Hazardous substances (81 - 90 of 218 items)
10 Studies on Demographics Near Waste Facilities
RCED-95-158R: Published: Jun 13, 1995. Publicly Released: Aug 1, 1995.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO summarized various studies on the demographics of people living near hazardous waste facilities. GAO noted that: (1) none of the studies examined the changes in demographics near specific waste facilities over time, due to inadequacies in census data; (2) the studies reviewed disagreed on whether minorities and low-income people were disproportionately repr...
Superfund: Status of Natural Resource Damage Claims
T-RCED-95-239: Published: Jun 30, 1995. Publicly Released: Jun 30, 1995.
GAO discussed natural resources damage claim settlements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). GAO noted that: (1) as of April 1995, federal agencies had settled 98 natural resource damage claims for an estimated total of $106 million, with most cases requiring no payments or payments of less than $200,000; (2) the value of these settlements is s...
Superfund: EPA's Use of Risk Assessments in Cleanup Decisions
T-RCED-95-231: Published: Jun 22, 1995. Publicly Released: Jun 22, 1995.
GAO discussed the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) use of human health risk assessments in its cleanup decisions at Superfund sites, focusing on: (1) whether federal and state cleanup standards that set quantitative limits on concentrations of contaminants are based on risk estimates; and (2) the extent to which Superfund risk assessments follow EPA guidance. GAO noted that: (1) EPA cleanup...
Superfund: Risk Assessment Assumptions and Issues
T-RCED-95-206: Published: May 24, 1995. Publicly Released: May 24, 1995.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) assessments of the health risks posed by Superfund hazardous waste sites. GAO noted that: (1) the EPA risk assessment process includes estimating the quantity of contaminants that could be reaching human populations and determining the contaminants' toxicity; (2) EPA makes assumptions about the quantity...
Superfund: Information on Operations and Maintenance Activities and Costs
T-RCED-95-201: Published: May 23, 1995. Publicly Released: May 23, 1995.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed Superfund operations and maintenance (O&M) activities and costs, focusing on the: (1) extent to which O&M activities are necessary at National Priority List sites; (2) projected costs of O&M activities; and (3) Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) actions to ensure that sites requiring O&M continue to protect human health and the environment. G...
Federal Hazardous Waste Sites: Opportunities for More Cost-Effective Cleanups
T-RCED-95-188: Published: May 18, 1995. Publicly Released: May 18, 1995.
GAO discussed the federal government's efforts to clean up hazardous waste sites, focusing on how to make these efforts more cost-effective. GAO noted that: (1) the federal cleanup effort is over a decade old and has cost over $15 billion; (2) many sites have not yet been identified or assessed and only two high priority sites have been completely cleaned up; (3) although increasing budgetary pres...
Superfund: Natural Resource Damage Claims
T-RCED-95-182: Published: May 11, 1995. Publicly Released: May 11, 1995.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO discussed natural resource damage claim settlements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), focusing on the: (1) number and value of such claims; and (2) potential extent of future claims. GAO noted that: (1) relatively few natural resource damage settlements have been reached to date; (2) as of April 1995,...
Superfund: The Role of Risk in Setting Priorities
T-RCED-95-161: Published: Apr 5, 1995. Publicly Released: Apr 5, 1995.
GAO discussed the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) use of risk to set priorities for the Superfund Program. GAO noted that: (1) EPA has not fully implemented its policy of addressing the worst contaminated sites first; (2) because of the large backlog of sites waiting to be evaluated, EPA regions have used factors other than risk to determine their cleanup priorities; (3) although risk asse...
Environmental Protection: Challenges in Defense Environmental Program Management
T-NSIAD-95-121: Published: Mar 24, 1995. Publicly Released: Mar 24, 1995.
GAO discussed the overall status of the Department of Defense's (DOD) environmental program, focusing on actions that need to be taken to enhance the program's success. GAO noted that: (1) although DOD has revised its environmental strategy to expedite cleanup efforts, implemented a program that prevents rather than controls pollution, identified nearly 28,000 potentially contaminated sites, and h...
Hazardous Waste: Compliance With Groundwater Monitoring Requirements at Land Disposal Facilities
RCED-95-75BR: Published: Feb 7, 1995. Publicly Released: Mar 9, 1995.
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste land disposal facilities, focusing on the number of facilities that: (1) are subject to groundwater monitoring requirements; (2) have monitoring systems in place; (3) have released pollutants into the underlying groundwater; (4) have i...