Asset Management; Opportunities Exist to Better Track Results
GAO-16-237: Published: Jan 27, 2016. Publicly Released: Jan 27, 2016.
The small water utilities GAO reviewed in 10 selected states are implementing some asset management practices, although state officials said that large water utilities are more likely to implement asset management than small utilities. The asset management practices these small utilities used include identifying key assets, such as pipelines, treatment plants, and other facilities, and assessing t...
Rural Water Infrastructure: Federal Agencies Provide Funding but Could Increase Coordination to Help Communities [Reissued on November 6, 2015]
GAO-15-450T: Published: Feb 27, 2015. Publicly Released: Feb 27, 2015.
Seven federal agencies provide funding or technical assistance to rural communities in developing drinking water and wastewater systems and complying with federal regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Drinking Water and Clean Water Revolving Funds (SRF) are the largest source of funding and assistance receiving $907 million and $1.45 billion respectively in fiscal year 2014, som...
State Revolving Funds: Improved Financial Indicators Could Strengthen EPA Oversight
GAO-15-567: Published: Aug 5, 2015. Publicly Released: Aug 5, 2015.
Multiple factors can limit states' abilities to sustain their Clean Water and Drinking Water state revolving funds (SRF), according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officials, nine experts, and officials in the 21 states GAO reviewed. Under the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended, states are to create and maintain revolving funds to be eligible for federal grants. T...
Drinking Water: Characterization of Injected Fluids Associated with Oil and Gas Production
GAO-14-857R: Published: Sep 23, 2014. Publicly Released: Sep 23, 2014.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) oversees the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program, including oversight and regulation of injection wells associated with oil and gas production called class II wells. Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, these wells are subject to regulation to protect underground drinking water sources. EPA has approved 39 states to manage their own class II well pro...
Great Lakes Restoration Initiative: Further Actions Would Result in More Useful Assessments and Help Address Factors That Limit Progress
GAO-13-797: Published: Sep 27, 2013. Publicly Released: Nov 8, 2013.
The Task Force agencies use the Action Plan to implement the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) and use an interagency process to enter into agreements among themselves to identify GLRI projects and with other stakeholders to implement GLRI projects. The Action Plan includes guidance for implementing the GLRI in five focus areas (such as invasive species and habitat and wildlife protection...